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In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (85)
- Sleep & Breathing = Schlaf & Atmung
- Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
- Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
- Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
- International Journal for Parasitology
- Environmental Management
- The European Journal of Neuroscience
- Clinical & Experimental Optometry : Journal of the Australian Optometrical Association
- Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
- International Journal of Cancer. Journal International Du Cancer
- The New England Journal of Medicine
- Developmental Biology
- The Israel Journal of Psychiatry and Related Sciences
- Eating Behaviors
- Clinical Psychology Review
- The European Journal of Neuroscience
- Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
- Diabetes Care
- Psychiatry Research
- Cancer Journal (Sudbury, Mass.)
- Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
- Plant & Cell Physiology
- Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
- The Journal of the Royal Society for the Promotion of Health
- Langmuir : the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
- The Journal of Biological Chemistry
- The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
- The Journal of Organic Chemistry
- Conservation Biology : the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
- Behaviour Research and Therapy
- Behaviour Research and Therapy
- Behaviour Research and Therapy
- The American Journal of Cardiology
- The International Journal of Eating Disorders
- American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
- Frontiers in Bioscience : a Journal and Virtual Library
- The European Journal of Neuroscience
- The Annals of Thoracic Surgery
- Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia = Journal Canadien D'anesthésie
- Environmental Health Perspectives
- Clinical Interventions in Aging
- Annals of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore
- The International Journal of Eating Disorders
- The International Journal of Eating Disorders
- Chemical Communications (Cambridge, England)
- Acta Crystallographica. Section B, Structural Science
- The British Journal of Clinical Psychology / the British Psychological Society
- Journal of Endodontics
- Protein Science : a Publication of the Protein Society
- Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
- Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
- Bioscience Trends
- PloS One
- The Mount Sinai Journal of Medicine, New York
- The Journal of Biological Chemistry
- Ecology of Food and Nutrition
- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
- Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
- Journal of Chromatography. A
- Journal of Wildlife Diseases
- European Journal of Public Health
- Journal of Bone and Mineral Research : the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
- Maternal and Child Health Journal
- Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
- Maternal & Child Nutrition
- Maternal & Child Nutrition
- The Journal of Clinical Investigation
- Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy
- Eating Behaviors
- Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
- Journal of Advanced Nursing
- Revista Española De Geriatría Y Gerontología
- Breastfeeding Medicine : the Official Journal of the Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine
- Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
- Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
- Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy
- Psychology and Aging
- International Journal of Food Microbiology
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Articles by Michelle Lee in JoVE
Создание Play МРТ ребенка - Детской протокол нейровизуализации, Руководящие принципы и процедуры
Nora M. Raschle1,2, Michelle Lee1, Roman Buechler1, Joanna A. Christodoulou3, Maria Chang1, Monica Vakil1, Patrice L. Stering1, Nadine Gaab1,3,4
1Department of Developmental Medicine, Children’s Hospital Boston, 2Department of Neuropsychology, University of Zurich, 3Graduate School of Education, Harvard, 4Harvard Medical School
Несмотря на увеличение использования структурной и функциональной магнитно-резонансной томографии (МРТ) в организме человека, изучение молодых педиатрической популяции остается проблемой. Мы представляем практический, шаг за шагом, видео-протоколов, включая руководство для практикующих врачей и исследователей, намереваясь выполнить (е) МРТ у маленьких детей.
Other articles by Michelle Lee on PubMed
Sleep & Breathing = Schlaf & Atmung. 1999 | Pubmed ID: 11898098
Seventeen patients with sleep apnea syndrome [SAS, Respiratory Disturbance Index (RDI) = 12-85] were compared with 16 normal controls (RDI < 7) on neuropsychological tests of executive functions, a domain in which SAS patients have been suggested to have deficits. SAS patients demonstrated greater deficits in the retrieval of information from semantic memory (Controlled Oral Word Association task) and in shifting responses in the face of error (Wisconsin Card Sort Test), but differences in working memory were not observed. Eliciting deficits in cognitive executive functions in SAS may require more sensitive measures than are typically used in neuropsychiatric research.
Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience. 2000 | Pubmed ID: 11490076
Purpose: The severe functional and sensory deficits seen following injury to peripheral nerves makes facilitation of nerve regeneration a primary goal of the reconstructive surgeon. This study examines whether daily administration of FK506 or Cyclosporin A expedites peripheral nerve regeneration following neurotmetic injury in a rat model Methods: Inbred Buffalo rats were randomized to three experimental groups. Group I rats served as untreated controls. Rats in groups II and III received daily subcutaneous CsA (5 mg/kg), and FK506 (1 mg/kg), respectively. Each animal underwent unilateral posterior tibial nerve transection with immediate epineurial reapproximation. Functional recovery of the injured limb was assessed by serial walking track analysis. Nerve regeneration was assessed histomorphometrically via light microscopy. Results: Return of hindlimb function in control animals occurred at 32 days post injury. CsA and FK506-treated transection animals recovered at 26 and 18 days post injury, respectively. Statistically significant greater fiber density and percent neural tissue were seen in FK506- treated animals compared to control animals four weeks post transection. Conclusions: This data suggest that the daily systemic administration of both CsA and FK506 accelerate the rate of functional regeneration, following neurotmetic injuries in tbc rat model. FK506's effect on nerve growth is significantly greater than that of CsA.
Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior. Jan-Feb, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 11812517
Selective dopamine D(2) antogonists increase meal size and decrease the rate of feeding within a meal. Three experiments investigated the extent to which the atypical antipsychotics, clozapine and olanzapine, and the prototypical antipsychotic, haloperidol, affected meal size and feeding rate. Microstructural analyses of meal patterning were made over a range of drug doses administered to free feeding male Lister hooded rats. Haloperidol and clozapine produced a short-term increase in food intake. Haloperidol (0.05-0.2 mg/kg) enhanced meal size (maximal at 0.1 mg/kg) and reduced feeding rate (monotonic decrease with increasing dose). Neither clozapine (1-10 mg/kg) nor olanzapine (0.3-3 mg/kg) enhanced meal size, although both drugs produced similar reductions in feeding rate to haloperidol. These data suggest that enhancement of meal size may be correlated with a high level of extrapyramidal side effects in an antipsychotic drug. The absence of an increase in meal size by two atypical compounds suggests that the increase in body weight associated with clinical treatment with these drugs cannot be modelled by acute stimulation of meal size in the rat.
Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior. Apr, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 11888560
The studies reported here examined the role of the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)(2C) receptor subtype in the control of ingestive behaviour in mice. Behavioural satiety sequence (BSS) and food intake measurements were taken, comparing the selective 5-HT(2C) receptor agonist (S)-2-(6-chloro-5-fluoro-indol-l-yl)-l-methylethylamine hydrochloride (Ro 60-0175; 1.0, 3.0 and 10.0 mg/kg) and D-fenfluramine (3.0 mg/kg). Ro 60-0175 produced a dose-dependent decrease in food intake. The effects of Ro 60-0175 (3.0 mg/kg) on the BSS were similar to the hypophagic effects of D-fenfluramine (3.0 mg/kg). In a second experiment, the specific effects on feeding produced by Ro 60-0175 (5.6 mg/kg) were attenuated by pretreatment with the selective 5-HT(2C) receptor antagonist 6-chloro-5-methyl-1-[2(2-methylpyridyl-3-oxy)-pyrid-5-yl carbamoyl] indoline (SB 242084; 0.5 mg/kg). The 5-HT(1B/2C) receptor agonist 1-(m-chlorophenyl)piperazine (mCPP; 3 mg/kg) also produced a substantial decrease in food intake, which was attenuated by SB 242084 (0.5 mg/kg). A dose of the selective 5-HT(1B/1D) antagonist 2'-methyl-4'(5-methyl-[1,2,4]oxadiazol-3-yl)-biphenyl-4-carboxylic acid [4-(5-methoxy-3-(4-methyl-piperazin-1-yl)-phenyl]amide (GR 127935; 3.0 mg/kg) that successfully attenuated the action of the 5-HT(1B) agonist 5-methoxy-3(1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridin-4-yl)-1H-indole (RU 24969; 5.0 mg/kg) failed to attenuate mCPP-induced hypophagia. These data suggest that Ro 60-0175- and mCPP-induced hypophagia in mice are mediated via activation of 5-HT(2C) receptors and that stimulation of 5-HT(1B) receptors plays only a minor role in mCPP-induced hypophagia.
Biochemical Characterisation of the 56 and 82 KDa Immunodominant Gametocyte Antigens from Eimeria Maxima
International Journal for Parasitology. Jun, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 12062551
Two immunodominant gametocyte antigens from Eimeria maxima with M(r) 56 kDa and M(r) 82 kDa have been identified previously as potential candidates for inclusion in a recombinant subunit vaccine against coccidiosis in poultry. Here, these proteins have been biochemically characterised, immunolocalised within the parasite, and sequences for their amino termini determined. These antigens co-purify by affinity chromatography suggesting an interaction with each other. However, separation of the proteins by sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) in the absence of beta-mercaptoethanol did not reveal the presence of inter-chain disulphide bonds. The true masses of the 56 and 82 kDa antigens are 52450 and 62450 Da, respectively, as determined by mass spectrometry. TX-114 separations suggested that they exist, in part, as soluble proteins within the parasite, and immunolocalisation studies indicated that they were found in the wall forming bodies of macrogametocytes. Separation of the proteins by 2D SDS-PAGE revealed that they are acidic in nature and heterogeneous in charge. Cleavage by neuraminidase and O-glycosidase indicated that the presence of O-linked glycans contributed to some of the charge microheterogeneity of both proteins. The absence of these O-glycans however, did not abolish antibody recognition, suggesting that the development of a recombinant subunit vaccine is possible. A more extensive investigation of the carbohydrate moieties of these proteins revealed that they also possess glucose, fucose, mannose and galactose. There was no evidence for the presence of N-linked glycans. The 56 and 82 kDa antigens were separated from a mixture of proteins in a crude gametocyte lysate by 2D SDS-PAGE, the proteins isolated, and the N-terminus amino acid sequence determined. They showed no homology to each other at the N-terminus, or to any other previously characterised protein. Characterisation of these novel proteins has provided further insights into the molecular mechanisms of gametocyte differentiation in E. maxima.
