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In JoVE (2)
- Analyzing Large Protein Complexes by Structural Mass Spectrometry
- T-wave Ion Mobility-mass Spectrometry: Basic Experimental Procedures for Protein Complex Analysis
Other Publications (34)
- Protein Expression and Purification
- Structure (London, England : 1993)
- Protein Expression and Purification
- Current Opinion in Drug Discovery & Development
- The Journal of Biological Chemistry
- Journal of Structural Biology
- Structure (London, England : 1993)
- PLoS Biology
- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
- The Journal of Biological Chemistry
- Annual Review of Biochemistry
- The Journal of Biological Chemistry
- Journal of the American Chemical Society
- The Journal of Biological Chemistry
- Accounts of Chemical Research
- Structure (London, England : 1993)
- The Journal of Biological Chemistry
- The Journal of Biological Chemistry
- Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
- Biophysical Journal
- Analytical Chemistry
- IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
- European Journal of Radiology
- Skeletal Radiology
- Chemical Society Reviews
- Current Opinion in Structural Biology
- Molecular BioSystems
Articles by Michal Sharon in JoVE
Analyzing Large Protein Complexes by Structural Mass Spectrometry
Noam Kirshenbaum, Izhak Michaelevski, Michal Sharon
Department of Biological Chemistry, Weizmann Institute of Science
Mass spectrometry has proven to be a valuable tool for analyzing large protein complexes. This method enables insights into the composition, stoichiometry and overall architecture of multi-subunit assemblies. Here, we describe, step-by-step, how to perform a structural mass spectrometry analysis, and characterize macromolecular structures.
T-wave Ion Mobility-mass Spectrometry: Basic Experimental Procedures for Protein Complex Analysis
Izhak Michaelevski, Noam Kirshenbaum, Michal Sharon
Department of Biological Chemistry, Weizmann Institute of Science
Ion mobility-mass spectrometry is an emerging gas-phase technology that separates ions, based on their collision cross-section and mass. The method provides three-dimensional information on the overall topology and shape of protein complexes. Here, we outline a basic procedure for instrument setting and optimization, calibration of drift times, and data interpretation.
Other articles by Michal Sharon on PubMed
Expression, Purification, and Isotope Labeling of a Gp120 V3 Peptide and Production of a Fab from a HIV-1 Neutralizing Antibody for NMR Studies
Protein Expression and Purification. Apr, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 11922753
Most human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) neutralizing antibodies in infected individuals and in immunized animals are directed against the third variable loop (V3) of the envelope glycoprotein (gp120) of the virus. This loop plays a crucial role in phenotypic determination, cytopathicity (syncytium induction), and coreceptor usage of HIV-1. The human monoclonal antibody 447-52D was found to neutralize a broad spectrum of HIV-1 strains. In order to solve the solution structure of the V3MN peptide bound to the 447-52D Fab fragment by NMR, large quantities of labeled peptide and a protocol for the purification of the Fab fragment were needed. An expression plasmid coding for the 23-residue V3 peptide of the HIV-1MN strain (V3MN peptide, YNKRKRIHIGPGRAFYTTKNIIG) linked to a derivative of the RNA-binding domain of hnRNCP1 was constructed. The fusion protein attached to the V3 peptide prevents its degradation. Using this system, U-15N, U-13C,15N, and U-13C,15N, 50% 2H labeled fusion protein molecules were expressed in Escherichia coli grown on rich Celtone medium with yields of about 240 mg/liter. The V3MN peptide was released by CNBr cleavage and purified by RP-HPLC, giving final yields of 6-13 mg/liter. This expression system is generally applicable for biosynthesis of V3-related peptides and was also used to prepare the V3JR-FL. The 447-52D Fab fragment was obtained by a short enzymatic papain cleavage of the whole antibody. Preliminary NMR spectra demonstrate that full structural analysis of the V3MN complexed to the 447-52D Fab is feasible. This system enables studies of the same epitope bound to different HIV-1 neutralizing antibodies.
Alternative Conformations of HIV-1 V3 Loops Mimic Beta Hairpins in Chemokines, Suggesting a Mechanism for Coreceptor Selectivity
Structure (London, England : 1993). Feb, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12575942
The V3 loop of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp120 is involved in binding to the CCR5 and CXCR4 coreceptors. The structure of an HIV-1(MN) V3 peptide bound to the Fv of the broadly neutralizing human monoclonal antibody 447-52D was solved by NMR and found to be a beta hairpin. This structure of V3(MN) was found to have conformation and sequence similarities to beta hairpins in CD8 and CCR5 ligands MIP-1alpha, MIP-1beta, and RANTES and differed from the beta hairpin of a V3(IIIB) peptide bound to the strain-specific murine anti-gp120(IIIB) antibody 0.5beta. In contrast to the structure of the bound V3(MN) peptide, the V3(IIIB) peptide resembles a beta hairpin in SDF-1, a CXCR4 ligand. These data suggest that the 447-52D-bound V3(MN) and the 0.5beta-bound V3(IIIB) structures represent alternative V3 conformations responsible for selective interactions with CCR5 and CXCR4, respectively.
