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In JoVE (1)

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Articles by Michael Faibish in JoVE

 JoVE Biology

A Matrigel-Based Tube Formation Assay to Assess the Vasculogenic Activity of Tumor Cells

1Molecular and Cellular Biology Program, Morrill Science Center, University of Massachusetts, 2Pioneer Valley Life Sciences Institute, University of Massachusetts, 3Department of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, University of Massachusetts


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A tube formation assay is used to evaluate vascular activity of tumor cells.

Other articles by Michael Faibish on PubMed

A YKL-40-neutralizing Antibody Blocks Tumor Angiogenesis and Progression: a Potential Therapeutic Agent in Cancers

Accumulating evidence has indicated that expression levels of YKL-40, a secreted glycoprotein, were elevated in multiple advanced human cancers. Recently, we have identified an angiogenic role of YKL-40 in cancer development. However, blockade of the function of YKL-40, which implicates therapeutic value, has not been explored yet. Our current study sought to establish a monoclonal anti-YKL-40 antibody as a neutralizing antibody for the purpose of blocking tumor angiogenesis and metastasis. A mouse monoclonal anti-YKL-40 antibody (mAY) exhibited specific binding with recombinant YKL-40 and with YKL-40 secreted from osteoblastoma cells MG-63 and brain tumor cells U87. In the functional analysis, we found that mAY inhibited tube formation of microvascular endothelial cells in Matrigel induced by conditioned medium of MG-63 and U87 cells, as well as recombinant YKL-40. mAY also abolished YKL-40-induced activation of the membrane receptor VEGF receptor 2 (Flk-1/KDR) and intracellular signaling mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk) 1 and Erk 2. In addition, mAY enhanced cell death response of U87 line to γ-irradiation through decreased expression of pAKT and AKT and accordingly, abrogated angiogenesis induced by the conditioned medium of U87 cells in which YKL-40 levels were elevated by treatment with γ-irradiation. Furthermore, treatment of xenografted tumor mice with mAY restrained tumor growth, angiogenesis, and progression. Taken together, this study has shown the therapeutic use for the mAY in treatment of tumor angiogenesis and metastasis.

Role of YKL-40 in the Angiogenesis, Radioresistance, and Progression of Glioblastoma

Glioblastoma is one of the most fatal cancers, characterized by a strong vascularized phenotype. YKL-40, a secreted glycoprotein, is overexpressed in patients with glioblastomas and has potential as a novel tumor biomarker. The molecular mechanisms of YKL-40 in glioblastoma development, however, are poorly understood. Here, we aimed to elucidate the role YKL-40 plays in the regulation of VEGF expression, tumor angiogenesis, and radioresistance. YKL-40 up-regulated VEGF expression in glioblastoma cell line U87, and both YKL-40 and VEGF synergistically promote endothelial cell angiogenesis. Interestingly, long term inhibition of VEGF up-regulated YKL-40. YKL-40 induced coordination of membrane receptor syndecan-1 and integrin αvβ5, and triggered a signaling cascade through FAK(397) to ERK-1 and ERK-2, leading to elevated VEGF and enhanced angiogenesis. In addition, γ-irradiation of U87 cells increased YKL-40 expression that protects cell death through AKT activation and also enhances endothelial cell angiogenesis. Blockade of YKL-40 activity or expression decreased tumor growth, angiogenesis, and metastasis in xenografted animals. Immunohistochemical analysis of human glioblastomas revealed a correlation between YKL-40, VEGF, and patient survival. These findings have shed light on the mechanisms by which YKL-40 promotes tumor angiogenesis and malignancy, and thus provide a therapeutic target for tumor treatment.

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