Environmental Management. Apr, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 12071506
Basic information on where nonnative plant species have successfully invaded is lacking. We assessed the vulnerability of 22 vegetation types (25 sets of four plots in nine study areas) to nonnative plant invasions in the north-central United States. In general, habitats with high native species richness were more heavily invaded than species-poor habitats, low-elevation areas were more invaded than high-elevation areas, and riparian zones were more invaded than nearby upland sites. For the 100 1000-m2 plots (across all vegetation types), 50% of the variation in nonnative species richness was explained by longitude, latitude, native plant species richness, soil total percentage nitrogen, and mean maximum July temperature (n = 100 plots; P < 0.001). At the vegetation-type scale (n = 25 sets of four 1000-m2 plots/type), 64% of the variation in nonnative species richness was explained by native plant species richness, elevation, and October to June precipitation (P < 0.001). The foliar cover of nonnative species (log) was strongly positively correlated with the nonnative species richness at the plot scale (r = 0.77, P < 0.001) and vegetation-type scale (r = 0.83, P < 0.001). We concluded that, at the vegetation-type and regional scales in the north-central United States, (1) vegetation types rich in native species are often highly vulnerable to invasion by nonnative plant species; (2) where several nonnative species become established, nonnative species cover can substantially increase; (3) the attributes that maintain high native plant species richness (high light, water, nitrogen, and temperatures) also help maintain nonnative plant species richness; and (4) more care must be taken to preserve native species diversity in highly vulnerable habitats.
5-HT1B Receptors Modulate Components of Satiety in the Rat: Behavioural and Pharmacological Analyses of the Selective Serotonin1B Agonist CP-94,253
Psychopharmacology. Oct, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 12373419
5-HT(1B) receptors are thought to be one of the receptor subtypes that mediate the inhibitory control of serotonin on food intake and satiety.
The European Journal of Neuroscience. Jan, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12534984
Although null mutant ('knockout') mice have provided valuable animal models to complement traditional approaches to psychopharmacology, such animals may also show complex adaptations to the induced mutation. Here we demonstrate that serotonin1B (5-HT1B) receptor knockout (KO) mice show adaptations in serotonin2C (5-HT2C) receptor-mediated functions. They show smaller reductions in food intake and locomotor activity in response to administration of 5-HT2C receptor agonists that are not accounted for by altered drug disposition. These effects are not mimicked by pretreatment of wildtype (WT) mice with a 5-HT1B receptor antagonist showing that they result from a longer term adaptation to the loss of 5-HT1B receptor function and not from a short-term interaction between 5-HT1B- and 5-HT2C-mediated functions. In addition, we show that 5-HT1B receptor KO mice have a lowered hypothalamic c-fos response to the administration of 5-HT2C receptor agonists. These results demonstrate that compensatory adaptations to the constitutive loss of 5-HT1B receptors may be an important determinant of the altered response of 5-HT1B KO mice to a variety of pharmacological challenges.
Clinical & Experimental Optometry : Journal of the Australian Optometrical Association. Jan, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12568648
The importance of early vision care in the prevention and treatment of amblyopia is clear from an abundance of literature on visual development. Optometrists possess the necessary skills to detect and manage amblyogenic factors and thus have an important role to play in paediatric visual assessment and management. The present study investigates the role that optometrists in New South Wales are taking in paediatric vision care and the methods and strategies used in this role.
Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology. Mar, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12616309
Some research has suggested that Jews drink less alcohol than other cultural groups, and may have different beliefs about its use. Differences in beliefs about alcohol, and different patterns of use, may play a role in accounting for cultural and gender variations in depression prevalence. Alcohol may act as an escape route from depression, thus deflating depression rates in certain groups of people, in particular, men from Protestant backgrounds.
Growth Inhibitory Retinoid Effects After Recruitment of Retinoid X Receptor Beta to the Retinoic Acid Receptor Beta Promoter
International Journal of Cancer. Journal International Du Cancer. Jul, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12767074
Nuclear retinoid receptors mediate retinoid effects through tissue-specific, ligand-receptor interactions and subsequent transcriptional regulation of secondary target genes. Retinoic acid receptor beta (RARbeta) is itself a retinoid target gene with a retinoic acid response element (betaRARE) in the 5' untranslated region of the RARbeta2 gene. Altered transcriptional regulation of RARbeta may play a role in human carcinogenesis and the retinoid-responsiveness of malignant cells. Here we used retinoid X receptor-specific antibodies in electrophoretic mobility shift assays to show that the retinoid X receptor beta (RXRbeta) protein was recruited to the betaRARE, after retinoid treatment of retinoid-sensitive neuroblastoma (NB), lung and breast cancer cell lines, but not retinoid-resistant lung and breast cancer cell lines. RXRbeta selectively enhanced retinoid-induced transcriptional activation of the betaRARE. Stable overexpression of RXRalpha and RXRbeta in NB cells resulted in marked growth inhibition and cell death, which increased after retinoid treatment. However, only proteins from the RXRbeta transfectants exhibited specific RXRbeta binding to the betaRARE in vitro and in vivo, enhanced histone acetylation and increased endogenous RARbeta expression. These data indicate that recruitment of RXRbeta to the betaRARE, and consequent induction of endogenous RARbeta expression, is an important component in the retinoid anticancer signal. RXRalpha may also participate in the retinoid signal, but through mechanisms that do not involve RARbeta.
The New England Journal of Medicine. Jun, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12815138
Calcium Transients Triggered by Planar Signals Induce the Expression of ZIC3 Gene During Neural Induction in Xenopus
Developmental Biology. Sep, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 14499648
In intact Xenopus embryos, an increase in intracellular Ca(2+) in the dorsal ectoderm is both necessary and sufficient to commit the ectoderm to a neural fate. However, the relationship between this Ca(2+) increase and the expression of early neural genes is as yet unknown. In intact embryos, studying the interaction between Ca(2+) signaling and gene expression during neural induction is complicated by the fact that the dorsal ectoderm receives both planar and vertical signals from the mesoderm. The experimental system may be simplified by using Keller open-face explants where vertical signals are eliminated, thus allowing the interaction between planar signals, Ca(2+) transients, and neural induction to be explored. We have imaged Ca(2+) dynamics during neural induction in open-face explants by using aequorin. Planar signals generated by the mesoderm induced localized Ca(2+) transients in groups of cells in the ectoderm. These transients resulted from the activation of L-type Ca(2+) channels. The accumulated Ca(2+) pattern correlated with the expression of the early neural precursor gene, Zic3. When the transients were blocked with pharmacological agents, the level of Zic3 expression was dramatically reduced. These data indicate that, in open-face explants, planar signals reproduce Ca(2+) -signaling patterns similar to those observed in the dorsal ectoderm of intact embryos and that the accumulated effect of the localized Ca(2+) transients over time may play a role in controlling the expression pattern of Zic3.
The Israel Journal of Psychiatry and Related Sciences. 2003 | Pubmed ID: 14619676
It has been suggested that Protestant culture has become more tolerant towards suicide in the previous century, while Jewish culture has traditionally not condoned suicide. There have been reports that suicide rates are somewhat lower among Jews than among people of Protestant background. We asked whether there were differences between Jews' and Protestants' beliefs about suicide that might relate to these suggestions and reports. Beliefs about suicide were assessed from the Reasons For Living Inventory (RFL), and with questions about the acceptability of suicide in some circumstances. Self-reported suicide ideation and attempts were also assessed. Some religious-cultural differences were found in beliefs about suicide, but not with regard to ideation and behavior. We discussed the relations between differences in belief, and reported differences in suicide prevalence, and suggested that most of the belief differences were consistent with reported patterns of prevalence. Notably, Jews believed more strongly than Protestants that moral-religious objections to suicide were reasons for living, and that suicide was less acceptable in certain circumstances.
Eating Behaviors. Nov, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 15000963
Previous laboratory studies of disinhibited eating in response to stress have had varied outcomes. Since recent research implies that disinhibited eating might be observed when using the Thre-Factor Eating Questionnaire restraint (TFEQ-R) measure when scores on the TFEQ disinhibition (TFEQ-D) scale were also used, the present study investigated the disinhibitory effects of stress on eating in women classified using both TFEQ-R [high R (HR) vs. low R (LR)] and TFEQ-D [high D (HD) vs. low D (LD)] scores. Twenty women in each restraint (R) or disinhibition (D) combination were tested in either a stress or no-stress condition followed by a test lunch. Women classified as LR-HD consumed more than the other groups in the no-stress condition and reduced intake in response to stress, whereas HR-HD and LR-LD both ate more in the stress than no-stress conditions. HD consumed more sweet foods regardless of stress, whereas HR ate less savoury foods than LR. Mood data confirmed the success of the stress manipulation on affective state and also suggested that HD were more responsive to stress. Overall, these data imply that tendency to overeat, as measured by the TFEQ-D scale, is a better predictor than restraint in predicting short-term eating in response to stress.
Clinical Psychology Review. May, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15081517
Research has supported a link between emotional disorders (such as depression and anxiety) and information processing biases of attention and memory. This article reviews the extension of this approach to such biases in eating disorders. Two paradigms are considered in detail: the modified Stroop task and the dot probe task. In addition, the relative merits and problems associated with both approaches are considered. The limitations of the current research for clinical practice are discussed and suggestions are made for ways in which the research may be made more ecologically valid.
Reduced Hypophagic Effects of D-fenfluramine and the 5-HT2C Receptor Agonist MCPP in 5-HT1B Receptor Knockout Mice
Psychopharmacology. Oct, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15138762
The possible role of compensatory changes in 5-HT2C receptors in the reduced hypophagic action of d-fenfluramine in 5-HT1B knockout (KO) mice was assessed by comparing their response to d-fenfluramine and the 5-HT2C receptor agonist mCPP. In addition we measured 5-HT(2C/A) receptor binding in 5-HT1B KO and wild-type (WT) mice and examined the effects of 5-HT1B receptor antagonists on d-fenfluramine-induced hypophagia in WT mice.
Tonic Regulation of Satiety by 5-HT Receptors in the Mouse: Converging Evidence from Behavioural and C-fos Immunoreactivity Studies?