Expression, Purification, and Isotope Labeling of the Fv of the Human HIV-1 Neutralizing Antibody 447-52D for NMR Studies
Protein Expression and Purification. Jun, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12767822
The Fv is the smallest antigen binding fragment of the antibody and is made of the variable domains of the light and heavy chains, V(L) and V(H), respectively. The 26-kDa Fv is amenable for structure determination in solution using multi-dimensional hetero-nuclear NMR spectroscopy. The human monoclonal antibody 447-52D neutralizes a broad spectrum of HIV-1 isolates. This anti-HIV-1 antibody elicited in an infected patient is directed against the third variable loop (V3) of the envelope glycoprotein (gp120) of the virus. The V3 loop is an immunodominant neutralizing epitope of HIV-1. To obtain the 447-52D Fv for NMR studies, an Escherichia coli bicistronic expression vector for the heterodimeric 447-52D Fv and vectors for single chain Fv and individually expressed V(H) and V(L) were constructed. A pelB signal peptide was linked to the antibody genes to enable secretion of the expressed polypeptides into the periplasm. For easy cloning of any antibody gene without potential modification of the antibody sequence, restriction sites were introduced in the pelB sequence and following the termination codon. A set of oligonucleotides that prime the leader peptide genes of all potential antibody human antibodies were designed as backward primers. The forward primers for the V(L) and V(H) were based on constant region sequences. The 447-52D Fv could not be expressed either by a bicistronic vector or as single chain Fv, probably due to its toxicity to Escherichia coli. High level of expression was obtained by individual expression of the V(H) and the V(L) chains, which were then purified and recombined to generate a soluble and active 447-52D Fv fragment. The V(L) of mAb 447-52D was uniformly labeled with 13C and 15N nuclei (U-13C/15N). Preliminary NMR spectra demonstrate that structure determination of the recombinant 447-52D Fv and its complex with V3 peptides is feasible.
[Fetal Abnormalities Leading to Termination of Pregnancy: the Experience at the Assaf Harofeh Medical Center Between the Years 1999-2000]
Harefuah. Jun, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12858821
To assess the distribution of fetal indications leading to termination of pregnancy.
Induced Fit in HIV-neutralizing Antibody Complexes: Evidence for Alternative Conformations of the Gp120 V3 Loop and the Molecular Basis for Broad Neutralization
Biochemistry. May, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15882063
Human monoclonal antibody (mAb) 447-52D neutralizes a broad spectrum of HIV-1 isolates, whereas murine mAb 0.5beta, raised against gp120 of the X4 isolate HIV-1(IIIB), neutralizes this strain specifically. Two distinct gp120 V3 peptides, V3(MN) and V3(IIIB), adopt alternative beta-hairpin conformations when bound to 447-52D and 0.5beta, respectively, suggesting that the alternative conformations of this loop play a key role in determining the coreceptor specificity of HIV-1. To test this hypothesis and to better understand the molecular basis underlying an antibody's breadth of neutralization, the solution structure of the V3(IIIB) peptide bound to 447-52D was determined by NMR. V3(IIIB) and V3(MN) peptides bound to 447-52D exhibited the same N-terminal strand conformation, while the V3(IIIB) peptide revealed alternative N-terminal conformations when bound to 447-52D and 0.5beta. Comparison of the three known V3 structures leads to a model in which a 180 degrees change in the orientation of the side chains and the resulting one-residue shift in hydrogen bonding patterns in the N-terminal strand of the beta-hairpins markedly alter the topology of the surface that interacts with antibodies and that can potentially interact with the HIV-1 coreceptors. Predominant interactions of 447-52D with three conserved residues of the N-terminal side of the V3 loop, K312, I314, and I316, can account for its broad cross reactivity, whereas the predominant interactions of 0.5beta with variable residues underlie its strain specificity.
NMR Studies of V3 Peptide Complexes with Antibodies Suggest a Mechanism for HIV-1 Co-receptor Selectivity
Current Opinion in Drug Discovery & Development. Sep, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16159022
The third variable region (V3) of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp120 is involved in gp120 binding to the chemokine receptors CCR5 and CXCR4, which serve as co-receptors in HIV-1 infection. The sequence of V3 determines whether the virus binds to CCR5 and infects predominantly macrophages (R5 virus) or to CXCR4 and infects mostly T-cells (X4 virus). This review summarizes structural information for V3 peptides in complex with HIV-1 neutralizing antibodies. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies of the V3 peptides led to the proposal of a mechanism for co-receptor selectivity. Experiments to further explore this mechanism and potential applications of V3 structural information are discussed.
The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Apr, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16446364
The 20S core of the proteasome, which together with the regulatory particle plays a major role in the degradation of proteins in eukaryotic cells, is traversed by an internal system of cavities, namely two antechambers and one central proteolytic chamber. Little is known about the mechanisms underlying substrate binding and translocation of polypeptide chains into the interior of 20S proteasomes. Specifically, the role of the antechambers is not fully understood, and the number of substrate molecules sequestered within the internal cavities at any one time is unknown. Here we have shown that by applying both electron microscopy and tandem mass spectrometry (MS) approaches to this multisubunit complex we obtain precise information regarding the stoichiometry and location of substrates within the three chambers. The dissociation pattern in tandem MS allows us to conclude that a maximum of three green fluorescent protein and four cytochrome c substrate molecules are bound within the cavities. Our results also show that >95% of the population of proteasome molecules contain the maximum number of partially folded substrates. Moreover, we deduce that one green fluorescent protein or two cytochrome c molecules must reside within the central proteolytic chamber while the remaining substrate molecules occupy, singly, both antechambers. The results imply therefore an additional role for 20S proteasomes in the storage of substrates prior to their degradation, specifically in cases where translocation rates are slower than proteolysis. More generally, the ability to locate relatively small protein ligands sequestered within the 28-subunit core particle highlights the tremendous potential of tandem MS for deciphering substrate binding within large macromolecular assemblies.
