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In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (20)
- Cellular Immunology
- Cancer Research
- Journal of Leukocyte Biology
- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
- Methods in Enzymology
- International Immunology
- Cancer Cell
- The Journal of Clinical Investigation
- Cell Stem Cell
- Cell Cycle (Georgetown, Tex.)
- Cancer Cell
- Nature Medicine
- Genes & Cancer
Articles by Michael Kharas in JoVE
Isolation of Early Hematopoietic Stem Cells from Murine Yolk Sac and AGM
Kelly Morgan1, Michael Kharas1, Elaine Dzierzak2, D. Gary Gilliland1,3
1Department of Hematology and Oncology, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, 2Department of Cell Biology and Genetics, Erasmus University Medical Center, 3Department of Medicine, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School
This video shows how to micro-dissect the yolk sac and aorta-gonad-mesonephros region from embryos and use flow cytometry to sort hematopoietic stem cells.
Other articles by Michael Kharas on PubMed
Cellular Immunology. Dec, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 14962497
In avian species, B-lymphocytes develop in the bursa of Fabricius. Cells developing in the bursa are subject to signals regulating their survival, with the majority of cells dying by apoptosis within the bursa. However, the molecules delivering the signals influencing this life and death decision remain enigmatic. We have previously shown that antibodies against the chB6 alloantigen present on avian B-lymphocytes can induce a rapid form of cell death. Here we extend this finding by showing that anti-chB6 antibodies induce true apoptosis in DT40 cells without visible membrane damage. This apoptosis results in DNA degradation and morphologic changes characteristic of apoptosis. Furthermore, this apoptosis is coincident with a loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and is inhibited by either overexpression of bcl-x(L) or the presence of inhibitors of caspase 8, 9, or 3 activity. Collectively these data argue that chB6 may function as a novel death receptor on avian B-lymphocytes and support the use of DT40 as an amenable model to study the signaling involved in chB6-induced apoptosis.
Phosphoinositide 3-kinase Signaling is Essential for ABL Oncogene-mediated Transformation of B-lineage Cells
Blood. Jun, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 14976048
BCR-ABL and v-ABL are oncogenic forms of the Abl tyrosine kinase that can cause leukemias in mice and humans. ABL oncogenes trigger multiple signaling pathways whose contribution to transformation varies among cell types. Activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) is essential for ABL-dependent proliferation and survival in some cell types, and global PI3K inhibitors can enhance the antileukemia effects of the Abl kinase inhibitor imatinib. Although a significant fraction of BCR-ABL-induced human leukemias are of B-cell origin, little is known about PI3K signaling mechanisms in B-lineage cells transformed by ABL oncogenes. Here we show that activation of class I(A) PI3K and downstream inactivation of FOXO transcription factors are essential for survival of murine pro/pre-B cells transformed by v-ABL or BCR-ABL. In addition, analysis of mice lacking individual PI3K genes indicates that products of the Pik3r1 gene contribute to transformation efficiency by BCR-ABL. These findings establish a role for PI3K signaling in B-lineage transformation by ABL oncogenes.
Optimal B-cell Proliferation Requires Phosphoinositide 3-kinase-dependent Inactivation of FOXO Transcription Factors
Blood. Aug, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15069012
Transcription factors of the Forkhead Box, class O (FOXO) family promote cell-cycle arrest and/or apoptosis in a variety of cell types. Mitogenic stimuli inactivate FOXO function by way of an evolutionarily conserved pathway involving the activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and its downstream effector, Akt. Although PI3K activation is required for B-lymphocyte proliferation, it is not known whether PI3K-dependent inactivation of FOXO proteins is important for cell-cycle progression and survival of these cells. Here, we show that B-cell receptor (BCR) engagement triggers PI3K-dependent phosphorylation and nuclear export of FOXO1. Furthermore, forced expression of PI3K-independent variants of FOXO1 or FOXO3a in activated B cells induces partial arrest in G1 phase of the cell cycle and increases apoptosis. These findings establish that FOXO inactivation is a functionally important consequence of PI3K signaling in primary B cells.