The European Journal of Neuroscience. Jun, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15182309
Activation of 5-HT(1B) receptors is thought to play an important role in the inhibitory influence of serotonin on feeding behaviour and body weight in mammals. Earlier studies have shown that 5-HT(1B)-knockout (KO) mice eat more and are heavier than wild-type (WT) controls and that the selective 5-HT(1B) receptor agonist CP-94,253 reduces food intake in food-deprived mice. Here we characterize the behavioural effects of both CP-94,253 and the selective 5-HT(1B) receptor antagonist SB224289 on feeding and other behaviours within the behavioural satiety sequence, and also report a c-fos mapping study using CP-94,253. CP-94,253 produced a dose-dependent suppression of food intake with a profile consistent with a selective effect on feeding behaviour. These effects were absent or reduced in 5-HT(1B)-KO mice and in WT mice pretreated with SB224289. SB224289 administered alone enhanced food intake consistent with impaired satiation; a similar effect was apparent in 5-HT(1B)-KO mice compared to WT. CP-94,253 induced c-fos in a range of structures previously implicated in the expression of feeding behaviour. These results suggest that the activation of 5-HT(1B) receptors is an important component of endogenous satiation mechanisms in the mouse.
Therapeutic Drug Monitoring. Dec, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15570186
The aims of the study were (1) to review the clinical application of the higher target plasma lamotrigine (LTG) concentration of 3-14 mg/L previously proposed by our therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) laboratory following our initial study 7 years earlier, and (2) to survey clinical application of LTG assays by experienced neurologists (n = 11) who frequently use LTG. There was a 2.9-fold increase in LTG assay requests received by our laboratory from 1996 to 2003. By comparison, data for the number of LTG prescriptions filled throughout Australia were limited to the 4 years from 1997 to 2000, where a 1.7-fold increase was seen. LTG assay requests increased 1.5-fold in this same 4-year period (r2 = 0.97), indicating that the growth in assay requests paralleled the growth in prescriptions. The distribution of LTG concentrations measured in 2003 was compared with those for 1996 and 1997. This indicated there was a significantly increased (P < 0.01) clinical usage of the higher LTG target range. This result was reinforced by questionnaire responses. Respondents (100% of those surveyed), (1) considered the target LTG concentration (3-14 mg/L) to be one of the primary parameters applied in individualizing LTG dosage regimens, (2) were using target concentrations above 7 mg/L in 75% of patients, and (3) reported dose-limiting toxicities in some (but not all) patients typically at concentrations above, or well above, 13 mg/L. In conclusion, the growth in LTG assay requests received by our laboratory paralleled prescribing of this drug. The clinical use of the higher LTG target concentration range was increased during the 7 years since its introduction, indicating clinical acceptance and therapeutic benefit as well as the absence of long-term adverse effects associated with higher plasma LTG concentrations.
Diabetes Care. Feb, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 14747229
In a recent randomized controlled trial, lowering blood glucose levels to 80-110 mg/dl improved clinical outcomes in critically ill patients. In that study, the insulin infusion protocol (IIP) used to normalize blood glucose levels provided valuable guidelines for adjusting insulin therapy. In our hands, however, ongoing expert supervision was required to effectively manage the insulin infusions. This work describes our early experience with a safe, effective, nurse-implemented IIP that provides detailed insulin dosing instructions and requires minimal physician input.
Psychiatry Research. Jan, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 14972367
Thought disorder has been described as a hallmark feature in both adult and childhood-onset schizophrenia. The nucleus accumbens (NAc) has been repeatedly proposed as a critical station for modulating gating of information flow and processing of information within the thalamocortical circuitry. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship of thought disorder measures, which were administered to 12 children with schizophrenia and 15 healthy age-matched controls, and NAc volumes obtained from high-resolution volumetric magnetic resonance imaging analyses. The propensity for specific thought disorder features was significantly related to NAc volumes, despite no statistically significant differences in the NAc volumes of children with schizophrenia and normal children. Smaller left NAc volumes were significantly related to poor on-line revision of linguistic errors in word choice, syntax and reference. On the other hand, underuse of on-line repair of errors in planning and organizing thinking was significantly associated with decreased right NAc volumes. The results of this pilot study suggest that the NAc is implicated in specific thought patterns of childhood. They also suggest that subcortical function in the NAc might reflect hemispheric specialization patterns with left lateralization for revision of linguistic errors and right lateralization for repair strategies involved in the organization of thinking.
Early Nodal Response As a Predictor for Necessity of Functional Neck Dissection After Chemoradiation
Cancer Journal (Sudbury, Mass.). Nov-Dec, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15701264
Chemoradiation is increasingly becoming the standard of care for node-positive squamous cell cancer of the head and neck. Response to chemoradiation for clinically node-positive disease in the neck is often difficult to ascertain because clinical response may or may not be predictive of pathological response. This often leads to uncertainty about the necessity of a functional neck dissection after chemoradiation. In this study, we retrospectively analyzed a cohort of node-positive patients to examine pathological response as well as clinical outcome after chemoradiation with or without functional neck dissection.
Potential Virulence and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Campylobacter Jejuni Isolates from Food and Companion Animals
Foodborne Pathogens and Disease. 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15992284
Infection in humans with Campylobacter jejuni is commonly associated with exposure to food animal fecal material. In this study, we report on the recovery, potential for virulence and antimicrobial resistance levels of C. jejuni isolated from food and companion animals. Three hundred and seventy-eight fecal samples from food and companion animals and surface swabs from beef carcasses were tested for the presence of C. jejuni. C. jejuni was isolated from 13.8% (11/80) of dogs, 5% (1/20) of goats, 28.3% (17/60) of dairy cattle, 0% (0/65) of range cattle, 73.5% (36/49) of feedlot cattle, and 94.7% (18/19) of beef carcasses. Beef cattle from a single Arizona herd showed a considerable increase in fecal shedding of C. jejuni from pasture to feedlot and over time on the feedlot. Forty-two isolates were tested for susceptibility to four antimicrobial agents, each representing a class of antimicrobial drug approved for use in both humans and animals. None of the isolates were found to be resistant to erythromycin or gentamicin, whereas 2.4% of isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin and 28.6% of isolates were resistant to tetracycline. The presence of virulence traits among the 42 isolates was assessed using in vitro macrophage survival and epithelial cell adherence and invasion assays. Of the isolates examined, 17 were able to survive within macrophages through 72 h at viable counts of >/=10(3)/well and 12 were capable of invading epithelial cells at viable counts of >/=10(3)/well. Data from these studies suggests that many of the isolates recovered from the non-poultry animal sources have the capacity to cause disease if transmitted to humans.
Plant & Cell Physiology. Aug, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15919673
Our understanding of the role of Ca2+ in blue/UV-A photoreceptor signaling in a single cell is limited. Insight into calcium signaling has now been attained in Physcomitrella patens and its cryptochrome and phototropin knock-outs. Physcomitrella patens caulonemal filaments grow in the dark by apical extension and their apical cells are highly polarized. Fura-2-dextran ratio images of the apical cell from wild type (WT), Ppcry1a/1b and PpphotA2/B1/B2 were obtained immediately following UV-A exposure (30 microW cm(-2) at 340 nm for 1,000 ms plus 30 microW cm(-2) at 380 nm for 1,000 ms) [abbreviated as 1,000 ms (340/380 nm)] and demonstrated two intracellular waves: a Ca2+ wave from the growing apical tip through the apical cap, and a wave from the junction of the neighboring cell through the vacuolar, nuclear and plastid regions. In WT, the UV-A-induced tip wave increase had a magnitude of 454.0 +/- 40 nM, traveled at a rate of 3.4 +/- 0.7 microm s(-1) and was complete within 26.6 +/- 2.3 s, while the basal vacuolar wave had a magnitude of 596.8 +/- 110 nM, a rate of 8.4 +/- 0.8 microm s(-1) and duration of 25.3 +/- 4.9 s. Subsequent Ca2+ spikes of similar magnitude followed these waves. The amplitude of the Ca2+ waves in the apical cap and basal vacuolar regions of Ppcry1a/1b were higher than those in the WT, while the duration of those in PpphotA2/B1/B2 was longer. Subsequent Ca2+ spikes occurred in WT and Ppcry1a/1b but not in PpphotA2/B1/B2. When Mn2+ was added to the culture medium, the [Ca2+](cyt) increase was delayed, did not move as a wave and lasted longer. The results indicate that plants respond to blue light and UV-A radiation by generating a wave of changes in the [Ca2+](cyt). The characteristics of these Ca2+ waves were dependent upon cryptochrome and phototropin. Blue/UV-A signaling in P. patens appears to differ from that in Arabidopsis.
Mitogen-induced Lymphocyte Proliferation in Loggerhead Sea Turtles: Comparison of Methods and Effects of Gender, Plasma Testosterone Concentration, and Body Condition on Immunity
Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology. Feb, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15621312
A fully functioning immune system is vital to the survival of threatened and endangered sea turtles. Immunological protection against diseases in any organism can be reduced by a number of natural and anthropogenic factors, such as seasonal changes, malnutrition, disease states, and contaminant exposure. These factors are even more critical when they occur in endangered species or populations. To identify alterations in the immunological health of loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta), the mitogen-induced lymphocyte proliferation (LP) assay was developed using peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs). Collection and culture conditions were optimized for this assay using non-lethal blood samples collected from free-ranging turtles along the southeastern US coast. During the collection, two anticoagulants (sodium heparin and lithium heparin) were compared to determine effects of different ions on assay results. Optimal culture conditions were established for loggerhead PBLs while two different methods of measuring LP were compared: (1) the traditional radioactive (3)H-thymidine assay and (2) a non-radioactive, colorimetric method utilizing 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium (MTT). The results indicate that the (3)H-thymidine and the non-radioactive MTT methods did not correlate with each other and that the use of heparin type did not influence the results of the LP assay. Lastly, using these optimized methods, we investigated the effect of gender, plasma testosterone concentration, and body condition on LP in loggerhead turtles and found that none of the parameters largely influenced LP.
Best Practice in Smoking Cessation Services for Pregnant Women: Results of a Survey of Three Services Reporting the Highest National Returns, and Three Beacon Services
The Journal of the Royal Society for the Promotion of Health. Sep, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 17004407
The NHS allocated dedicated funds to establish specialist smoking cessation services for pregnant smokers in England in 2000. An early survey revealed some uncertainty as to how the new services should work and monitor their outcome. The current survey focused on identifying examples of good practice in this difficult new field.