Journal of Structural Biology. Oct, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16690322
We have cloned the proteasome and the proteasome activating nucleotidase (PAN) genes from the mesophilic archaeon Methanosarcina mazei and produced the respective proteins in Escherichia coli cultures. The recombinant complexes were purified to homogeneity and characterized biochemically, structurally, and by mass spectrometry. We found that the degradation of Bodipy-casein by Methanosarcina proteasomes was activated by Methanosarcina PAN. Notably, the Methanosarcina PAN unfolded GFP-SsrA only in the presence of Methanosarcina proteasomes. Structural analysis by 2D averaging electron microscopy of negatively stained complexes displayed the typical structure for the proteasome, namely four-striped side-views and sevenfold-symmetric top-views, with 15 nm height and 11 nm diameter. The structural analysis of the PAN preparation revealed also four-striped side-views, albeit with a height of 18 nm and sixfold-symmetric top-views with a diameter of 15 nm, which corresponds most likely to a dimer of two hexameric complexes. Mass spectrometric analysis of both the Methanosarcina and the Methanocaldococcus PAN proteins indicated hexameric complexes. In summary, we performed a functional and structural characterization of the PAN and proteasome complexes from the archaeon M. mazei and described unique new structural and functional features.
Structure (London, England : 1993). Jul, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16843899
The processing of propeptides and the maturation of 20S proteasomes require the association of beta rings from two half proteasomes. We propose an assembly-dependent activation model in which interactions between helix (H3 and H4) residues of the opposing half proteasomes are prerequisite for appropriate positioning of the S2-S3 loop; such positioning enables correct coordination of the active-site residue needed for propeptide cleavage. Mutations of H3 or H4 residues that participate in the association of two half proteasomes inhibit activation and prevent, in nearly all cases, the formation of full proteasomes. In contrast, mutations affecting interactions with residues of the S2-S3 loop allow the assembly of full, but activity impacted, proteasomes. The crystal structure of the inactive H3 mutant, Phe145Ala, shows that the S2-S3 loop is displaced from the position observed in wild-type proteasomes. These data support the proposed assembly-dependent activation model in which the S2-S3 loop acts as an activation switch.
PLoS Biology. Aug, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16869714
The 26S proteasome contains a 19S regulatory particle that selects and unfolds ubiquitinated substrates for degradation in the 20S catalytic particle. To date there are no high-resolution structures of the 19S assembly, nor of the lid or base subcomplexes that constitute the 19S. Mass spectra of the intact lid complex from Saccharomyces cerevisiae show that eight of the nine subunits are present stoichiometrically and that a stable tetrameric subcomplex forms in solution. Application of tandem mass spectrometry to the intact lid complex reveals the subunit architecture, while the coupling of a cross-linking approach identifies further interaction partners. Taking together our results with previous analyses we are able to construct a comprehensive interaction map. In summary, our findings allow us to identify a scaffold for the assembly of the particle and to propose a regulatory mechanism that prevents exposure of the active site until assembly is complete. More generally, the results highlight the potential of mass spectrometry to add crucial insight into the structural organization of an endogenous, wild-type complex.
Molecular Switch for Alternative Conformations of the HIV-1 V3 Region: Implications for Phenotype Conversion
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Sep, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16966601
HIV-1 coreceptor usage plays a critical role in virus tropism and pathogenesis. A switch from CCR5- to CXCR4-using viruses occurs during the course of HIV-1 infection and correlates with subsequent disease progression. A single mutation at position 322 within the V3 loop of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp120, from a negatively to a positively charged residue, was found to be sufficient to switch an R5 virus to an X4 virus. In this study, the NMR structure of the V3 region of an R5 strain, HIV-1(JR-FL), in complex with an HIV-1-neutralizing antibody was determined. Positively charged and negatively charged residues at positions 304 and 322, respectively, oppose each other in the beta-hairpin structure, enabling a favorable electrostatic interaction that stabilizes the postulated R5 conformation. Comparison of the R5 conformation with the postulated X4 conformation of the V3 region (positively charged residue at position 322) reveals that electrostatic repulsion between residues 304 and 322 in X4 strains triggers the observed one register shift in the N-terminal strand of the V3 region. We posit that electrostatic interactions at the base of the V3 beta-hairpin can modulate the conformation and thereby influence the phenotype switch. In addition, we suggest that interstrand cation-pi interactions between positively charged and aromatic residues induce the switch to the X4 conformation as a result of the S306R mutation. The existence of three pairs of identical (or very similar) amino acids in the V3 C-terminal strand facilitates the switch between the R5 and X4 conformations.
