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Articles by Michelle Parvatiyar in JoVE

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Quantitative Analysis of Chromatin Proteomes in Disease

1Department of Anesthesiology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, 2Department of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, 3Department of Physiology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, 4Department of Internal Medicine, Nora Eccles Harrison Cardiovascular Research and Training Institute, University of Utah

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Advances in mass spectrometry have allowed the high throughput analysis of protein expression and modification in a host of tissues. Combined with subcellular fractionation and disease models, quantitative mass spectrometry and bioinformatics can reveal new properties in biological systems. The method described herein analyzes chromatin-associated proteins in the setting of heart disease and is readily applicable to other in vivo models of human disease.

Other articles by Michelle Parvatiyar on PubMed

Transgenic Mice Expressing Na+-K+-ATPase in Smooth Muscle Decreases Blood Pressure

The Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase (NKA) is a transmembrane protein that sets and maintains the electrochemical gradient by extruding three Na(+) in exchange for two K(+). An important physiological role proposed for vascular smooth muscle NKA is the regulation of blood pressure via modulation of vascular smooth muscle contractility (5). To investigate the relations between the level of NKA in smooth muscle and blood pressure, we developed mice carrying a transgene for either the NKA alpha(1)- or alpha(2)-isoform (alpha(1 sm+) or alpha(2 sm+) mice) driven by the smooth muscle-specific alpha-actin promoter SMP8. Interestingly, both alpha-isoforms, the one contained in the transgene and the one not contained, were increased to a similar degree at both protein and mRNA levels. The total alpha-isoform protein was increased from 1.5-fold (alpha(1 sm+) mice) to 7-fold (alpha(2 sm+) mice). The increase in total NKA alpha-isoform protein was accompanied by a 2.5-fold increase in NKA activity in alpha(2 sm+) gastric antrum. Immunocytochemistry of the alpha(1)- and alpha(2)-isoforms in alpha(2 sm+) aortic smooth muscle cells indicated that alpha-isoform distributions were similar to those shown in wild-type cells. alpha(2 sm+) Mice (high expression) were hypotensive (109.9 +/- 1.6 vs. 121.3 +/- 1.4 mmHg; n = 13 and 11, respectively), whereas alpha(1 sm+) mice (low expression) were normotensive (122.7 +/- 2.5 vs. 117.4 +/- 2.3; n = 11 or 12). alpha(2 sm+) Aorta, but not alpha(1 sm+) aorta, relaxed faster from a KCl-induced contraction than wild-type aorta. Our results show that smooth muscle displays unique coordinate expression of the alpha-isoforms. Increasing smooth muscle NKA decreases blood pressure and is dependent on the degree of increased alpha-isoform expression.

A Troponin T Mutation That Causes Infantile Restrictive Cardiomyopathy Increases Ca2+ Sensitivity of Force Development and Impairs the Inhibitory Properties of Troponin

Restrictive cardiomyopathy (RCM) is a rare disorder characterized by impaired ventricular filling with decreased diastolic volume. We are reporting the functional effects of the first cardiac troponin T (CTnT) mutation linked to infantile RCM resulting from a de novo deletion mutation of glutamic acid 96. The mutation was introduced into adult and fetal isoforms of human cardiac TnT (HCTnT3-DeltaE96 and HCTnT1-DeltaE106, respectively) and studied with either cardiac troponin I (CTnI) or slow skeletal troponin I (SSTnI). Skinned cardiac fiber measurements showed a large leftward shift in the Ca(2+) sensitivity of force development with no differences in the maximal force. HCTnT1-DeltaE106 showed a significant increase in the activation of actomyosin ATPase with either CTnI or SSTnI, whereas HCTnT3-DeltaE96 was only able to increase the ATPase activity with CTnI. Both mutants showed an impaired ability to inhibit the ATPase activity. The capacity of the CTnI.CTnC and SSTnI.CTnC complexes to fully relax the fibers after TnT displacement was also compromised. Experiments performed using fetal troponin isoforms showed a less severe impact compared with the adult isoforms, which is consistent with the cardioprotective role of SSTnI and the rapid onset of RCM after birth following the isoform switch. These data indicate that troponin mutations related to RCM may have specific functional phenotypes, including large leftward shifts in the Ca(2+) sensitivity and impaired abilities to inhibit ATPase and to relax skinned fibers. All of this would account for and contribute to the severe diastolic dysfunction seen in RCM.