Langmuir : the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids. Apr, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16584266
We report the changes in the structure and thermoresponsive behavior of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAm) hydrogels when gold nanostructures are synthesized in situ within the hydrogel matrix. Cross-linked PNIPAm hydrogels were synthesized using NIPAm and 0.00-3.50% (w/w versus NIPAm) of N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide (MBAm) and/or N,N'-cystaminebisacrylamide (CBAm) as cross-linking agents. The hydrogels were soaked in potassium tetrachloroaurate to introduce gold ions. The hydrogels containing Au3+ were then immersed in a sodium borohydride solution to reduce the gold ions. Infrared spectroscopy, UV-visible spectroscopy, and equilibrium swelling were used to examine the structural/physical differences between gels of different compositions; UV-visible spectroscopy and mass measurements were used to observe the kinetics and thermodynamics of the hydrogel volume phase transition. These studies revealed several differences in the physical characteristics and thermoresponsive behavior of hydrogels based on cross-linker identity and the presence or absence of gold nanostructures. Hydrogels with gold nanostructures and high CBAm and low MBAm content have equilibrium swelling masses 3-20 times their native analogues. In comparison, gold-containing hydrogels with high MBAm and low CBAm content have swelling masses that are equal to their native analogues. Additionally, the gold-containing PNIPAm hydrogels cross-linked with only CBAm have a deswelling temperature of approximately 40 degrees C, approximately 8 degrees C above the samples cross-linked with only MBAm. Varying the CBAm content and introducing gold enables tuning of the deswelling temperature.
The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Jun, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16636064
Retinoic acid (RA) induces growth arrest, cell death, and differentiation in many human cancer cells in vitro and has entered routine clinical use for the treatment of several human cancer types. One mechanism by which cancer cells evade retinoid-induced effects is through repression of retinoic acid receptor beta (RARbeta) gene transcription. The RA response element beta (betaRARE) is the essential DNA sequence required for retinoid-induced RARbeta transcription. Here we show that the estrogen-responsive B box protein (EBBP), a member of the RING-B box-coiled-coil protein family, is a betaRARE-binding protein. EBBP undergoes serine threonine phosphorylation and enhanced protein stability after RA treatment. Following RA treatment, we also observed increased nuclear EBBP levels in aggregates with the promyelocytic leukemia protein at promyelocytic leukemia nuclear bodies. EBBP enhanced RA-responsive RARbeta transcription in RA-sensitive and -resistant cancer cells, which were resistant to both a histone deacetylase inhibitor and a demethylating agent. EBBP-specific small interfering RNA reduced basal and RA-induced RARbeta expression. EBBP increased betaRARE-transactivating function through its coiled-coil domain. Taken together, our work suggests that EBBP may have a pivotal role in the retinoid anti-cancer signal.
Chronic Valproic Acid Treatment Triggers Increased Neuropeptide Y Expression and Signaling in Rat Nucleus Reticularis Thalami
The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience. Jun, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16793888
Valproate (VPA) can suppress absence and other seizures, but its precise mechanisms of action are not completely understood. We investigated whether VPA influences the expression of neuropeptide Y (NPY), an endogenous anticonvulsant. Chronic VPA administration to young rats (300-600 mg.kg(-1).d(-1) in divided doses over 4 d) resulted in a 30-50% increase in NPY mRNA and protein expression in the nucleus reticularis thalami (nRt) and hippocampus, but not in the neocortex, as shown by real-time PCR, radioimmunoassay, and immunohistochemistry. No increased expression was observed after a single acute dose of VPA. Chronic treatment with the pharmacologically inactive VPA analog octanoic acid did not elicit changes in NPY expression. No significant expression changes could be shown for the mRNAs of the Y1 receptor or of the neuropeptides somatostatin, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, and choleocystokinin. Fewer synchronous spontaneous epileptiform oscillations were recorded in thalamic slices from VPA-treated animals, and oscillation duration as well as the period of spontaneous and evoked oscillations were decreased. Application of the Y1 receptor inhibitor N2-(diphenylacetyl)-N-[(4-hydroxyphenyl)methyl]-D-arginine-amide (BIBP3226) enhanced thalamic oscillations, indicating that NPY is released during those oscillations and acts to downregulate oscillatory strength. Chronic VPA treatment significantly potentiated the effect of BIBP3226 on oscillation duration but not on oscillation period. These results demonstrate a novel mechanism for the antiepileptic actions of chronic VPA therapy.
Shapes of Antibody Binding Sites: Qualitative and Quantitative Analyses Based on a Geomorphic Classification Scheme
The Journal of Organic Chemistry. Jul, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16808494
The topography of antibody binding sites has been classified into five types that evoke familiar geomorphic features of the Earth. The 229 antibody crystal structures from the Protein Data Bank were analyzed and classified into these classes. Relationships to previous topography classifications by Rees et al., who defined three classes, and Thornton et al., who defined four classes, are identified. An algorithm was developed to identify the antibody binding site class automatically based on the definition and the shape of the binding site. A three-dimensional convex hull was formed around the complementarity determining regions (CDRs) of the antibody. The convex hull was then "trimmed" to fit the binding site by using distance criteria and morphological techniques. Once the program identified the binding site shape, a statistical and distance based analysis was performed to classify automatically the antibody into one of the five geomorphic classes. The five antibody topography classes are as follows: cave (mostly hapten binders), crater (mostly protein and peptide/carbohydrate/nucleic acid binders), canyon, valley, and plain (mostly protein binders). Comparisons of the binding sites of empty and of complexed antibody binding sites gave an indication of how the shape of the binding site is influenced by binding of the antigen.
Conservation Biology : the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology. Aug, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16922241
Road expansion and associated increases in bunting pressure are a rapidly growing threat to African tropical wildlife. In the rainforests of southern Gabon, we compared abundances of larger (>1 kg) mammal species at varying distances from forest roads and between hunted and unhunted treatments (comparing a 130-km2 oil concession that was almost entirely protected from bunting with nearby areas outside the concession that had moderate hunting pressure). At each of 12 study sites that were evenly divided between hunted and unhunted areas, we established standardized 1-km transects at five distances (50, 300, 600, 900, and 1200 m) from an unpaved road, and then repeatedly surveyed mammals during the 2004 dry and wet seasons. Hunting had the greatest impact on duikers (Cephalophus spp.), forest buffalo (Syncerus caffer nanus), and red river hogs (Potamochoerus porcus), which declined in abundance outside the oil concession, and lesser effects on lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) and carnivores. Roads depressed abundances of duikers, sitatungas (Tragelaphus spekei gratus), and forest elephants (Loxondonta africana cyclotis), with avoidance of roads being stronger outside than inside the concession. Five monkey species showed little response to roads or hunting, whereas some rodents and pangolins increased in abundance outside the concession, possibly in response to greater forest disturbance. Our findings suggest that even moderate hunting pressure can markedly alter the structure of mammal communities in central Africa. Roads had the greatest impacts on large and small ungulates, with the magnitude of road avoidance increasing with local hunting pressure.
Behaviour Research and Therapy. Jun, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16257388
The relationship between perfectionism and eating disorders is well established and is of theoretical interest. This study used an experimental design to test the hypothesis that manipulating personal standards, a central feature of perfectionism, would influence eating attitudes and behaviour. Forty-one healthy women were randomly assigned either to a high personal standards condition (n = 18) or to a low personal standards condition for 24 h (n = 23). Measures of personal standards, perfectionism, and eating attitudes and behaviour were taken before and after the experimental manipulation. The manipulation was successful. After the manipulation, participants in the high personal standards condition ate fewer high calorie foods, made more attempts to restrict the overall amount of food eaten, and had significantly more regret after eating than those in the low personal standards condition. Other variables remained unchanged. It is concluded that experimental analyses can be of value in elucidating causal connections between perfectionism and eating attitudes and behaviour.
Behaviour Research and Therapy. Jan, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 16542638
The relationship between repeated body checking and its impact on body size estimation and body dissatisfaction is of interest for two reasons. First, it has importance in theoretical accounts of the maintenance of eating disorders and, second, body checking is targeted in cognitive-behavioural treatment. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of manipulating body checking on body size estimation and body dissatisfaction. Sixty women were randomly assigned either to repeatedly scrutinize their bodies in a critical way in the mirror ("high body checking") or to refrain from body checking but to examine the whole of their bodies in a neutral way ("low body checking"). Body dissatisfaction, feelings of fatness and the strength of a particular self-critical thought increased immediately after the manipulation among those in the high body checking condition. Feelings of fatness decreased among those in the low body checking condition. These changes were short-lived. The manipulation did not effect estimations of body size or the discrepancy between estimations of body size and desired body size. The implications of these findings for understanding the influence of body checking on the maintenance of body dissatisfaction are considered.
A Randomised Controlled Trial of Cognitive-behaviour Therapy for Clinical Perfectionism: a Preliminary Study
Behaviour Research and Therapy. Sep, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17275781
Perfectionism can be a problem in its own right and it can impede the progress of treatment of Axis I disorders. This study reports on a preliminary randomised controlled trial of cognitive-behaviour therapy (CBT) for "clinical perfectionism". Twenty participants were randomly assigned to either immediate treatment (IT) (n=10) or a wait list (NL) (n=10). Treatment consisted of ten sessions of CBT over eight weeks. Two participants did not complete the follow-up assessments (10%). Fifteen of the original 20 participants (75%) were clinically significantly improved after treatment and the effect size was large (1.8). Treatment gains were maintained at 8-week and 16-week follow-up.
The American Journal of Cardiology. Feb, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17307059
Most patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus are overweight or obese, and the relation between obesity, especially of the visceral compartment, and the risk for developing diabetes is well recognized. Excessive adipose tissue is associated with insulin resistance as well as the increased expression of proinflammatory cytokines and prothrombotic factors, all of which contribute to elevating the risk for coronary artery disease (CAD). In particular, abdominal obesity, or excess visceral adiposity, has been linked to a cluster of risk factors (high blood pressure, hypertriglyceridemia, low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and impaired fasting glucose) that constitute the metabolic syndrome, the presence of which confers an increased risk for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. In fact, a large waist circumference, a surrogate measure of abdominal adiposity, is 1 of the main criteria for diagnosing the metabolic syndrome. Lifestyle modification is the first-line approach to the management of obesity and the metabolic syndrome. However, if patients are unable to achieve a weight loss of 5%-10% of initial body weight and improve cardiometabolic risk factors with lifestyle modification alone, physicians should consider using adjunctive long-term pharmacotherapy. A variety of approved and investigational pharmacologic agents, including sibutramine, orlistat, metformin, and rimonabant, have been shown to reduce weight and ameliorate metabolic syndrome components, thereby reducing cardiovascular risk. Such global risk reduction is crucial for patients with diabetes, in whom CAD is a major cause of mortality.