Plant Transformation by Agrobacterium Tumefaciens: Modulation of Single-stranded DNA-VirE2 Complex Assembly by VirE1
The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Feb, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17060320
Agrobacterium tumefaciens infects plant cells by the transfer of DNA. A key factor in this process is the bacterial virulence protein VirE2, which associates stoichiometrically with the transported single-stranded (ss) DNA molecule (T-strand). As observed in vitro by transmission electron microscopy, VirE2-ssDNA readily forms an extended helical complex with a structure well suited to the tasks of DNA protection and nuclear import. Here we have elucidated the role of the specific molecular chaperone VirE1 in regulating VireE2-VirE2 and VirE2-ssDNA interactions. VirE2 alone formed functional filamentous aggregates capable of ssDNA binding. In contrast, co-expression with VirE1 yielded monodisperse VirE1-VirE2 complexes. Cooperative binding of VirE2 to ssDNA released VirE1, resulting in a controlled formation mechanism for the helical complex that is further promoted by macromolecular crowding. Based on this in vitro evidence, we suggest that the constrained volume of the VirB channel provides a natural site for the exchange of VirE2 binding from VirE1 to the T-strand.
Annual Review of Biochemistry. 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17328674
The fact that ions of macromolecular complexes produced by electrospray ionization can be maintained intact in a mass spectrometer has stimulated exciting new lines of research. In this review we chart the progress of this research from the observation of simple homo-oligomers to complex heterogeneous macromolecular assemblies of mega-Dalton proportions. The applications described herein not only confirm the status of mass spectrometry (MS) as a structural biology approach to complement X-ray analysis or electron microscopy, but also highlight unique attributes of the methodology. This is exemplified in studies of the biogenesis of macromolecular complexes and in the exchange of subunits between macromolecular complexes. Moreover, recent successes in revealing the overall subunit architecture of complexes are set to promote MS from a complementary approach to a structural biology tool in its own right.
Nature. Apr, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17410169
Auxin is a pivotal plant hormone that controls many aspects of plant growth and development. Perceived by a small family of F-box proteins including transport inhibitor response 1 (TIR1), auxin regulates gene expression by promoting SCF ubiquitin-ligase-catalysed degradation of the Aux/IAA transcription repressors, but how the TIR1 F-box protein senses and becomes activated by auxin remains unclear. Here we present the crystal structures of the Arabidopsis TIR1-ASK1 complex, free and in complexes with three different auxin compounds and an Aux/IAA substrate peptide. These structures show that the leucine-rich repeat domain of TIR1 contains an unexpected inositol hexakisphosphate co-factor and recognizes auxin and the Aux/IAA polypeptide substrate through a single surface pocket. Anchored to the base of the TIR1 pocket, auxin binds to a partially promiscuous site, which can also accommodate various auxin analogues. Docked on top of auxin, the Aux/IAA substrate peptide occupies the rest of the TIR1 pocket and completely encloses the hormone-binding site. By filling in a hydrophobic cavity at the protein interface, auxin enhances the TIR1-substrate interactions by acting as a 'molecular glue'. Our results establish the first structural model of a plant hormone receptor.
Mass Spectrometry Reveals the Missing Links in the Assembly Pathway of the Bacterial 20 S Proteasome
The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Jun, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17430901
The 20 S proteasome is an essential proteolytic particle, responsible for degrading short-lived and abnormal intracellular proteins. The 700-kDa assembly is comprised of 14 alpha-type and 14 beta-type subunits, which form a cylindrical architecture composed of four stacked heptameric rings (alpha7beta7beta7alpha7). The formation of the 20 S proteasome is a complex process that involves a cascade of folding, assembly, and processing events. To date, the understanding of the assembly pathway is incomplete due to the experimental challenges of capturing short-lived intermediates. In this study, we have applied a real-time mass spectrometry approach to capture transient species along the assembly pathway of the 20 S proteasome from Rhodococcus erythropolis. In the course of assembly, we observed formation of an early alpha/beta-heterodimer as well as an unprocessed half-proteasome particle. Formation of mature holoproteasomes occurred in concert with the disappearance of half-proteasomes. We also analyzed the beta-subunits before and during assembly and reveal that those with longer propeptides are incorporated into half- and full proteasomes more rapidly than those that are heavily truncated. To characterize the preholoproteasome, formed by docking of two unprocessed half-proteasomes and not observed during assembly of wild type subunits, we trapped this intermediate using a beta-subunit mutational variant. In summary, this study provides evidence for transient intermediates in the assembly pathway and reveals detailed insight into the cleavage sites of the propeptide.
Journal of the American Chemical Society. Jul, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17585761
We have compared micelles, reverse micelles, and reverse micelles encapsulating myoglobin using electrospray mass spectrometry. To enable a direct comparison, the same surfactant (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB)) was used in each case and micelle formation was controlled by manipulating the aqueous and organic phases. Tandem mass spectra of the resulting micelle preparations reveal differences in the ions that dissociate: those that dissociate from regular micelles have undergone >90% exchange of bromide ions from the headgroup with acetate ions from bulk solvent. By contrast, for reverse micelles, ions are detected without exchange of bromide ions from the headgroup, consistent with their protection in the core of the micellar structure. Tandem mass spectra of micelles and reverse micelles reveal polydispersed assemblies containing several hundred CTAB molecules, indicating the coalescence of the micellar systems to form large assemblies. For reverse micelles incorporating myoglobin, spectra are consistent with one holo myogolobin molecule in association with approximately 270 CTAB molecules. Overall, therefore, our results show that the solution-phase orientation of surfactants is preserved during electrospray and are consistent with interactions being maintained between surfactants and an encapsulated protein.