Troponin and Cardiomyopathy

The troponin complex was discovered over thirty years ago and since then much insight has been gained into how this complex senses fluctuating levels of Ca(2+) and transmits this signal to the myofilament. Advances in genetics methods have allowed identification of mutations that lead to the phenotypically distinct cardiomyopathies: hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), restrictive cardiomyopathy (RCM) and dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). This review serves to highlight key in vivo studies of mutation effects that have followed many years of functional studies and discusses how these mutations alter energetics and promote the characteristic remodeling associated with cardiomyopathic diseases. Studies have been performed that examine alterations in signaling and genomic methods have been employed to isolate upregulated proteins, however these processes are complex as there are multiple roads to hypertrophy or dilation associated with genetic cardiomyopathies. This review suggests future directions to explore in the troponin field that would heighten our understanding of the complex regulation of cardiac muscle contraction.

Molecular and Functional Characterization of Novel Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Susceptibility Mutations in TNNC1-encoded Troponin C

Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a common primary cardiac disorder defined by a hypertrophied left ventricle, is one of the main causes of sudden death in young athletes, and has been associated with mutations in most sarcomeric proteins (tropomyosin, troponin T and I, and actin, etc.). Many of these mutations appear to affect the functional properties of cardiac troponin C (cTnC), i.e., by increasing the Ca(2+)-sensitivity of contraction, a hallmark of HCM, yet surprisingly, prior to this report, cTnC had not been classified as a HCM-susceptibility gene. In this study, we show that mutations occurring in the human cTnC (HcTnC) gene (TNNC1) have the same prevalence (~0.4%) as well established HCM-susceptibility genes that encode other sarcomeric proteins. Comprehensive open reading frame/splice site mutation analysis of TNNC1 performed on 1025 unrelated HCM patients enrolled over the last 10 years revealed novel missense mutations in TNNC1: A8V, C84Y, E134D, and D145E. Functional studies with these recombinant HcTnC HCM mutations showed increased Ca(2+) sensitivity of force development (A8V, C84Y and D145E) and force recovery (A8V and D145E). These results are consistent with the HCM functional phenotypes seen with other sarcomeric-HCM mutations (E134D showed no changes in these parameters). This is the largest cohort analysis of TNNC1 in HCM that details the discovery of at least three novel HCM-associated mutations and more strongly links TNNC1 to HCM along with functional evidence that supports a central role for its involvement in the disease. This study may help to further define TNNC1 as an HCM-susceptibility gene, a classification that has already been established for the other members of the troponin complex.

A Functional and Structural Study of Troponin C Mutations Related to Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy

Recently four new hypertrophic cardiomyopathy mutations in cardiac troponin C (cTnC) (A8V, C84Y, E134D, and D145E) were reported, and their effects on the Ca(2+) sensitivity of force development were evaluated (Landstrom, A. P., Parvatiyar, M. S., Pinto, J. R., Marquardt, M. L., Bos, J. M., Tester, D. J., Ommen, S. R., Potter, J. D., and Ackerman, M. J. (2008) J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol. 45, 281-288). We performed actomyosin ATPase and spectroscopic solution studies to investigate the molecular properties of these mutations. Actomyosin ATPase activity was measured as a function of [Ca(2+)] utilizing reconstituted thin filaments (TFs) with 50% mutant and 50% wild type (WT) and 100% mutant cardiac troponin (cTn) complexes: A8V, C84Y, and D145E increased the Ca(2+) sensitivity with only A8V demonstrating lowered Ca(2+) sensitization at the 50% ratio when compared with 100%; E134D was the same as WT at both ratios. Of these four mutants, only D145E showed increased ATPase activation in the presence of Ca(2+). None of the mutants affected ATPase inhibition or the binding of cTn to the TF measured by co-sedimentation. Only D145E increased the Ca(2+) affinity of site II measured by 2-(4'-(2''-iodoacetamido)phenyl)aminonaphthalene-6-sulfonic acid fluorescence in isolated cTnC or the cTn complex. In the presence of the TF, only A8V was further sensitized to Ca(2+). Circular dichroism measurements in different metal-bound states of the isolated cTnCs showed changes in the secondary structure of A8V, C84Y, and D145E, whereas E134D was the same as WT. PyMol modeling of each cTnC mutant within the cTn complex revealed potential for local changes in the tertiary structure of A8V, C84Y, and D145E. Our results indicate that 1) three of the hypertrophic cardiomyopathy cTnC mutants increased the Ca(2+) sensitivity of the myofilament; 2) the effects of the mutations on the Ca(2+) affinity of isolated cTnC, cTn, and TF are not sufficient to explain the large Ca(2+) sensitivity changes seen in reconstituted and fiber assays; and 3) changes in the secondary structure of the cTnC mutants may contribute to modified protein-protein interactions along the sarcomere lattice disrupting the coupling between the cross-bridge and Ca(2+) binding to cTnC.