The International Journal of Eating Disorders. May, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17330290
To examine the relationship between eating disorders and attentional biases.
American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism. Jul, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17374695
To determine whether long-term melanocortinergic activation can attenuate the metabolic effects of a high fat diet, mice overexpressing an NH(2)-terminal POMC transgene that includes alpha- and gamma(3)-MSH were studied on either a 10% low-fat diet (LFD) or 45% high-fat diet (HFD). Weight gain was modestly reduced in transgenic (Tg-MSH) male and female mice vs. wild type (WT) on HFD (P < 0.05) but not LFD. Substantial reductions in body fat percentage were found in both male and female Tg-MSH mice on LFD (P < 0.05) and were more pronounced on HFD (P < 0.001). These changes occurred in the absence of significant feeding differences in most groups, consistent with effects of Tg-MSH on energy expenditure and partitioning. This is supported by indirect calorimetry studies demonstrating higher resting oxygen consumption and lower RQ in Tg-MSH mice on the HFD. Tg-MSH mice had lower fasting insulin levels and improved glucose tolerance on both diets. Histological and biochemical analyses revealed that hepatic fat accumulation was markedly reduced in Tg-MSH mice on the HFD. Tg-MSH also attenuated the increase in corticosterone induced by the HFD. Higher levels of Agrp mRNA, which might counteract effects of the transgene, were measured in Tg-MSH mice on LFD (P = 0.02) but not HFD. These data show that long-term melanocortin activation reduces body weight, adiposity, and hepatic fat accumulation and improves glucose metabolism, particularly in the setting of diet-induced obesity. Our results suggest that long-term melanocortinergic activation could serve as a potential strategy for the treatment of obesity and its deleterious metabolic consequences.
Frontiers in Bioscience : a Journal and Virtual Library. 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17485353
The central melanocortin system is comprised of discrete populations of neurons and circuits that play a key role in maintaining energy balance. This system can sense levels of peripheral energy stores and can integrate a variety of nutrient, neuronal and hormonal signals to regulate food intake, energy expenditure and nutrient metabolism. Disruption of this system at multiple levels causes obesity in humans and animals. This article reviews the normal physiology and regulation of the central melanocortin system, the abnormalities of this system that cause impaired energy balance in humans and in rodents and the potential to target this system for the treatment of obesity and cachexia.
5-HT(2C) Receptor Activation Inhibits Appetitive and Consummatory Components of Feeding and Increases Brain C-fos Immunoreactivity in Mice
The European Journal of Neuroscience. May, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17561825
5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)(2C) and 5-HT(1B) receptors are implicated in the inhibitory modulation of feeding behaviour. However, their respective, and possibly different, roles have not been clearly identified because of a lack of selective 5-HT(2C) receptor agonists. Here, using the putative, selective 5-HT(2C) receptor agonist VER23779, we show that its effects on feeding are fully reversed by pretreatment with a selective 5-HT(2C) receptor antagonist, but unaffected by pretreatment with either a 5-HT(1B) or a 5-HT(2A) receptor antagonist. In mice eating a palatable mash, feeding ends earlier, inactivity is increased but the behavioural satiety sequence is preserved. In a second-order schedule of reinforcement with an initial, non-food-reinforced appetitive phase, VER23779 produces a much greater relative reduction in appetitive responding than the 5-HT(1B) receptor agonist CP-94,253. Increased c-fos immunoreactivity patterns following VER23779 also differ from those described for CP-94,253, in particular showing strong activation of the basolateral amygdala. The different behavioural consequences of 5-HT(2C) and 5-HT(1B) receptor activation may relate to the patterns of c-fos immunoreactivity. In particular, the basolateral amygdala may have a role in maintaining response in the appetitive phase of the second-order schedule and also be susceptible to serotonergic modulation through activation of 5-HT(2C) receptors.
The Annals of Thoracic Surgery. Jul, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17588379
Intraoperative epiaortic scanning identifies aortic atheroma. Avoiding atheroma manipulation reduces cerebral vascular accidents (CVA). Unfortunately, epiaortic scanning can only be performed after the time of sternotomy. We sought to determine whether (1) preoperative noncontrast chest computed tomography (CT) identifies areas of aorta at risk for embolization in high-risk patients, and (2) operative strategies designed at the reduction of aortic manipulation of these areas can reduce permanent strokes.
Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia = Journal Canadien D'anesthésie. Oct, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17934172
Relationship of Blood Mercury Levels to Health Parameters in the Loggerhead Sea Turtle (Caretta Caretta)
Environmental Health Perspectives. Oct, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17938730
Mercury is a pervasive environmental pollutant whose toxic effects have not been studied in sea turtles in spite of their threatened status and evidence of immunosuppression in diseased populations.
Effects of Intergenerational Montessori-based Activities Programming on Engagement of Nursing Home Residents with Dementia
Clinical Interventions in Aging. 2007 | Pubmed ID: 18044197
Fourteen nursing home residents on a dementia special care unit at a skilled nursing facility took part in one-to-one intergenerational programming (IGP) with 15 preschool children from the facility's on-site child care center. Montessori-based activities served as the interface for interactions between dyads. The amount of time residents demonstrated positive and negative forms of engagement during IGP and standard activities programming was assessed through direct observation using a tool developed for this purpose--the Myers Research Institute Engagement Scale (MRI-ES). These residents with dementia displayed the ability to successfully take part in IGP. Most successfully presented "lessons" to the children in their dyads, similar to the way that Montessori teachers present lessons to children, while persons with more severe cognitive impairment took part in IGP through other methods such as parallel play. Taking part in IGP was consistently related with higher levels of positive engagement and lower levels of negative forms of engagement in these residents with dementia than levels seen in standard activities programming on the unit. Implications of using this form of IGP, and directions for future research, are discussed.
Annals of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore. Dec, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 18185887
The International Journal of Eating Disorders. May, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18213684
The aims of these studies were (a) to investigate the relationship between attentional bias and eating disorders and (b) examine the impact of psychological treatment on attentional bias.
The International Journal of Eating Disorders. May, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18213690
Previous research has indicated that temporal factors [specifically, the duration of interstimulus intervals (ISI) during a threat processing task] may influence the nature of processing biases exhibited in nonclinical populations with some degree of eating disorder psychopathology (Meyer et al., Int J Eat Disord, 27, 405-410, 2000). The current study aimed to test this hypothesis by investigating attentional biases for eating-disorder-relevant images and irrelevant visual images (animals) in patients with eating disorders (n = 23) and psychiatric (n = 19) and nonpsychiatric (n = 65) controls.
A Temperature Independent PH (TIP) Buffer for Biomedical Biophysical Applications at Low Temperatures
Chemical Communications (Cambridge, England). Feb, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18253516
A temperature independent pH buffer has been developed from a combination of buffers of opposite-sign temperature coefficients, and utility in low temperature spectroscopy and storage of pH sensitive compounds is demonstrated.
Marine Resource Flows to Terrestrial Arthropod Predators on a Temperate Island: the Role of Subsidies Between Systems of Similar Productivity
Oecologia. Oct, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18597119
Marine-terrestrial resource flows can subsidies recipient consumers at various trophic levels. Theory suggests that the importance of such spatial subsidies depends on the productivity gradient between adjacent systems; however, the empirical data required to test this assumption are scarce. Most studies of marine-terrestrial subsidies have been performed in arid coastal habitats of low productivity surrounded by productive ocean waters. We examined the importance of marine resource inputs for terrestrial consumers on a temperate, productive forest island surrounded by a marine system of similar productivity. The importance of marine resources for the dominant arthropod consumers was estimated using stable isotopes and linear mixing models. We compared isotopic signatures of spiders and ants captured along a gradient from shore to inland to estimate how far marine-derived energy penetrates the island. We evaluated the distribution of ground-dwelling arthropods using pitfall-trap transects extending from the supratidal-forest boundary to the middle of the island. The contribution of marine-derived energy assimilated by arthropod consumers differed both among taxa and location. Marine-derived resources contributed >80% to the assimilated C of intertidal spiders and 5-10% for spiders at the forest edge and further inland. Ants assimilated 20% of their C from marine-derived resources and this proportion was not affected by distance from shore. Spiders, ants, and all arthropods combined exhibited no spatial aggregation towards the shore. Our results indicate that on temperate islands marine-terrestrial subsidies might be predominantly an edge effect, confined to intertidal consumers. Mobile consumers that opportunistically forage in intertidal habitats play an important role in transferring marine-derived energy further inland. This suggests that the importance of the productivity gradient for spatial subsidies can be modified by the mobility traits of the recipient consumers and their degree of specialization on the interface habitat.
Acta Crystallographica. Section B, Structural Science. Oct, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18799846
The structure of a co-crystal with both trans and cis isomers of 1,4-cyclohexanediol (1,4-CHD) is reported. The intermolecular hydrogen-bond patterns are described and compared with those of the all trans structure, using the graph-set model. A second crystal with possible cis/trans disorder is also described. The results of molecular modeling of the simple isomers and conformers are compared with the known structures.
Effects of Selective Modulation of the Central Melanocortin-3-receptor on Food Intake and Hypothalamic POMC Expression
Peptides. Mar, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18155809
Hypothalamic POMC neurons regulate energy balance via interactions with brain melanocortin receptors (MC-Rs). POMC neurons express the MC3-R which can function as an inhibitory autoreceptor in vitro. We now demonstrate that central activation of MC3-R with ICV infusion of the specific MC3-R agonist, [D-Trp(8)]-gamma-MSH, transiently suppresses hypothalamic Pomc expression and stimulates food intake in rats. Conversely, we also show that ICV infusion of a low dose of a selective MC3-R antagonist causes a transient decrease in feeding and weight gain. These data support a functional inhibitory role for the MC3-R on POMC neurons that leads to changes in food intake.
The British Journal of Clinical Psychology / the British Psychological Society. Mar, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 18851773
This study was designed to evaluate a new brief cognitive-behavioural intervention to reduce concerns about body shape.