Stoichiometry and Localization of the Stator Subunits E and G in Thermus Thermophilus H+-ATPase/synthase
The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Feb, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18055467
Proton-translocating ATPases are central to biological energy conversion. Although eukaryotes contain specialized F-ATPases for ATP synthesis and V-ATPases for proton pumping, eubacteria and archaea typically contain only one enzyme for both tasks. Although many eubacteria contain ATPases of the F-type, some eubacteria and all known archaea contain ATPases of the A-type. A-ATPases are closely related to V-ATPases but simpler in design. Although the nucleotide-binding and transmembrane rotor subunits share sequence homology between A-, V-, and F-ATPases, the peripheral stalk is strikingly different in sequence, composition, and stoichiometry. We have analyzed the peripheral stalk of Thermus thermophilus A-ATPase by using phage display-derived single-domain antibody fragments in combination with electron microscopy and tandem mass spectrometry. Our data provide the first direct evidence for the existence of two peripheral stalks in the A-ATPase, each one composed of heterodimers of subunits E and G arranged symmetrically around the soluble A(1) domain. To our knowledge, this is the first description of phage display-derived antibody selection against a multi-subunit membrane protein used for purification and single particle analysis by electron microscopy. It is also the first instance of the derivation of subunit stoichiometry by tandem mass spectrometry to an intact membrane protein complex. Both approaches could be applicable to the structural analysis of other membrane protein complexes.
Accounts of Chemical Research. May, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18314965
Proteomic studies have yielded detailed lists of protein components. Relatively little is known, however, of interactions between proteins or of their spatial arrangement. To bridge this gap, we are developing a mass spectrometry approach based on intact protein complexes. By studying intact complexes, we show that we are able to not only determine the stoichiometry of all subunits present but also deduce interaction maps and topological arrangements of subunits. To construct an interaction network, we use tandem mass spectrometry to define peripheral subunits and partial denaturation in solution to generate series of subcomplexes. These subcomplexes are subsequently assigned using tandem mass spectrometry. To facilitate this assignment process, we have developed an iterative search algorithm (SUMMIT) to both assign protein subcomplexes and generate protein interaction networks. This software package not only allows us to construct the subunit architecture of protein assemblies but also allows us to explore the limitations and potential of our approach. Using series of hypothetical complexes, generated at random from protein assemblies containing between six and fourteen subunits, we highlight the significance of tandem mass spectrometry for defining subunits present. We also demonstrate the importance of pairwise interactions and the optimal numbers of subcomplexes required to assign networks with up to fourteen subunits. To illustrate application of our approach, we describe the overall architecture of two endogenous protein assemblies isolated from yeast at natural expression levels, the 19S proteasome lid and the RNA exosome. In constructing our models, we did not consider previous electron microscopy images but rather deduced the subunit architecture from series of subcomplexes and our network algorithm. The results show that the proteasome lid complex consists of a bicluster with two tetrameric lobes. The exosome lid, by contrast, is a six-membered ring with three additional bridging subunits that confer stability to the ring and with a large subunit located at the base. Significantly, by combining data from MS and homology modeling, we were able to construct an atomic model of the yeast exosome. In summary, the architectural and atomic models of both protein complexes described here have been produced in advance of high-resolution structural data and as such provide an initial model for testing hypotheses and planning future experiments. In the case of the yeast exosome, the atomic model is validated by comparison with the atomic structure from X-ray diffraction of crystals of the reconstituted human exosome, which is homologous to that of the yeast. Overall therefore this mass spectrometry and homology modeling approach has given significant insight into the structure of two previously intractable protein complexes and as such has broad application in structural biology.
Structure (London, England : 1993). Jan, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19141280
The COP9 signalosome (CSN) is an eight-subunit protein complex that is found in all eukaryotes. Accumulating evidence indicates its diverse biological functions that are often linked to ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis. Here we applied an emerging mass spectrometry approach to gain insight into the structure of the CSN complex. Our results indicate that the catalytically active human complex, reconstituted in vitro, is composed of a single copy of each of the eight subunits. By forming a total of 35 subcomplexes, we are able to build a comprehensive interaction map that shows two symmetrical modules, Csn1/2/3/8 and Csn4/5/6/7, connected by interactions between Csn1-Csn6. Overall the stable modules and multiple subcomplexes observed here are in agreement with the "mini-CSN" complexes reported previously. This suggests that the propensity of the CSN complex to change and adapt its subunit composition might underlie its ability to perform multiple functions in vivo.
