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In JoVE (1)
- Kwantificering van schimmelkolonisatie, Sporogenesis, en de productie van mycotoxinen Met behulp van Kernel Bioassays
Other Publications (12)
- Plant Molecular Biology
- Journal of Experimental Botany
- Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions : MPMI
- Plant Physiology
- Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions : MPMI
- Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
- Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions : MPMI
- Fungal Genetics and Biology : FG & B
- Molecular Plant Pathology
- Plant Science : an International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
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Articles by Michael Kolomiets in JoVE
Kwantificering van schimmelkolonisatie, Sporogenesis, en de productie van mycotoxinen Met behulp van Kernel Bioassays
Shawn Christensen*, Eli Borrego*, Won-Bo Shim, Tom Isakeit, Michael Kolomiets
Plant Pathology and Microbiology, Texas A&M University
De verwoesting van de graangewassen door zaad-infecterende schimmels heeft ertoe geleid dat tal van onderzoeksinspanningen om beter te begrijpen plant-pathogeen interacties. Om zaad-schimmel interacties in een laboratorium te bestuderen, ontwikkelden we een robuuste methode voor de kwantificering van de schimmel reproductie, biomassa en verontreiniging met mycotoxinen met behulp van kernel bioassays.
Other articles by Michael Kolomiets on PubMed
Plant Molecular Biology. Sep, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16247560
The 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid reductases (OPRs) are enzymes that catalyze the reduction of double bonds adjacent to an oxo group in alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes or ketones. Some of them have very high substrate specificity and are part of the octadecanoid pathway which convert linolenic acid to the phytohormone jasmonic acid (JA). Sequencing and analysis of ESTs and genomic sequences from available private and public databases revealed that the maize genome encodes eight OPR genes. Southern blot analysis and mapping of individual OPR genes to maize chromosomes using oat maize chromosome addition lines provides independent confirmation of this number of OPR genes in maize. A survey of massively parallel signature sequencing (MPSS) assays revealed that transcripts of each OPR gene accumulate differentially in diverse organs of maize plants suggesting distinct biological functions. Similarly, RNA blot analysis revealed that distinct OPR genes are differentially regulated in response to stress hormones, wounding or pathogen infection. ZmOPR1 and/or ZmOPR2 appear to function in defense responses to pathogens because they are transiently induced by salicylic acid (SA), chitooligosaccharides, and by infection with Cochliobolus carbonum, Cochliobolus heterostrophus and Fusarium verticillioides, but not by wounding. In contrast to these two genes, transcript levels of ZmOPR6 and ZmOPR7 and/or ZmOPR8 are highly induced by wounding or treatments with the wound-associated signaling molecules JA, ethylene and abscisic acid. However, accumulation of ZmOPR6 and ZmOPR7/8 mRNAs was not upregulated by SA treatments or by pathogen infection suggesting specific involvement in the wound-induced defense responses. None of the treatments induced transcripts of ZmOPR3, 4, or 5.
Duplicate Maize 13-lipoxygenase Genes Are Differentially Regulated by Circadian Rhythm, Cold Stress, Wounding, Pathogen Infection, and Hormonal Treatments
Journal of Experimental Botany. 2006 | Pubmed ID: 17005920
Most plant oxylipins, a large class of diverse oxygenated polyunsaturated fatty acids and their derivatives, are produced through the lipoxygenase (LOX) pathway. Recent progress in dicots has highlighted the biological roles of oxylipins in plant defence responses to pathogens and pests. By contrast, the physiological function of LOXs and their metabolites in monocots is poorly understood. Two maize LOXs, ZmLOX10 and ZmLOX11 that share >90% amino acid sequence identity but are localized on different chromosomes, were cloned and characterized. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that ZmLOX10 and ZmLOX11 cluster together with well-characterized plastidic type 2 linoleate 13-LOXs from diverse plant species. Regio-specificity analysis of recombinant ZmLOX10 protein overexpressed in Escherichia coli proved it to be a linoleate 13-LOX with a pH optimum at approximately pH 8.0. Both predicted proteins contain putative transit peptides for chloroplast import. ZmLOX10 was preferentially expressed in leaves and was induced in response to wounding, cold stress, defence-related hormones jasmonic acid (JA), salicylic acid (SA), and abscisic acid (ABA), and inoculation with an avirulent strain of Cochliobolus carbonum. These data suggested a role for this gene in maize adaptation to abiotic stresses and defence responses against pathogens and pests. ZmLOX11 was preferentially expressed in silks and was induced in leaves only by ABA, indicating its possible involvement in responses to osmotic stress. In leaves, mRNA accumulation of ZmLOX10 is strictly regulated by a circadian rhythm, with maximal expression coinciding temporally with the highest photosynthetic activity. This study reveals the evolutionary divergence of physiological roles for relatively recently duplicated genes. Possible physiological functions of these 13-LOXs are suggested.