Journal of Endodontics. Jan, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19084121
The current clinical practice of endodontics includes the utilization of a variety of new technological advances and materials. The last comprehensive survey that compared treatment modalities used in endodontic practices was conducted in 1990. The purpose of the current survey was to determine the frequency with which these new endodontic technologies and materials are being used in endodontic practices today. An e-mail questionnaire was sent to the 636 active diplomates of the American Board of Endodontics with current e-mail addresses. Two hundred thirty-two diplomates responded for a response rate of 35%. Calcium hydroxide was found to be the most frequently used intracanal medicament for all cases diagnosed with necrotic pulps. Ibuprofen was the most frequently prescribed medication for pain, and penicillin was the most frequently prescribed antibiotic when an active infection was present. Eighty-two percent of the respondents are still incorporating hand files in some fashion during the cleansing and shaping phase of treatment. Lateral condensation and continuous wave were the most common methods used for obturation. Digital radiography was reported as being used by 72.5% of the respondents, whereas 45.3% reported using the microscope greater than 75% of the patient treatment. Ultrasonics was used by 97.8% of the respondents. It appears from the results that new endodontic technology is currently being used in the endodontic offices of those who responded to the survey.
Direct and Indirect Roles of His-418 in Metal Binding and in the Activity of Beta-galactosidase (E. Coli)
Protein Science : a Publication of the Protein Society. Jun, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19472413
The active site of ss-galactosidase (E. coli) contains a Mg(2+) ion ligated by Glu-416, His-418 and Glu-461 plus three water molecules. A Na(+) ion binds nearby. To better understand the role of the active site Mg(2+) and its ligands, His-418 was substituted with Asn, Glu and Phe. The Asn-418 and Glu-418 variants could be crystallized and the structures were shown to be very similar to native enzyme. The Glu-418 variant showed increased mobility of some residues in the active site, which explains why the substitutions at the Mg(2+) site also reduce Na(+) binding affinity. The Phe variant had reduced stability, bound Mg(2+) weakly and could not be crystallized. All three variants have low catalytic activity due to large decreases in the degalactosylation rate. Large decreases in substrate binding affinity were also observed but transition state analogs bound as well or better than to native. The results indicate that His-418, together with the Mg(2+), modulate the central role of Glu-461 in binding and as a general acid/base catalyst in the overall catalytic mechanism. Glucose binding as an acceptor was also dramatically decreased, indicating that His-418 is very important for the formation of allolactose (the natural inducer of the lac operon).
Pharmacotherapy. Jun, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19476424
The fluoroquinolones have become the leading class of antimicrobial agents prescribed to adults in the United States. Resistance of key pathogens to fluoroquinolones has developed rapidly in parallel with increased prescribing of these drugs. We describe our pharmacist-led antimicrobial stewardship program that focused on reducing inappropriate prescribing of fluoroquinolones, with the goals of limiting the development of resistance and improving patient outcomes. Core strategies were regular monitoring and reporting of resistance trends observed on institutional antibiograms, performing drug audits and related studies with intervention and feedback to prescribers, implementing an automatic parenteral-to-oral conversion program, establishing and implementing a beta-lactam-based institutional guideline for empiric therapy, and educating prescribers. This successful program reduced empiric prescribing of fluoroquinolones by 30%, improved susceptibility for all antipseudomonal agents against Pseudomonas aeruginosa overall by 10%, and decreased mortality associated with P. aeruginosa infections by 2-fold. Our stewardship program clearly demonstrated that pharmacists can take on leadership roles to positively change antimicrobial prescribing at the institutional level and improve patient outcomes.
Pituitary. 2009 | Pubmed ID: 18327643
Hypothalamic injury from acquired structural damage due to infiltrative disease, tumor, or their treatment aftereffects frequently results in the development of an obesity syndrome characterized by a rapid, unrelenting weight gain that may be accompanied by severe hyperphagia. Weight gain occurs from the disruption of the normal homeostatic functioning of the hypothalamic centers responsible for controlling satiety and hunger and regulating energy balance with resulting hyperphagia, autonomic imbalance, reduction of energy expenditure, and hyperinsulinemia. Curtailment of weight increase has traditionally been refractory to usual dietary and lifestyle interventions. Pharmacotherapy targeting insulin secretion and augmenting sympathetic output have been attempted to promote weight loss or attenuate weight gain. In addition, case reports suggest that bariatric surgery may be an effective treatment option for these patients. Hormonal deficits are often present, and their management may also have consequences for weight control. Hypothalamic obesity confers significant morbidity and mortality, and there is a need for greater elucidation of its risk factors and pathogenesis so that more effective interventions can be developed.
Journal of the American Medical Directors Association. Sep, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19716062
Dementia is a common geriatric syndrome. It is unclear how best to predict survival among dementia patients, which leaves clinicians, patients, and families uncertain as to how to proceed with medical decisions and reassessing goals.
Apomab, a Fully Human Agonistic Antibody to DR5, Exhibits Potent Antitumor Activity Against Primary and Metastatic Breast Cancer
Molecular Cancer Therapeutics. Oct, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19808976
Apomab, a fully human agonistic DR5 monoclonal antibody, triggers apoptosis through activation of the extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway. In this study, we assessed the cytotoxic effect of Apomab in vitro and evaluated its antitumor activity in murine models of breast cancer development and progression. MDA-MB-231-TXSA breast cancer cells were transplanted into the mammary fat pad or directly into the tibial marrow cavity of nude mice. Apomab was administered early, postcancer cell transplantation, or after tumors progressed to an advanced stage. Tumor burden was monitored progressively using bioluminescence imaging, and the development of breast cancer-induced osteolysis was measured using microcomputed tomography. In vitro, Apomab treatment induced apoptosis in a panel of breast cancer cell lines but was without effect on normal human primary osteoblasts, fibroblasts, or mammary epithelial cells. In vivo, Apomab exerted remarkable tumor suppressive activity leading to complete regression of well-advanced mammary tumors. All animals transplanted with breast cancer cells directly into their tibiae developed large osteolytic lesions that eroded the cortical bone. In contrast, treatment with Apomab following an early treatment protocol inhibited both intraosseous and extraosseous tumor growth and prevented breast cancer-induced osteolysis. In the delayed treatment protocol, Apomab treatment resulted in the complete regression of advanced tibial tumors with progressive restoration of both trabecular and cortical bone leading to full resolution of osteolytic lesions. Apomab represents a potent immunotherapeutic agent with strong activity against the development and progression of breast cancer and should be evaluated in patients with primary and metastatic disease.
Case Report: Occurrence of Fallopian Tube Cancer in a Patient with Previous History of Estrogen Receptor Positive Breast Cancer
Bioscience Trends. Oct, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 20103847
Fallopian tube cancer is very rare, it accounts less than 1% of all genital tract cancer in women. The annual incidence is 3.6 per million women per year. The vast majority of fallopian tube cancers are papillary serous adenocarcinomas. Most women with fallopian tube cancer are usually diagnosed at age 50s to 60s. Vaginal bleeding or discharge is the most common presentation. We would like to present a case in which fallopian tube cancer was diagnosed in a patient with post menopausal bleeding, abnormal ultrasound finding and history of estrogen receptor (ER) positive breast cancer.
Rapid Pharmacokinetic and Biodistribution Studies Using Cholorotoxin-conjugated Iron Oxide Nanoparticles: a Novel Non-radioactive Method
PloS One. 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20209054
Recent advances in nanotechnology have led to the development of biocompatible nanoparticles for in vivo molecular imaging and targeted therapy. Many nanoparticles have undesirable tissue distribution or unacceptably low serum half-lives. Pharmacokinetic (PK) and biodistribution studies can help inform decisions determining particle size, coatings, or other features early in nanoparticle development. Unfortunately, these studies are rarely done in a timely fashion because many nanotechnology labs lack the resources and expertise to synthesize radioactive nanoparticles and evaluate them in mice.
The Mount Sinai Journal of Medicine, New York. Mar-Apr, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20309919
Colorectal cancer is second only to lung cancer as the leading cause of death among North Americans of both sexes. Although screening rates for colorectal cancer in the United States have increased over the past decade, these rates (in the range of 45%-60%) are still lower than the screening rates for breast cancer (approximately 80%). Optical colonoscopy has been recognized as the preferred method for colorectal cancer screening in the United States, but computed tomography colonography has recently been gaining favor. This article compares the 2 methods with respect to both advantages and disadvantages.
Inhibitors of Catalase-amyloid Interactions Protect Cells from Beta-amyloid-induced Oxidative Stress and Toxicity
The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Dec, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20923778
Compelling evidence shows a strong correlation between accumulation of neurotoxic β-amyloid (Aβ) peptides and oxidative stress in the brains of patients afflicted with Alzheimer disease (AD). One hypothesis for this correlation involves the direct and harmful interaction of aggregated Aβ peptides with enzymes responsible for maintaining normal, cellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Identification of specific, destructive interactions of Aβ peptides with cellular anti-oxidant enzymes would represent an important step toward understanding the pathogenicity of Aβ peptides in AD. This report demonstrates that exposure of human neuroblastoma cells to cytotoxic preparations of aggregated Aβ peptides results in significant intracellular co-localization of Aβ with catalase, an anti-oxidant enzyme responsible for catalyzing the degradation of the ROS intermediate hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)). These catalase-Aβ interactions deactivate catalase, resulting in increased cellular levels of H(2)O(2). Furthermore, small molecule inhibitors of catalase-amyloid interactions protect the hydrogen peroxide-degrading activity of catalase in Aβ-rich environments, leading to reduction of the co-localization of catalase and Aβ in cells, inhibition of Aβ-induced increases in cellular levels of H(2)O(2), and reduction of the toxicity of Aβ peptides. These studies, thus, provide evidence for the important role of intracellular catalase-amyloid interactions in Aβ-induced oxidative stress and propose a novel molecular strategy to inhibit such harmful interactions in AD.