The Journal of Biological Chemistry. May, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19237538
The Clp protease is conserved among eubacteria and most eukaryotes, and uses ATP to drive protein substrate unfolding and translocation into a chamber of sequestered proteolytic active sites. The main constitutive Clp protease in photosynthetic organisms has evolved into a functionally essential and structurally intricate enzyme. The model Clp protease from the cyanobacterium Synechococcus consists of the HSP100 molecular chaperone ClpC and a mixed proteolytic core comprised of two distinct subunits, ClpP3 and ClpR. We have purified the ClpP3/R complex, the first for a Clp proteolytic core comprised of heterologous subunits. The ClpP3/R complex has unique functional and structural features, consisting of twin heptameric rings each with an identical ClpP3(3)ClpR(4) configuration. As predicted by its lack of an obvious catalytic triad, the ClpR subunit is shown to be proteolytically inactive. Interestingly, extensive modification to ClpR to restore proteolytic activity to this subunit showed that its presence in the core complex is not rate-limiting for the overall proteolytic activity of the ClpCP3/R protease. Altogether, the ClpP3/R complex shows remarkable similarities to the 20 S core of the proteasome, revealing a far greater degree of convergent evolution than previously thought between the development of the Clp protease in photosynthetic organisms and that of the eukaryotic 26 S proteasome.
TAF4/4b X TAF12 Displays a Unique Mode of DNA Binding and is Required for Core Promoter Function of a Subset of Genes
The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Sep, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19635797
The major core promoter-binding factor in polymerase II transcription machinery is TFIID, a complex consisting of TBP, the TATA box-binding protein, and 13 to 14 TBP-associated factors (TAFs). Previously we found that the histone H2A-like TAF paralogs TAF4 and TAF4b possess DNA-binding activity. Whether TAF4/TAF4b DNA binding directs TFIID to a specific core promoter element or facilitates TFIID binding to established core promoter elements is not known. Here we analyzed the mode of TAF4b.TAF12 DNA binding and show that this complex binds DNA with high affinity. The DNA length required for optimal binding is approximately 70 bp. Although the complex displays a weak sequence preference, the nucleotide composition is less important than the length of the DNA for high affinity binding. Comparative expression profiling of wild-type and a DNA-binding mutant of TAF4 revealed common core promoter features in the down-regulated genes that include a TATA-box and an Initiator. Further examination of the PEL98 gene from this group showed diminished Initiator activity and TFIID occupancy in TAF4 DNA-binding mutant cells. These findings suggest that DNA binding by TAF4/4b-TAF12 facilitates the association of TFIID with the core promoter of a subset of genes.
Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry. Apr, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20116283
Physical interactions between proteins and the formation of stable complexes form the basis of most biological functions. Therefore, a critical step toward understanding the integrated workings of the cell is to determine the structure of protein complexes, and reveal how their structural organization dictates function. Studying the three-dimensional organization of protein assemblies, however, represents a major challenge for structural biologists, due to the large size of the complexes, their heterogeneous composition, their flexibility, and their asymmetric structure. In the last decade, mass spectrometry has proven to be a valuable tool for analyzing such noncovalent complexes. Here, I illustrate the breadth of structural information that can be obtained from this approach, and the steps taken to elucidate the stoichiometry, topology, packing, dynamics, and shape of protein complexes. In addition, I illustrate the challenges that lie ahead, and the future directions toward which the field might be heading.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Apr, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20368465
The primary sequence of proteins usually dictates a single tertiary and quaternary structure. However, certain proteins undergo reversible backbone rearrangements. Such metamorphic proteins provide a means of facilitating the evolution of new folds and architectures. However, because natural folds emerged at the early stages of evolution, the potential role of metamorphic intermediates in mediating evolutionary transitions of structure remains largely unexplored. We evolved a set of new proteins based on approximately 100 amino acid fragments derived from tachylectin-2--a monomeric, 236 amino acids, five-bladed beta-propeller. Their structures reveal a unique pentameric assembly and novel beta-propeller structures. Although identical in sequence, the oligomeric subunits adopt two, or even three, different structures that together enable the pentameric assembly of two propellers connected via a small linker. Most of the subunits adopt a wild-type-like structure within individual five-bladed propellers. However, the bridging subunits exhibit domain swaps and asymmetric strand exchanges that allow them to complete the two propellers and connect them. Thus, the modular and metamorphic nature of these subunits enabled dramatic changes in tertiary and quaternary structure, while maintaining the lectin function. These oligomers therefore comprise putative intermediates via which beta-propellers can evolve from smaller elements. Our data also suggest that the ability of one sequence to equilibrate between different structures can be evolutionary optimized, thus facilitating the emergence of new structures.
A Method for Removing Effects of Nonspecific Binding on the Distribution of Binding Stoichiometries: Application to Mass Spectroscopy Data
Biophysical Journal. Sep, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20816078
There is often an interest in knowing, for a given ligand concentration, how many protein molecules have one, two, three, etc. ligands bound in a specific manner. This is a question that cannot be addressed using conventional ensemble techniques. Here, a mathematical method is presented for separating specific from nonspecific binding in nonensemble studies. The method provides a way to determine the distribution of specific binding stoichiometries at any ligand concentration when using nonensemble (e.g., single-molecule) methods. The applicability of the method is demonstrated for ADP binding to creatine kinase using mass spectroscopy data. A major advantage of our method, which can be applied to any protein-ligand system, is that no previous information regarding the mechanism of ligand interaction is required.