Disruption of a Maize 9-lipoxygenase Results in Increased Resistance to Fungal Pathogens and Reduced Levels of Contamination with Mycotoxin Fumonisin
Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions : MPMI. Aug, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17722696
Plant oxylipins, produced via the lipoxygenase (LOX) pathway, function as signals in defense and development. In fungi, oxylipins are potent regulators of mycotoxin biosynthesis and sporogenesis. Previous studies showed that plant 9-LOX-derived fatty acid hydroperoxides induce conidiation and mycotoxin production. Here, we tested the hypothesis that oxylipins produced by the maize 9-LOX pathway are required by pathogens to produce spores and mycotoxins and to successfully colonize the host. Maize mutants were generated in which the function of a 9-LOX gene, ZmLOX3, was abolished by an insertion of a Mutator transposon in its coding sequence, which resulted in reduced levels of several 9-LOX-derived hydroperoxides. Supporting our hypothesis, conidiation and production of the mycotoxin fumonisin B1 by Fusarium verticillioides were drastically reduced in kernels of the lox3 mutants compared with near-isogenic wild types. Similarly, conidia production and disease severity of anthracnose leaf blight caused by Colletotrichum graminicola were significantly reduced in the lox3 mutants. Moreover, lox3 mutants displayed increased resistance to southern leaf blight caused by Cochliobolus heterostrophus and stalk rots caused by both F. verticillioides and C. graminicola. These data strongly suggest that oxylipin metabolism mediated by a specific plant 9-LOX isoform is required for fungal pathogenesis, including disease development and production of spores and mycotoxins.
A Proteinaceous Elicitor Sm1 from the Beneficial Fungus Trichoderma Virens is Required for Induced Systemic Resistance in Maize
Plant Physiology. Nov, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17885089
We have previously shown that the beneficial filamentous fungus Trichoderma virens secretes the highly effective hydrophobin-like elicitor Sm1 that induces systemic disease resistance in the dicot cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). In this study we tested whether colonization of roots by T. virens can induce systemic protection against a foliar pathogen in the monocot maize (Zea mays), and we further demonstrated the importance of Sm1 during maize-fungal interactions using a functional genomics approach. Maize seedlings were inoculated with T. virens Gv29-8 wild type and transformants in which SM1 was disrupted or constitutively overexpressed in a hydroponic system or in soil-grown maize seedlings challenged with the pathogen Colletotrichum graminicola. We show that similar to dicot plants, colonization of maize roots by T. virens induces systemic protection of the leaves inoculated with C. graminicola. This protection was associated with notable induction of jasmonic acid- and green leaf volatile-biosynthetic genes. Neither deletion nor overexpression of SM1 affected normal growth or development of T. virens, conidial germination, production of gliotoxin, hyphal coiling, hydrophobicity, or the ability to colonize maize roots. Plant bioassays showed that maize grown with SM1-deletion strains exhibited the same levels of systemic protection as non-Trichoderma-treated plants. Moreover, deletion and overexpression of SM1 resulted in significantly reduced and enhanced levels of disease protection, respectively, compared to the wild type. These data together indicate that T. virens is able to effectively activate systemic disease protection in maize and that the functional Sm1 elicitor is required for this activity.