Anemia in Rural China's Elementary Schools: Prevalence and Correlates in Shaanxi Province's Poor Counties
Ecology of Food and Nutrition. Sep-Oct, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 21888576
Despite growing wealth in China, a significant share of children across rural China still have no access to iron-rich foods, vitamins, and other micronutrients. Such poor diets may result in high incidences of nutritional problems, including anemia. The objective of the study was to increase understanding of the extent of anemia, and identify structural correlates of anemia in poor Shaanxi province's primary schools. The article shows that the overall anemia rate is 21.5 percent when using a blood hemoglobin cutoff of 115 g/L (39 percent with a cutoff of 120 g/L). We find that those students that are boarding at school and eat lunch away from home are more likely to be anemic. Children with anemia are found to have lower height for age (HAZ) scores. If this part of Shaanxi province is representative of all poor counties in China, these findings mean millions of children in poor rural China may be anemic.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Apr, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20351267
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and lethal primary brain cancer that is driven by aberrant signaling of growth factor receptors, particularly the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). EGFR signaling is tightly regulated by receptor endocytosis and lysosome-mediated degradation, although the molecular mechanisms governing such regulation, particularly in the context of cancer, remain poorly delineated. Here, high-resolution genomic profiles of GBM identified a highly recurrent focal 1p36 deletion encompassing the putative tumor suppressor gene, Mig-6. We show that Mig-6 quells the malignant potential of GBM cells and dampens EGFR signaling by driving EGFR into late endosomes and lysosome-mediated degradation upon ligand stimulation. Mechanistically, this effect is mediated by the binding of Mig-6 to a SNARE protein STX8, a protein known to be required for late endosome trafficking. Thus, Mig-6 functions to ensure recruitment of internalized receptor to late endosomes and subsequently the lysosomal degradation compartment through its ability to specifically link EGFR and STX8 during ligand-stimulated EGFR trafficking. In GBM, the highly frequent loss of Mig-6 would therefore serve to sustain aberrant EGFR-mediated oncogenic signaling. Together, these data uncover a unique tumor suppression mechanism involving the regulation of receptor trafficking.
Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior: Special Issue on the Psychopharmacology of Feeding, Obesity and Body Weight Regulation
Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior. Nov, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20655943
Rapid Gas Chromatographic Analysis of Less Abundant Compounds in Distilled Spirits by Direct Injection with Ethanol-water Venting and Mass Spectrometric Data Deconvolution
Journal of Chromatography. A. Jan, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 19959175
The principal trace secondary compounds common to fermentation-derived distilled spirits can be rapidly quantified by directly injecting 5muL of spirit without sample preparation to a narrow-bore 0.15mm internal diameter capillary column. The ethanol-water is removed in an initial solvent venting step using a programmed temperature vapourization injector, followed by splitless transfer of the target analytes to the column. The larger injection facilitates trace analysis and ethanol-water removal extends column lifetime. Problems of coelution between analytes or with sample matrix were surmounted by using mass spectral deconvolution software for quantification. All operations in the analysis from injection with solvent venting to data reduction are fully automated for unattended sequential sample analysis. The synergy of the various contributory steps combines to offer an effective novel solution for this analysis. Applications include quantification of low ppm amounts of acids and esters and sub-ppm profiling of trace compounds from both the raw material malt and the ageing in wood barrels.
Comparison of Mercury Burdens in Chronically Debilitated and Healthy Loggerhead Sea Turtles (Caretta Caretta)
Journal of Wildlife Diseases. Jan, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20090024
An increase in the incidence of debilitated loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta) strandings in the southeastern United States has been observed in recent years. These turtles are characterized by emaciation and heavy burdens of external and internal parasites, and bacterial infections, but the underlying cause of their condition is unknown. To investigate further the causes of these strandings, a health assessment was performed on stranded, debilitated loggerhead turtles, and contaminant concentrations in various tissues were compared to those from healthy turtles. This portion of the study investigated the potential role of mercury (Hg) toxicity in the debilitated condition described above. Hematocrit, total protein, albumin, globulin, glucose, calcium, lymphocyte counts, heterophil:lymphocyte ratios, aspartate aminotransferase, uric acid, sodium, and chloride were altered in debilitated loggerheads relative to healthy animals. However, none of the aforementioned health indicators correlated with Hg concentrations in either red blood cells (RBCs) or plasma. The Hg concentration in RBCs was 129+/-72 (mean+/-standard deviation) times higher than in plasma, causing a significant dilution of Hg in whole blood due to extreme anemia. Mercury concentrations in RBCs (73.7+/-21.2 ng/g) and scutes (455+/-57 ng/g) from debilitated turtles were similar to or lower than those reported for healthy animals, indicating no elevation in Hg exposure before and during the progression of this condition. These findings suggest that Hg toxicity does not play a role in the debilitated loggerhead condition observed in the southeastern United States.
European Journal of Public Health. Apr, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 19667052
To investigate the association between breastfeeding duration and socio-economic status as measured by the English and Welsh Indices of Multiple Deprivation (IMD).
Young Mothers Who Choose to Breast Feed: the Importance of Being Part of a Supportive Breast-feeding Community
Midwifery. Feb, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 19896254
to examine factors associated with breast-feeding initiation and duration in young mothers (≤24 years).
Anticancer Efficacy of Apo2L/TRAIL is Retained in the Presence of High and Biologically Active Concentrations of Osteoprotegerin in Vivo
Journal of Bone and Mineral Research : the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. Mar, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 20818644
Osteoprotegerin (OPG) is a secreted member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor superfamily that binds to the ligand for receptor activator of nuclear factor κB (RANKL) and inhibits bone resorption. OPG can also bind and inhibit the activity of the TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (Apo2L/TRAIL), raising the possibility that the anticancer efficacy of soluble Apo2L/TRAIL may be abrogated in the bone microenvironment where OPG expression is high. In this study we used a murine model of breast cancer growth in bone to evaluate the efficacy of recombinant soluble Apo2L/TRAIL against intratibial tumors that were engineered to overexpress native full-length human OPG. In vitro, OPG-overexpressing breast cancer cells were protected from Apo2L/TRAIL-induced apoptosis, an effect that was reversed with the addition of soluble RANKL or neutralizing antibodies to OPG. In vivo, mice injected intratibially with cells containing the empty vector developed large osteolytic lesions. In contrast, OPG overexpression preserved the integrity of bone and prevented breast cancer-induced bone destruction. This effect was due primarily to the complete absence of osteoclasts in the tibias of mice inoculated with OPG-transfected cells, confirming the biologic activity of the transfected OPG in vivo. Despite the secretion of supraphysiologic levels of OPG, treatment with Apo2L/TRAIL resulted in strong growth inhibition of both empty vector and OPG-overexpressing intratibial tumors. While Apo2L/TRAIL-induced apoptosis may be abrogated in vitro by OPG overexpression, the in vivo anticancer efficacy of recombinant soluble Apo2L/TRAIL is retained in the bone microenvironment even in the presence of biologically active OPG at supraphysiologic concentrations.
Maternal Control of Child Feeding During the Weaning Period: Differences Between Mothers Following a Baby-led or Standard Weaning Approach
Maternal and Child Health Journal. Nov, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 20830511
A controlling maternal feeding style has been shown to have a negative impact on child eating style and weight in children over the age of 12 months. The current study explores maternal feeding style during the period of 6-12 months when infants are introduced to complementary foods. Specifically it examines differences between mothers who choose to follow a traditional weaning approach using spoon feeding and pureés to mothers following a baby-led approach where infants are allowed to self feed foods in their solid form. Seven hundred and two mothers with an infant aged 6-12 months provided information regarding weaning approach alongside completing the Child Feeding Questionnaire. Information regarding infant weight and perceived size was also collected. Mothers following a baby-led feeding style reported significantly lower levels of restriction, pressure to eat, monitoring and concern over child weight compared to mothers following a standard weaning response. No association was seen between weaning style and infant weight or perceived size. A baby-led weaning style was associated with a maternal feeding style which is low in control. This could potentially have a positive impact upon later child weight and eating style. However due to the cross sectional nature of the study it cannot be ascertained whether baby-led weaning encourages a feeding style which is low in control to develop or whether mothers who are low in control choose to follow a baby-led weaning style.
Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Oct, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21921746
The incidence of craniopagus twins approximates four to six per 10 million births. Although rare, surgical separation of conjoined twins poses significant technical and ethical challenges. The present report uses the case of craniopagus twins AD and TD to examine the bioethical issues faced by a multidisciplinary medical team in planning the separation of craniopagus twins. AD and TD are craniopagus twins conjoined at the head. TD's head is conjoined to the back of AD's head. Neurologically, AD has the dominant cerebral circulation. TD has two normal kidneys, whereas AD has none. AD depends on TD's renal function and, on separation, will require either a kidney transplant or lifelong dialysis. This case report reviews one approach to analyzing and solving complex ethical dilemmas in pediatric plastic surgery. The principles reviewed are (1) autonomy and informed consent, focusing especially on the role of children in the informed consent process; (2) beneficence and nonmaleficence, two intricately intertwined principles because separation could potentially cause irreversible harm to one twin while improving the quality of life for the other (as separation is not a life-saving procedure, is it ethical to perform a procedure with unknown surgical risk to improve children's quality of life?); and (3) justice (is it fair to allocate excessive medical resources for the twins' separation?). The present report explores the ethics behind such decisions with respect to the separation of conjoined twins.
An Exploration of Experiences of Mothers Following a Baby-led Weaning Style: Developmental Readiness for Complementary Foods
Maternal & Child Nutrition. Nov, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 22118242
Current UK Department of Health guidelines recommend that infants are introduced to complementary foods at around 6 months of age. Intake of complementary foods should be gradual, should incorporate a range of tastes and should be based around family foods. The infant should be 'developmentally ready', able to sit up, grasp objects and chew. Introduction to complementary foods in the UK is typically via purée and spoon-feeding although an alternative approach is growing in popularity. The baby-led weaning approach advocates bypassing purées and allowing infants to self-feed foods in their solid form from the start of weaning. Research surrounding this method is sparse, and it is not advocated in Department of Health literature but understanding, if not advocacy of the method, is needed for health professionals faced with questions from parents. Here, 36 mothers of an infant aged 12-18 months who followed baby-led weaning completed a semi-structured interview examining their attitudes, beliefs and behaviours towards the approach. Key themes included following infant cues of readiness, hunger and satiety, exposure to textures and tastes and experiences, both positive and negative of following the method. The findings are considered in relation to Department of Health weaning guidelines and literature pertaining to the development of eating styles and weight gain in young children. Overall, the study offers an insight into this emerging method for child health practitioners raising questions as to the use or potential adaptation of key principles of the methods.