Nature. Nov, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20927106
Jasmonates are a family of plant hormones that regulate plant growth, development and responses to stress. The F-box protein CORONATINE INSENSITIVE 1 (COI1) mediates jasmonate signalling by promoting hormone-dependent ubiquitylation and degradation of transcriptional repressor JAZ proteins. Despite its importance, the mechanism of jasmonate perception remains unclear. Here we present structural and pharmacological data to show that the true Arabidopsis jasmonate receptor is a complex of both COI1 and JAZ. COI1 contains an open pocket that recognizes the bioactive hormone (3R,7S)-jasmonoyl-l-isoleucine (JA-Ile) with high specificity. High-affinity hormone binding requires a bipartite JAZ degron sequence consisting of a conserved α-helix for COI1 docking and a loop region to trap the hormone in its binding pocket. In addition, we identify a third critical component of the jasmonate co-receptor complex, inositol pentakisphosphate, which interacts with both COI1 and JAZ adjacent to the ligand. Our results unravel the mechanism of jasmonate perception and highlight the ability of F-box proteins to evolve as multi-component signalling hubs.
Analytical Chemistry. Nov, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20964410
Ion-mobility mass spectrometry is emerging as a powerful tool for studying the structures of less established protein assemblies. The method provides simultaneous measurement of the mass and size of intact protein assemblies, providing information not only on the subunit composition and network of interactions but also on the overall topology and shape of protein complexes. However, how the experimental parameters affect the measured collision cross-sections remains elusive. Here, we present an extensive systematic study on a range of proteins and protein complexes with differing sizes, structures, and oligomerization states. Our results indicate that the experimental parameters, T-wave height and velocity, influence the determined collision cross-section independently and in opposite directions. Increasing the T-wave height leads to compaction of the protein structures, while higher T-wave velocities lead to their expansion. These different effects are attributed to differences in energy transmission and dissipation rates. Moreover, by analyzing proteins in their native and denatured states, we could identify the lower and upper boundaries of the collision cross-section, which reflect the "maximally packed" and "ultimately unfolded" states. Together, our results provide grounds for selecting optimal experimental parameters that will enable preservation of the nativelike conformation, providing structural information on uncharacterized protein assemblies.
IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging. Mar, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21118769
In this study we present an efficient image categorization and retrieval system applied to medical image databases, in particular large radiograph archives. The methodology is based on local patch representation of the image content, using a "bag of visual words" approach. We explore the effects of various parameters on system performance, and show best results using dense sampling of simple features with spatial content, and a nonlinear kernel-based support vector machine (SVM) classifier. In a recent international competition the system was ranked first in discriminating orientation and body regions in X-ray images. In addition to organ-level discrimination, we show an application to pathology-level categorization of chest X-ray data, the most popular examination in radiology. The system discriminates between healthy and pathological cases, and is also shown to successfully identify specific pathologies in a set of chest radiographs taken from a routine hospital examination. This is a first step towards similarity-based categorization, which has a major clinical implications for computer-assisted diagnostics.
Assessment of Resistance Pathways Induced in Arabidopsis Thaliana by Hypovirulent Rhizoctonia Spp. Isolates
Phytopathology. Jul, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21385012
Certain hypovirulent Rhizoctonia isolates effectively protect plants against well-known important pathogens among Rhizoctonia isolates as well as against other pathogens. The modes of action involved in this protection include resistance induced in plants by colonization with hypovirulent Rhizoctonia isolates. The qualifications of hypovirulent isolates (efficient protection, rapid growth, effective colonization of the plants, and easy application in the field) provide a significant potential for the development of a commercial microbial preparation for application as biological control agents. Understanding of the modes of action involved in protection is important for improving the various aspects of development and application of such preparations. The hypothesis of the present study is that resistance pathways such as systemic acquired resistance (SAR), induced systemic resistance (ISR), and phytoalexins are induced in plants colonized by the protective hypovirulent Rhizoctonia isolates and are involved in the protection of these plants against pathogenic Rhizoctonia. Changes in protection levels of Arabidopsis thaliana mutants defective in defense-related genes (npr1-1, npr1-2, ndr1-1, npr1-2/ndr1-1, cim6, wrky70.1, snc1, and pbs3-1) and colonized with the hypovirulent Rhizoctonia isolates compared with that of the wild type (wt) plants colonized with the same isolates confirmed the involvement of induced resistance in the protection of the plants against pathogenic Rhizoctonia spp., although protection levels of mutants constantly expressing SAR genes (snc1 and cim6) were lower than that of wt plants. Plant colonization by hypovirulent Rhizoctonia isolates induced elevated expression levels of the following genes: PR5 (SAR), PDF1.2, LOX2, LOX1, CORI3 (ISR), and PAD3 (phytoalexin production), which indicated that all of these pathways were induced in the hypovirulent-colonized plants. When SAR or ISR were induced separately in plants after application of the chemical inducers Bion and methyl jasmonate, respectively, only ISR activation resulted in a higher protection level against the pathogen, although the protection was minor. In conclusion, plant colonization with the protective hypovirulent Rhizoctonia isolates significantly induced genes involved in the SAR, ISR, and phytoalexin production pathways. In the studied system, SAR probably did not play a major role in the mode of protection against pathogenic Rhizoctonia spp.; however, it may play a more significant role in protection against other pathogens.