Cancer Research. Mar, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15781610
The BCR-ABL oncogene is responsible for most cases of chronic myelogenous leukemia and some acute lymphoblastic leukemias. The fusion protein encoded by BCR-ABL possesses an aberrantly regulated tyrosine kinase activity. Imatinib mesylate (Gleevec, STI-571) is an inhibitor of ABL tyrosine kinase activity that has been remarkably effective in slowing disease progression in patients with chronic phase chronic myelogenous leukemia, but the emergence of imatinib resistance underscores the need for additional therapies. Targeting signaling pathways activated by BCR-ABL is a promising approach for drug development. The study of signaling components downstream of BCR-ABL and the related murine oncogene v-Abl has revealed a complex web of signals that promote cell division and survival. Of these, activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) has emerged as one of the essential signaling mechanisms in ABL leukemogenesis. This review describes molecular mechanisms by which PI3K is activated and the downstream PI3K effectors that propagate the signal to promote myeloid and lymphoid transformation. Of particular recent interest is the mammalian target of rapamycin, a PI3K-regulated kinase that regulates protein synthesis and contributes to leukemogenesis.
Journal of Leukocyte Biology. Dec, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16204634
Interleukin-3 (IL-3) mediates hematopoietic cell survival and proliferation via several signaling pathways such as the Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription pathway, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, and phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI-3K) pathway. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is one of the downstream targets of the PI-3K pathway, and it plays an important role in hematopoiesis and immune cell function. To better elucidate how mTOR mediates proliferation signals from IL-3, we assessed the role of S6 kinase 2 (S6K2), one of the downstream targets of mTOR, in IL-3 signaling. We show that S6K2 is activated by IL-3 in the IL-3-dependent Ba/F3 cell line and that this is mediated by mTOR and its upstream activator PI-3K but not by the MAPK kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway. S6K2 is also activated in primary mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells upon IL-3 stimulation. Expression of a rapamycin-resistant form of S6K2, T388E, in Ba/F3 cells provides a proliferation advantage in the absence or presence of rapamycin, indicating that S6K2 can potentiate IL-3-mediated mitogenic signals. In cells expressing T388E, rapamycin still reduces proliferation at all doses of rapamycin, showing that mTOR targets other than S6K2 play an important role in IL-3-dependent proliferation. Cell-cycle analysis shows that T388E-expressing Ba/F3 cells enter S phase earlier than the control cells, indicating that the proliferation advantage may be mediated by a shortened G1 phase. This is the first indication that S6K2 plays a role in IL-3-dependent cell proliferation.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Nov, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 17071741
Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is an autoimmune disease that is characterized by infiltration of exocrine tissues, resulting in xerostomia (dry mouth) and keratoconjunctivitis sicca (dry eyes). Here, we show that mice with T cell-specific loss of class IA phosphoinositide 3-kinase function develop organ-specific autoimmunity that resembles the human disease SS. Most mutant mice aged 3-8 months develop corneal opacity and eye lesions due to irritation and constant scratching. These mice display cardinal signs of primary SS such as marked lymphocytic infiltration of the lacrimal glands, antinuclear antibodies in the serum, and elevated titer of anti-SS-A antibody, in the absence of kidney pathology. Immunofluorescence studies show the presence of numerous CD4+ T cells with a smaller number of CD8+ T cells and B cells in the lacrimal glands. CD4+ T cells from these mice exhibit aberrant differentiation in vitro. These results indicate that aberrant T cells with impaired class IA phosphoinositide 3-kinase signaling can lead to organ-specific autoimmunity. In addition, the mouse model described here represents a tool to study the pathogenesis and treatment of SS.
T-cell Function is Partially Maintained in the Absence of Class IA Phosphoinositide 3-kinase Signaling
Blood. Apr, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17164340
The class IA subgroup of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) is activated downstream of antigen receptors, costimulatory molecules, and cytokine receptors on lymphocytes. Targeted deletion of individual genes for class IA regulatory subunits severely impairs the development and function of B cells but not T cells. Here we analyze conditional mutant mice in which thymocytes and T cells lack the major class IA regulatory subunits p85alpha, p55alpha, p50alpha, and p85beta. These cells exhibit nearly complete loss of PI3K signaling downstream of the T-cell receptor (TCR) and CD28. Nevertheless, T-cell development is largely unperturbed, and peripheral T cells show only partial impairments in proliferation and cytokine production in vitro. Both genetic and pharmacologic experiments suggest that class IA PI3K signaling plays a limited role in T-cell proliferation driven by TCR/CD28 clustering. In vivo, class IA-deficient T cells provide reduced help to B cells but show normal ability to mediate antiviral immunity. Together these findings provide definitive evidence that class IA PI3K regulatory subunits are essential for a subset of T-cell functions while challenging the notion that this signaling mechanism is a critical mediator of costimulatory signals downstream of CD28.