A Novel Plastidial Lipoxygenase of Maize (Zea Mays) ZmLOX6 Encodes for a Fatty Acid Hydroperoxide Lyase and is Uniquely Regulated by Phytohormones and Pathogen Infection
Planta. Jan, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 17922288
Lipoxygenases (LOXs) are members of a large enzyme family that catalyze oxygenation of free polyunsaturated fatty acids into diverse hydroperoxide compounds, collectively called oxylipins. Although LOXs have been well studied in dicot species, reports of the genes encoding these enzymes are scarce for monocots, especially maize. Herein, we reported the cloning, characterization and molecular functional analysis of a novel maize LOX gene, ZmLOX6. The ZmLOX6 nucleotide sequence encodes a deduced translation product of 892 amino acids. Phylogenetic analysis showed that ZmLOX6 is distantly related to previously reported 9- or 13-LOXs from maize and other plant species, including rice and Arabidopsis. Although sequence prediction suggested cytoplasmic localization of this protein, ZmLOX6 protein has been reportedly isolated from mesophyll cell chloroplasts, emphasizing the unique features of this protein. Plastidial localization was confirmed by chloroplast uptake experiments with the in vitro translated protein. Analysis of recombinant protein revealed that ZmLOX6 has lost fatty acid hydroperoxide forming activity but 13-LOX-derived fatty acid hydroperoxides were cleaved into odd-chain omega-oxo fatty acids and as yet not identified C5-compound. In line with its reported abundance in mesophyll cells, ZmLOX6 was predominantly expressed in leaf tissue. Northern blot analysis demonstrated that ZmLOX6 was induced by jasmonic acid, but repressed by abscisic acid, salicylic acid and ethylene and was not responsive to wounding or insects. Further, this gene was strongly induced by the fungal pathogen Cochliobolus carbonum during compatible interactions, suggesting that ZmLOX6 may contribute to susceptibility to this pathogen. The potential involvement of ZmLOX6 in maize interactions with pathogens is discussed.
Maize 9-lipoxygenase ZmLOX3 Controls Development, Root-specific Expression of Defense Genes, and Resistance to Root-knot Nematodes
Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions : MPMI. Jan, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18052887
Root-knot nematodes (RKN) are severe pests of maize. Although lipoxygenase (LOX) pathways and their oxylipin products have been implicated in plant-nematode interactions, prior to this report there was no conclusive genetic evidence for the function of any plant LOX gene in such interactions. We showed that expression of a maize 9-LOX gene, ZmLOX3, increased steadily and peaked at 7 days after inoculation with Meloidogyne incognita RKN. Mu-insertional lox3-4 mutants displayed increased attractiveness to RKN and an increased number of juveniles and eggs. A set of jasmonic acid (JA)- and ethylene (ET)-responsive and biosynthetic genes as well as salicylic acid (SA)-dependent genes were overexpressed specifically in the roots of lox3-4 mutants. Consistent with this, levels of JA, SA, and ET were elevated in lox3-4 mutant roots, but not in leaves. Unlike wild types, in lox3-4 mutant roots, a phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) gene was not RKN-inducible, suggesting a role for PAL-mediated metabolism in nematode resistance. In addition to these alterations in the defense status of roots, lox3-4 knockout mutants displayed precocious senescence and reduced root length and plant height compared with the wild type, suggesting that ZmLOX3 is required for normal plant development. Taken together, our data indicate that the ZmLOX3-mediated pathway may act as a root-specific suppressor of all three major defense signaling pathways to channel plant energy into growth processes, but is required for normal levels of resistance against nematodes.
Considerations Regarding the Use of Hyperspectral Imaging Data in Classifications of Food Products, Exemplified by Analysis of Maize Kernels
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. May, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18410111
Development of robust analytical procedures is critical when using hyperspectral imaging technology in food technology and agriculture. This study used near-isogenic inbred corn lines to address two basic questions: (1) To what extent is classification accuracy increased by grinding maize kernels? (2) Can the classification accuracy of two near-isogenic inbred lines be increased by using a spectral filter to classify only certain hyperspectral profiles from each image cube? Whole kernels and ground kernels in two particle intervals, 0.250-0.354 mm (size 1) and 0.354-0.841 mm (size 2), were examined. Spectral profiles acquired from ground kernels had higher spectral repeatability than data collected from whole kernels. The classification error of discriminant functions from whole kernels was >3 times lower than that of size 1 ground particles. Applying a spectral filter to input data had negligible effect on classifications of hyperspectral profiles from whole kernels and size 2 ground particles, but for size 1 ground particles a considerable increase in accuracy was observed. Independent validation confirmed that distinction between wild type and mutant inbred maize lines could be conducted with >80% accuracy after the proposed spectral filter had been applied to hyperspectral profiles of size 1 ground particles. A combination of discriminant analysis and regression analysis could be used to accurately predict mixture ratios of the two inbred lines. The use of spectral filtering to increase the level of spectral repeatability and the use of hyperspectral imaging technology in large-scale commercial operations are discussed.
Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions : MPMI. Feb, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19132874
Plant and fungal lipoxygenases (LOX) catalyze the oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids, creating fatty-acid hydroperoxides (oxylipins). Fungal oxylipins are required for normal fungal development and secondary metabolism, and plant host-derived oxylipins interfere with these processes in fungi, presumably by signal mimicry. The maize LOX gene ZmLOX3 has been implicated previously in seed-Aspergillus interactions, so we tested the interactions of a mutant maize line (lox3-4, in which ZmLOX3 is disrupted) with the mycotoxigenic seed-infecting fungi Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus nidulans. The lox3-4 mutant was more susceptible than wild-type maize to both Aspergillus species. All strains of A. flavus and A. nidulans produced more conidia and aflatoxin (or the precursor sterigmatocystin) on lox3-4 kernels than on wild-type kernels, in vitro and under field conditions. Although oxylipins did not differ detectably between A. flavus-infected kernels of the lox3-4 and wild-type (WT) maize, oxylipin precursors (free fatty acids) and a downstream metabolite (jasmonic acid) accumulated to greater levels in lox3-4 than in WT kernels. The increased resistance of the lox3-4 mutant to other fungal pathogens (Fusarium, Colletotrichum, Cochliobolus, and Exserohilum spp.) is in sharp contrast to results described herein for Aspergillus spp., suggesting that outcomes of LOX-governed host-pathogen interactions are pathogen-specific.
Comparative Molecular and Biochemical Characterization of Segmentally Duplicated 9-lipoxygenase Genes ZmLOX4 and ZmLOX5 of Maize
Planta. May, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20349083
Lipoxygenases (LOXs) catalyze hydroperoxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) to form structurally and functionally diverse oxylipins. Precise physiological and biochemical functions of individual members of plant multigene LOX families are largely unknown. Herein we report on molecular and biochemical characterization of two closely related maize 9-lipoxygenase paralogs, ZmLOX4 and ZmLOX5. Recombinant ZmLOX5 protein displayed clear 9-LOX regio-specificity at both neutral and slightly alkaline pH. The genes were differentially expressed in various maize organs and tissues as well as in response to diverse stress treatments. The transcripts of ZmLOX4 accumulated predominantly in roots and shoot apical meristem, whereas ZmLOX5 was expressed in most tested aboveground organs. Both genes were not expressed in untreated leaves, but displayed differential induction by defense-related hormones. While ZmLOX4 was only induced by jasmonic acid (JA), the transcripts of ZmLOX5 were increased in response to JA and salicylic acid treatments. ZmLOX5 was transiently induced both locally and systemically by wounding, which was accompanied by increased levels of 9-oxylipins, and fall armyworm herbivory, suggesting a putative role for this gene in defense against insects. Surprisingly, despite of moderate JA- and wound-inducibility of ZmLOX4, the gene was not responsive to insect herbivory. These results suggest that the two genes may have distinct roles in maize adaptation to diverse biotic and abiotic stresses. Both paralogs were similarly induced by virulent and avirulent strains of the fungal leaf pathogen Cochliobolus carbonum. Putative physiological roles for the two genes are discussed in the context of their biochemical and molecular properties.