Postharvest Dark Skin Spots in Potato Tubers Are an Oversuberization Response to Rhizoctonia Solani Infection
Phytopathology. Apr, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21391824
Israeli farmers export 250,000 tons of potato tubers annually, ≈40,000 tons of which are harvested early, before skin set. In recent years, there has been an increase in the occurrence of dark skin spots on early-harvested potato tubers ('Nicola') packed in large bags containing peat to retain moisture. The irregular necrotic spots form during storage and overseas transport. Characterization of the conditions required for symptom development indicated that bag temperature after packing is 11 to 13°C and it reaches the target temperature (8°C) only 25 days postharvest. This slow decrease in temperature may promote the establishment of pathogen infection. Isolates from typical lesions were identified as Rhizoctonia spp., and Koch's postulates were completed with 25 isolates by artificial inoculation performed at 13 to 14°C. Phylogenetic analysis, using the internal transcribed spacer sequences (ITS1 and ITS2) of rDNA genes, assigned three isolates to anastomosis group 3 of Rhizoctonia solani. Inoculation of wounded tubers with mycelium of these R. solani isolates resulted in an oversuberization response in the infected area. With isolate Rh17 of R. solani, expression of the suberin biosynthesis-related genes StKCS6 and CYP86A33 increased 6.8- and 3.4-fold, respectively, 24 h postinoculation, followed by a 2.9-fold increase in POP_A, a gene associated with wound-induced suberization, expression 48 h postinoculation, compared with the noninoculated tubers. We suggest that postharvest dark spot disease is an oversuberization response to R. solani of AG-3 infection that occurs prior to tuber skin set.
Assessment of Cartilage Repair After Chondrocyte Transplantation with a Fibrin-hyaluronan Matrix - Correlation of Morphological MRI, Biochemical T2 Mapping and Clinical Outcome
European Journal of Radiology. Mar, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21458942
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate change over time of clinical scores, morphological MRI of cartilage appearance and quantitative T2 values after implantation with BioCart™II, a second generation matrix-assisted implantation system. METHODS: Thirty-one patients were recruited 6-49 months post surgery for cartilage defect in the femoral condyle. Subjects underwent MRI (morphological and T2-mapping sequences) and completed the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) questionnaire. MRI scans were scored using the MR Observation of Cartilage Repair Tissue (MOCART) system and cartilage T2-mapping values were registered. Analysis included correlation of IKDC scores, MOCART and T2 evaluation with each other, with implant age and with previous surgical intervention history. RESULTS: IKDC score significantly correlated with MOCART score (r=-0.39, p=0.031), inversely correlated with previous interventions (r=-0.39, p=0.034) and was significantly higher in patients with longer follow-up time (p=0.0028). MOCART score was slight, but not significantly higher in patients with longer term implants (p=0.199). T2 values were significantly lower in patients with longer duration implants (p<0.001). This trend was repeated in patients with previous interventions, although to a lesser extent. CONCLUSIONS: Significant improvement with time from BioCart™II implantation can be expected by IKDC scoring and MRI T2-mapping values. Patients with previous knee operations can also benefit from this procedure.
Skeletal Radiology. Oct, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21484325
To evaluate whether the presence of a feeding vessel in proximity to osteoid osteomas of long bones on multidetector CT (MDCT) can be an adjuvant clue for the diagnosis of osteoid osteoma.
Chemical Society Reviews. Jul, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21547331
Precise knowledge of the three-dimensional structure of a protein is critical, if we are to understand its biological role and mode of action. However, today it is becoming increasingly clear that dissecting the protein's structural architecture is not enough: a complete description of biomolecular activity must also include the dimension of time. Protein motion and dynamics are crucial for protein stability and reactivity. A range of techniques have been developed for probing dynamic processes. In this tutorial review, we focus on one of these approaches--structural mass spectrometry (MS). MS has the ability to capture functional conformational transitions in the slow time regime, from a few milliseconds to hours. The power of this approach lies not only in its sensitivity and speed of analysis, but also in the fact that it is a non-ensemble technique. Thus, within a single spectrum, the entire distribution of co-existing states can be resolved. In discussing the challenges, advantages and limitations of the field, as well as future directions, we highlight the applicability of MS for quantitative monitoring of structural kinetics. In particular, we describe the array of MS-based strategies that are available for capturing protein folding, enzymatic reactions, ligand interactions, subunit exchange and biogenesis pathways.
Current Opinion in Structural Biology. Oct, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21917446
Molecular BioSystems. Jan, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22027891
Based on software prediction, intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) are widely represented in animal cells where they play important instructive roles. Despite the predictive power of the available software programs we nevertheless need simple experimental tools to validate the predictions. IDPs were reported to be preferentially thermo-resistant and also are susceptible to degradation by the 20S proteasome. Analysis of a set of proteins revealed that thermo-resistant proteins are preferred 20S proteasome substrates. Positive correlations are evident between the percent of protein disorder and the level of thermal stability and 20S proteasomal susceptibility. The data obtained from these two assays do not fully overlap but in combination provide a more reliable experimental IDP definition. The correlation was more significant when the IUPred was used as the IDPs predicting software. We demonstrate in this work a simple experimental strategy to improve IDPs identification.