Measuring Phosphorylated Akt and Other Phosphoinositide 3-kinase-regulated Phosphoproteins in Primary Lymphocytes
Methods in Enzymology. 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17954246
Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) is a lipid kinase whose activation is crucial for many biological functions in multiple cell types. One research area of particular interest for basic biologists and drug developers is PI3K signaling in lymphocytes. Inhibitor studies and PI3K mutants have demonstrated that PI3K is required for development, activation, proliferation, differentiation, and survival of B lymphocytes, as well as optimal activation and proliferation of T lymphocytes. As the actual products of PI3K can be difficult to measure, the field has often adopted the practice of examining the activation of downstream effectors of PI3K, with the most common readout being phosphorylation of Akt. This chapter discusses key pathways influenced by PI3K signaling and the advantages and caveats of using activation of these pathways as indicators of PI3K activity. In addition, we provide traditional immunoblotting methods of assaying PI3K-dependent pathway activation, as well as more recent flow cytometry-based approaches (termed "phosflow"). Although we describe assays optimized for B lymphocytes, these methods are easily adapted to T lymphocytes and other leukocyte cell types.
Blood. Jan, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 16954505
Genes that are strongly repressed after B-cell activation are candidates for being inactivated, mutated, or repressed in B-cell malignancies. Krüppel-like factor 4 (Klf4), a gene down-regulated in activated murine B cells, is expressed at low levels in several types of human B-cell lineage lymphomas and leukemias. The human KLF4 gene has been identified as a tumor suppressor gene in colon and gastric cancer; in concordance with this, overexpression of KLF4 can suppress proliferation in several epithelial cell types. Here we investigate the effects of KLF4 on pro/pre-B-cell transformation by v-Abl and BCR-ABL, oncogenes that cause leukemia in mice and humans. We show that overexpression of KLF4 induces arrest and apoptosis in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. KLF4-mediated death, but not cell-cycle arrest, can be rescued by Bcl-XL overexpression. Transformed pro/pre-B cells expressing KLF4 display increased expression of p21CIP and decreased expression of c-Myc and cyclin D2. Tetracycline-inducible expression of KLF4 in B-cell progenitors of transgenic mice blocks transformation by BCR-ABL and depletes leukemic pre-B cells in vivo. Collectively, our work identifies KLF4 as a putative tumor suppressor in B-cell malignancies.
International Immunology. May, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18375530
Lymphocytes circulate in a quiescent (G(0)) state until they encounter specific antigens. In T cells, quiescence is programmed by transcription factors of the forkhead box O (FOXO) and Krüppel-like factor (KLF) families. However, the transcription factors that regulate B cell quiescence are not known. KLF4 is a candidate tumor suppressor gene in B lymphocytes, and thus a likely candidate for regulating B cell homeostasis. Here, we show that RNA and protein expression of murine KLF4 decreases following B cell activation. Forced expression of KLF4 in proliferating B cell blasts causes a G(1) cell cycle arrest. This effect requires the DNA binding and transactivation domains of KLF4 and correlates with changes in the expression of known KLF target genes. We present evidence that Klf4 is a target gene for FOXO transcription factors, which also suppress B cell proliferation. To determine the effect of KLF4 loss-of-function, we generated mice with B cell-specific deletion of the Klf4 gene. These mice exhibited normal B cell development and function with no evidence of a lowered activation threshold. Collectively, our findings indicate that KLF4 has growth-suppressive properties in B cells but might be redundant with other members of the KLF family in maintaining B cell quiescence.
Efficacy of TG101348, a Selective JAK2 Inhibitor, in Treatment of a Murine Model of JAK2V617F-induced Polycythemia Vera
Cancer Cell. Apr, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18394554
We report that TG101348, a selective small-molecule inhibitor of JAK2 with an in vitro IC50 of approximately 3 nM, shows therapeutic efficacy in a murine model of myeloproliferative disease induced by the JAK2V617F mutation. In treated animals, there was a statistically significant reduction in hematocrit and leukocyte count, a dose-dependent reduction/elimination of extramedullary hematopoiesis, and, at least in some instances, evidence for attenuation of myelofibrosis. There were no apparent toxicities and no effect on T cell number. In vivo responses were correlated with surrogate endpoints, including reduction/elimination of JAK2V617F disease burden assessed by quantitative genomic PCR, suppression of endogenous erythroid colony formation, and in vivo inhibition of JAK-STAT signal transduction as assessed by flow cytometric measurement of phosphorylated Stat5.