Fungal Genetics and Biology : FG & B. Jan, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 20519150
Lipid mediated cross-kingdom communication between hosts and pathogens is a rapidly emerging field in molecular plant-fungal interactions. Amidst our growing understanding of fungal and plant chemical cross-talk lies the distinct, yet little studied, role for a group of oxygenated lipids derived from polyunsaturated fatty acids, termed oxylipins. Endogenous fungal oxylipins are known for their roles in carrying out pathogenic strategies to successfully colonize their host, reproduce, and synthesize toxins. While plant oxylipins also have functions in reproduction and development, they are largely recognized as agents that facilitate resistance to pathogen attack. Here we review the composition and endogenous functions of oxylipins produced by both plants and fungi and introduce evidence which suggests that fungal pathogens exploit host oxylipins to facilitate their own virulence and pathogenic development. Specifically, we describe how fungi induce plant lipid metabolism to utilize plant oxylipins in order to promote G-protein-mediated regulation of sporulation and mycotoxin production in the fungus. The use of host-ligand mimicry (i.e. coronatine) to manipulate plant defense responses that benefit the fungus are also implicated.
Regulators of G-protein Signalling in Fusarium Verticillioides Mediate Differential Host-pathogen Responses on Nonviable Versus Viable Maize Kernels
Molecular Plant Pathology. Jun, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21535353
GBB1, a heterotrimeric G-protein β-subunit gene, was shown to be a key regulator of fumonisin B(1) (FB(1) ) biosynthesis in the maize pathogen Fusarium verticillioides. In this study, we performed functional analyses of genes that encode putative RGS (regulators of G-protein signalling) proteins and PhLPs (phosducin-like proteins) in F. verticillioides. These proteins are known to regulate heterotrimeric G-protein activity by altering the intrinsic guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) activity, which, in turn, influences the signalling mechanisms that control fungal growth, virulence and secondary metabolism. Our aim was to isolate and characterize gene(s) that are under the transcriptional control of GBB1, and to test the hypothesis that these genes are directly associated with FB(1) regulation and fungal development in F. verticillioides on maize kernels. We first identified eight genes (two PhLPs and six RGSs) in the F. verticillioides genome, and a subsequent transcriptional expression study revealed that three RGS genes were up-regulated in the gbb1 deletion (Δgbb1) mutant and one RGS gene was up-regulated in the wild-type. To characterize their function, we generated knockout mutants using a homologous recombination strategy. When grown on autoclaved nonviable kernels, two mutants (ΔflbA2 and ΔrgsB) produced significantly higher levels of FB(1) compared with the wild-type progenitor, suggesting that the two mutated genes are negative regulators of FB(1) biosynthesis. ΔflbA2 also showed a severe curly conidia germination pattern, which was contradictory to that observed in the Δgbb1 strain. Strikingly, when these mutants were grown on live maize kernels, we observed contrasting FB(1) and conidiation phenotypes in fungal mutants, which strongly suggests that these G-protein regulators have an impact on how F. verticillioides responds to host/environmental factors. Our data also provide evidence that fungal G-protein signalling is important for modulating the ethylene biosynthetic pathway in maize kernels.
A Novel, Conditional, Lesion Mimic Phenotype in Cotton Cotyledons Due to the Expression of an Endochitinase Gene from Trichoderma Virens
Plant Science : an International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology. Feb, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22195581
We have observed a novel, lesion mimic phenotype (LMP) in the cotyledons of cotton seedlings expressing an endochitinase gene from Trichoderma virens. This phenotype, however, is conditional and is elicited only when the transgenic seedlings are germinating on a medium that is devoid of mineral nutrients. The LMP manifests itself around the 5th day in the form of scattered, dry necrotic lesions on the cotyledons. The severity of the LMP is correlated with the level of transgene activity. Production of reactive oxygen species and activities of certain defense related enzymes and genes were substantially higher in the cotyledons of seedlings that were growing under mineral nutrient stress. Molecular and biochemical analyses indicated significantly higher-level activities of certain defense-related genes/enzymes at the onset of the phenotype. Treatment with methyl jasmonate can induce LMP in the cotyledons of wild-type (WT) seedlings similar to that observed in the endochitinase-expressing seedlings grown on nutrient-free medium. On the other hand, salicylic acid (SA), its functional analog, benzo(1,2,3) thiadiazole-7-carbothioic acid (BTH), and ibuprofen can rescue the LMP induced by the seedling-growth on nutrient-deficient medium. Nutrient deficiency-induced activation of a defense response appears to be the contributing factor in the development of LMP in endochitinase-expressing cotton seedlings.