Maternal & Child Nutrition. Jan, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21143584
An alternative to traditional weaning methods known as baby-led weaning (BLW) appears to be emerging in the UK. This approach advocates bypassing typical weaning practices of spoon-feeding puréed foods or baby rice, encouraging instead the introduction of foods in their whole form to the infant from 6 months old. A key tenet of BLW is self-feeding. Anecdotally, the practice of BLW appears to be gaining in popularity. However, research evidence is scant, and little is known about the nature of BLW and the demography of those who utilize it. This study aimed to characterize a sample of women who have chosen to adopt the BLW method and to describe associated attitudes and behaviours. Six hundred and fifty five mothers with a child between 6 months and 12 months of age provided information about timing of weaning onset, use of spoon-feeding and purées, and experiences of weaning and meal times. Those participants who used a BLW method reported little use of spoon-feeding and purées and were more likely to have a higher education, higher occupation, be married and have breastfed their infant. BLW was associated with a later introduction of complementary foods, greater participation in meal times and exposure to family foods. Levels of anxiety about weaning and feeding were lower in mothers who adopted a BLW approach. These findings provide an insight into BLW practices and the characteristics of a small population of users.
Bald Scalp in Men with Androgenetic Alopecia Retains Hair Follicle Stem Cells but Lacks CD200-rich and CD34-positive Hair Follicle Progenitor Cells
The Journal of Clinical Investigation. Feb, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21206086
Androgenetic alopecia (AGA), also known as common baldness, is characterized by a marked decrease in hair follicle size, which could be related to the loss of hair follicle stem or progenitor cells. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed bald and non-bald scalp from AGA individuals for the presence of hair follicle stem and progenitor cells. Cells expressing cytokeratin15 (KRT15), CD200, CD34, and integrin, α6 (ITGA6) were quantitated via flow cytometry. High levels of KRT15 expression correlated with stem cell properties of small cell size and quiescence. These KRT15(hi) stem cells were maintained in bald scalp samples. However, CD200(hi)ITGA6(hi) and CD34(hi) cell populations--which both possessed a progenitor phenotype, in that they localized closely to the stem cell-rich bulge area but were larger and more proliferative than the KRT15(hi) stem cells--were markedly diminished. In functional assays, analogous CD200(hi)Itga6(hi) cells from murine hair follicles were multipotent and generated new hair follicles in skin reconstitution assays. These findings support the notion that a defect in conversion of hair follicle stem cells to progenitor cells plays a role in the pathogenesis of AGA.
Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy. Jul, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21382218
High levels of multidimensional perfectionism may be dysfunctional in their own right and can also impact on the maintenance and treatment of Axis I psychiatric disorders.
Maternal Child-feeding Style During the Weaning Period: Association with Infant Weight and Maternal Eating Style
Eating Behaviors. Apr, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21385639
A controlling maternal child-feeding style has been show to have negative consequences for child weight and eating style for children over the age of 12 months. Maternal restriction is associated with increased consumption of food if given free access and child overweight. Pressure to eat conversely is associated with picky eating and a lower child weight. Little research however has considered the influence of maternal feeding style under 1 year, during the period when infants are being introduced to complementary foods. In the current study, 642 mothers with a child aged 6-12 months completed a copy of the Child Feeding Questionnaire (Birch, Fisher, Grimm-Thomas, Markey, Sawyer & Johnson 2001), the Dutch Eating Questionnaire (Van Strien, Frijters, Bergers, & Defares 1986) and reported infant and maternal weight. Differences in maternal feeding style were identifiable during this period and related to infant weight and maternal weight and eating style. Infant weight was positively correlated with maternal use of restriction, monitoring and concern for infant weight. Moreover, mothers high in restraint, external and emotional eating reported higher levels of concern for infant weight, restriction and monitoring and perceived their infants to be larger. The findings suggest that the extent to which controlling feeding practices are used is influenced by infant and maternal personal weight concerns even at this early stage. Potentially, these early behaviours could have long term consequences for child weight and eating style.
Can Clinical and Molecular Epidemiologic Parameters Guide Empiric Treatment with Vancomycin for Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus Aureus Infections?
Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease. May, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21392923
Reports of vancomycin treatment failure for infections caused by susceptible methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains with elevated minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) has prompted use of high-dose therapy, but nephrotoxicity is a concern. We determined whether clinical and molecular epidemiologic parameters can be used to guide empiric vancomycin therapy and strain susceptibility to alternative agents. Medical charts of 180 hospitalized adults with MRSA infections were reviewed. MICs of vancomycin, daptomycin, linezolid, and tigecycline were determined by Etest. Patient isolates were assayed for genes encoding Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) and SCCmec type. High vancomycin MIC did not correlate with place of acquisition, invasiveness of infection, or history of health care exposure. High MIC was present in 32% of strains overall and in 23% of PVL+, SCCmec IV strains; all were susceptible to alternative agents. Clinicians should not make empiric treatment decisions related to vancomycin use based on history of healthcare exposure risk or residence at onset of infection for patients hospitalized with MRSA infections.
Healthcare Professionals' and Mothers' Perceptions of Factors That Influence Decisions to Breastfeed or Formula Feed Infants: a Comparative Study
Journal of Advanced Nursing. Sep, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21507050
This article is a report of a study comparing healthcare professionals' and mothers' perceptions of factors that influence the decision to breastfeed or formula feed an infant.
Revista Española De Geriatría Y Gerontología. May-Jun, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21571401
An Exploration of the Attitudes and Experiences of Mothers in the United Kingdom Who Chose to Breastfeed Exclusively for 6 Months Postpartum
Breastfeeding Medicine : the Official Journal of the Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine. Aug, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21657889
Levels of exclusive breastfeeding are negligible in the United Kingdom despite World Health Organization recommendations to practice exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 months postpartum. Although numerous studies have explored the reasons behind low levels of breastfeeding, few have examined the behaviors of women who do breastfeed successfully. However, understanding the influences upon the decision to breastfeed exclusively is important in supporting women to continue breastfeeding.
Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Nov, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21738087
The purpose of this study was to identify factors that contribute to migraine headache surgery failure and success.
Extended Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole Prophylaxis for Implant Reconstruction in the Previously Irradiated Chest Wall
Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Jan, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22186583
Patients who have undergone prior chest wall irradiation can present as challenging candidates for implant reconstruction because of troublesome rates of infectious complications. The issue of antibiotic prophylaxis remains controversial, and evidence-based postoperative strategies to reduce implant infections have not been well described in the literature. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of extended trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole therapy in preventing implant infections in the irradiated chest wall.
It's the Feeling Inside My Head: A Qualitative Analysis of Mental Contamination in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy. Mar, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22189473
Background: It was recently proposed that feelings of dirtiness and pollution can arise in the absence of physical contact with a contaminant. At present, there is limited data regarding the qualitative features of this construct of "mental contamination", although it is hypothesized to be particularly relevant to Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD), where compulsive washing in response to contamination fear is a common symptom presentation (Rachman, 2006). Aims and method: The aim of this research was to explore the qualitative features of mental contamination in 20 people with contamination-based OCD, using a semi-structured interview. Results: All participants reported times when they had felt dirty or contaminated in the absence of physical contact with a dirty or dangerous object. Mental contamination generated diffuse feelings of internal dirtiness not localized to the hands, which evoked urges to wash (100% participants), neutralize (80% participants) and avoid (85% participants). Conclusions: In support of the theory outlined by Rachman (2006), mental contamination was found to take a number of forms, be primarily associated with a human source, generate internal dirtiness and cause emotional distress and urge to wash. The clinical implications of these findings are discussed and ideas for future research are proposed.
Psychology and Aging. Jan, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22251380
Recent work has shown that older adults' lessened inhibitory control leads them to inadvertently bind co-occurring targets and distractors. Although this hyper-binding effect may lead to the formation of more superfluous associations, and thus greater interference at retrieval for older adults, it may also lead to a greater knowledge of information contained within the periphery of awareness. On the basis of evidence that younger adults only show learning for statistical regularities contained within attended information, we asked whether older adults may also show learning for regularities contained within to-be-ignored information. Older and younger adults viewed a series of red and green pictures and performed a 1-back task on one of the colors. Unbeknownst to participants, both color streams were organized into triplets that occurred sequentially. Implicit memory for the triplets from both the attended and ignored streams was tested using a speeded detection task. Replicating previous work, younger adults demonstrated more learning for the attended triplets than the unattended triplets. Older adults, however, demonstrated similar learning for both the attended and ignored triplets, suggesting that contrary to popular belief, they may actually know more than younger adults about the world around them, including how seemingly irrelevant events co-occur. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).
Use of a Common Laboratory Glassware Detergent Improves Recovery of Cryptosporidium Parvum and Cyclospora Cayetanensis from Lettuce, Herbs and Raspberries
International Journal of Food Microbiology. Feb, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22094179
The success of any protocol designed to detect parasitic protozoa on produce must begin with an efficient initial wash step. Cryptosporidium parvum and Cyclospora cayetanensis oocysts were seeded onto herbs, lettuces and raspberries, eluted with one of four wash solutions and the recovered number of oocysts determined via fluorescent microscopy. Recovery rates for fluorescein thiosemicarbazide labeled C. parvum oocysts seeded onto spinach and raspberries and washed with de-ionized water were 38.4 ± 10.1% and 34.9 ± 6.2%, respectively. Two alternative wash solutions viz. 1M glycine, pH 5.5 and a detachment solution were tested also using labeled C. parvum seeded spinach and raspberries. No statistically significant difference was noted in the recovery rates. However, a wash solution containing 0.1% Alconox, a laboratory glassware detergent, resulted in a significant improvement in oocyst recovery. 72.6 ± 6.6% C. parvum oocysts were recovered from basil when washed with 0.1% Alconox compared to 47.9 ± 5.8% using detachment solution. Also, C. cayetanensis oocysts were seeded onto lettuces, herbs and raspberries and the recovery using de-ionized water were compared to 0.1% Alconox wash: basil 17.5 ± 5.0% to 76.1 ± 14.0%, lollo rosso lettuce 38.3 ± 5.5% to 72.5 ± 8.1%, Tango leaf lettuce 45.9 ± 5.4% to 71.1 ± 7.8% and spring mix (mesclun) 39.8 ± 0.7% to 80.2 ± 11.3%, respectively. These results suggest that the use of Alconox in a wash solution significantly improves recovery resulting in the detection of these parasitic protozoa on high risk foods.