Ablation of PI3K Blocks BCR-ABL Leukemogenesis in Mice, and a Dual PI3K/mTOR Inhibitor Prevents Expansion of Human BCR-ABL+ Leukemia Cells
The Journal of Clinical Investigation. Sep, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18704194
Some cases of pre-B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (pre-B-ALL) are caused by the Philadelphia (Ph) chromosome-encoded BCR-ABL oncogene, and these tend to have a poor prognosis. Inhibitors of the PI3K/AKT pathway reduce BCR-ABL-mediated transformation in vitro; however, the specific PI3K isoforms involved are poorly defined. Using a murine model of Ph+ pre-B-ALL, we found that deletion of both Pik3r1 and Pik3r2, genes encoding class IA PI3K regulatory isoforms, severely impaired transformation. BCR-ABL-dependent pre/pro-B cell lines could be established at low frequency from progenitors that lacked these genes, but the cells were smaller, proliferated more slowly, and failed to cause leukemia in vivo. These cell lines displayed nearly undetectable PI3K signaling function and were resistant to the PI3K inhibitor wortmannin. However, they maintained activation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and were more sensitive to rapamycin. Treatment with rapamycin caused feedback activation of AKT in WT cell lines but not PI3K-deficient lines. A dual inhibitor of PI3K and mTOR, PI-103, was more effective than rapamycin at suppressing proliferation of mouse pre-B-ALL and human CD19+CD34+)Ph+ ALL leukemia cells treated with the ABL kinase inhibitor imatinib. Our findings provide mechanistic insights into PI3K dependency in oncogenic networks and provide a rationale for targeting class IA PI3K, alone or together with mTOR, in the treatment of Ph+ ALL.
Constitutive JAK3 Activation Induces Lymphoproliferative Syndromes in Murine Bone Marrow Transplantation Models
Blood. Mar, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19139084
The tyrosine kinase JAK3 plays a well-established role during normal lymphocyte development and is constitutively phosphorylated in several lymphoid malignancies. However, its contribution to lymphomagenesis remains elusive. In this study, we used the newly identified activating JAK3A572V mutation to elucidate the effect of constitutive JAK3 signaling on murine lymphopoiesis. In a bone marrow transplantation model, JAK3A572V induces an aggressive, fatal, and transplantable lymphoproliferative disorder characterized by the expansion of CD8(+)TCRalphabeta(+)CD44(+)CD122(+)Ly-6C(+) T cells that closely resemble an effector/memory T-cell subtype. Compared with wild-type counterparts, these cells show increased proliferative capacities in response to polyclonal stimulation, enhanced survival rates with elevated expression of Bcl-2, and increased production of interferon-gamma (IFNgamma) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha), correlating with enhanced cytotoxic abilities against allogeneic target cells. Of interest, the JAK3A572V disease is epidermotropic and produces intraepidermal microabscesses. Taken together, these clinical features are reminiscent of those observed in an uncommon but aggressive subset of CD8(+) human cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (CTCLs). However, we also observed a CD4(+) CTCL-like phenotype when cells are transplanted in an MHC-I-deficient background. These data demonstrate that constitutive JAK3 activation disrupts T-cell homeostasis and induces lymphoproliferative diseases in mice.
Hedgehog Signaling is Dispensable for Adult Murine Hematopoietic Stem Cell Function and Hematopoiesis
Cell Stem Cell. Jun, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19497284
We report the unexpected finding that loss of Hh signaling through conditional deletion of Smoothened (Smo) in the adult hematopoietic compartment has no apparent effect on adult hematopoiesis, including peripheral blood count, number or cell-cycle status of stem or progenitor cells, hematopoietic colony-forming potential, long-term repopulating activity in competitive repopulation assays, or stress response to serial 5-fluorouracil treatment. Furthermore, pharmacologic inhibition of Hh signaling with a potent and selective small molecule antagonist has no substantive effect on hematopoiesis in the mouse. In addition, Hh signaling is not required for the development of MLL-AF9-mediated acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Taken together, these data demonstrate that Hh signaling is dispensable for normal hematopoietic development and hematopoietic stem cell function, indicating that targeting of Hh signaling in solid tumors is not likely to result in hematopoietic toxicity. Furthermore, the Hh pathway may not be a compelling target in certain hematopoietic malignancies.
Blood. Feb, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20008787
Human cancers, including acute myeloid leukemia (AML), commonly display constitutive phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) AKT signaling. However, the exact role of AKT activation in leukemia and its effects on hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are poorly understood. Several members of the PI3K pathway, phosphatase and tensin homolog (Pten), the forkhead box, subgroup O (FOXO) transcription factors, and TSC1, have demonstrated functions in normal and leukemic stem cells but are rarely mutated in leukemia. We developed an activated allele of AKT1 that models increased signaling in normal and leukemic stem cells. In our murine bone marrow transplantation model using a myristoylated AKT1 (myr-AKT), recipients develop myeloproliferative disease, T-cell lymphoma, or AML. Analysis of the HSCs in myr-AKT mice reveals transient expansion and increased cycling, associated with impaired engraftment. myr-AKT-expressing bone marrow cells are unable to form cobblestones in long-term cocultures. Rapamycin, an inhibitor of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) rescues cobblestone formation in myr-AKT-expressing bone marrow cells and increases the survival of myr-AKT mice. This study demonstrates that enhanced AKT activation is an important mechanism of transformation in AML and that HSCs are highly sensitive to excess AKT/mTOR signaling.
Cell Cycle (Georgetown, Tex.). Apr, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20234178
Physiological Jak2V617F Expression Causes a Lethal Myeloproliferative Neoplasm with Differential Effects on Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cells
Cancer Cell. Jun, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20541703
We report a Jak2V617F knockin mouse myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) model resembling human polycythemia vera (PV). The MPN is serially transplantable and we demonstrate that the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) compartment has the unique capacity for disease initiation but does not have a significant selective competitive advantage over wild-type HSCs. In contrast, myeloid progenitor populations are expanded and skewed toward the erythroid lineage, but cannot transplant the disease. Treatment with a JAK2 kinase inhibitor ameliorated the MPN phenotype, but did not eliminate the disease-initiating population. These findings provide insights into the consequences of JAK2 activation on HSC differentiation and function and have the potential to inform therapeutic approaches to JAK2V617F-positive MPN.
Nature Medicine. Aug, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20616797
RNA-binding proteins of the Musashi (Msi) family are expressed in stem cell compartments and in aggressive tumors, but they have not yet been widely explored in the blood. Here we demonstrate that Msi2 is the predominant form expressed in hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), and its knockdown leads to reduced engraftment and depletion of HSCs in vivo. Overexpression of human MSI2 in a mouse model increases HSC cell cycle progression and cooperates with the chronic myeloid leukemia-associated BCR-ABL1 oncoprotein to induce an aggressive leukemia. MSI2 is overexpressed in human myeloid leukemia cell lines, and its depletion leads to decreased proliferation and increased apoptosis. Expression levels in human myeloid leukemia directly correlate with decreased survival in patients with the disease, thereby defining MSI2 expression as a new prognostic marker and as a new target for therapy in acute myeloid leukemia (AML).
From Hen House to Bedside: Tracing Hanafusa's Legacy from Avian Leukemia Viruses to SRC to ABL and Beyond
Genes & Cancer. Dec, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 21779439
The discovery of the Src oncogene was the first step on a long journey toward improved cancer chemotherapy. In this review, we explore Src and BCR-ABL, signal transduction, and recent advances in oncogene addiction and celebrate Hidesaboro Hanafusa and the many researchers who ushered in the age of target-directed therapy against tyrosine kinase oncoproteins.
Cell. Sep, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21962509
The let-7 tumor suppressor microRNAs are known for their regulation of oncogenes, while the RNA-binding proteins Lin28a/b promote malignancy by inhibiting let-7 biogenesis. We have uncovered unexpected roles for the Lin28/let-7 pathway in regulating metabolism. When overexpressed in mice, both Lin28a and LIN28B promote an insulin-sensitized state that resists high-fat-diet induced diabetes. Conversely, muscle-specific loss of Lin28a or overexpression of let-7 results in insulin resistance and impaired glucose tolerance. These phenomena occur, in part, through the let-7-mediated repression of multiple components of the insulin-PI3K-mTOR pathway, including IGF1R, INSR, and IRS2. In addition, the mTOR inhibitor, rapamycin, abrogates Lin28a-mediated insulin sensitivity and enhanced glucose uptake. Moreover, let-7 targets are enriched for genes containing SNPs associated with type 2 diabetes and control of fasting glucose in human genome-wide association studies. These data establish the Lin28/let-7 pathway as a central regulator of mammalian glucose metabolism.