Clinical and Functional Characterization of TNNT2 Mutations Identified in Patients with Dilated Cardiomyopathy

A key issue for cardiovascular genetic medicine is ascertaining if a putative mutation indeed causes dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). This is critically important as genetic DCM, usually presenting with advanced, life-threatening disease, may be preventable with early intervention in relatives known to carry the mutation.

Mutations in Troponin That Cause HCM, DCM AND RCM: What Can We Learn About Thin Filament Function?

Troponin (Tn) is a critical regulator of muscle contraction in cardiac muscle. Mutations in Tn subunits are associated with hypertrophic, dilated and restrictive cardiomyopathies. Improved diagnosis of cardiomyopathies as well as intensive investigation of new mouse cardiomyopathy models has significantly enhanced this field of research. Recent investigations have showed that the physiological effects of Tn mutations associated with hypertrophic, dilated and restrictive cardiomyopathies are different. Impaired relaxation is a universal finding of most transgenic models of HCM, predicted directly from the significant changes in Ca(2+) sensitivity of force production. Mutations associated with HCM and RCM show increased Ca(2+) sensitivity of force production while mutations associated with DCM demonstrate decreased Ca(2+) sensitivity of force production. This review spotlights recent advances in our understanding on the role of Tn mutations on ATPase activity, maximal force development and heart function as well as the correlation between the locations of these Tn mutations within the thin filament and myofilament function.

Predicting Cardiomyopathic Phenotypes by Altering Ca2+ Affinity of Cardiac Troponin C

Cardiac diseases associated with mutations in troponin subunits include hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), and restrictive cardiomyopathy (RCM). Altered calcium handling in these diseases is evidenced by changes in the Ca(2+) sensitivity of contraction. Mutations in the Ca(2+) sensor, troponin C (TnC), were generated to increase/decrease the Ca(2+) sensitivity of cardiac skinned fibers to create the characteristic effects of DCM, HCM, and RCM. We also used a reconstituted assay to determine the mutation effects on ATPase activation and inhibition. One mutant (A23Q) was found with HCM-like properties (increased Ca(2+) sensitivity of force and normal levels of ATPase inhibition). Three mutants (S37G, V44Q, and L48Q) were identified with RCM-like properties (a large increase in Ca(2+) sensitivity, partial loss of ATPase inhibition, and increased basal force). Two mutations were identified (E40A and I61Q) with DCM properties (decreased Ca(2+) sensitivity, maximal force recovery, and activation of the ATPase at high [Ca(2+)]). Steady-state fluorescence was utilized to assess Ca(2+) affinity in isolated cardiac (c)TnCs containing F27W and did not necessarily mirror the fiber Ca(2+) sensitivity. Circular dichroism of mutant cTnCs revealed a trend where increased alpha-helical content correlated with increased Ca(2+) sensitivity in skinned fibers and vice versa. The main findings from this study were as follows: 1) cTnC mutants demonstrated distinct functional phenotypes reminiscent of bona fide HCM, RCM, and DCM mutations; 2) a region in cTnC associated with increased Ca(2+) sensitivity in skinned fibers was identified; and 3) the F27W reporter mutation affected Ca(2+) sensitivity, maximal force, and ATPase activation of some mutants.

Cardiac Troponin Mutations and Restrictive Cardiomyopathy

Mutations in sarcomeric proteins have recently been established as heritable causes of Restrictive Cardiomyopathy (RCM). RCM is clinically characterized as a defect in cardiac diastolic function, such as, impaired ventricular relaxation, reduced diastolic volume and increased end-diastolic pressure. To date, mutations have been identified in the cardiac genes for desmin, alpha-actin, troponin I and troponin T. Functional studies in skinned muscle fibers reconstituted with troponin mutants have established phenotypes consistent with the clinical findings which include an increase in myofilament Ca(2+) sensitivity and basal force. Moreover, when RCM mutants are incorporated into reconstituted myofilaments, the ability to inhibit the ATPase activity is reduced. A majority of the mutations cluster in specific regions of cardiac troponin and appear to be mutational "hot spots". This paper highlights the functional and clinical characteristics of RCM linked mutations within the troponin complex.

Strong Cross-bridges Potentiate the Ca(2+) Affinity Changes Produced by Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Cardiac Troponin C Mutants in Myofilaments: a Fast Kinetic Approach

This spectroscopic study examined the steady-state and kinetic parameters governing the cross-bridge effect on the increased Ca(2+) affinity of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy-cardiac troponin C (HCM-cTnC) mutants. Previously, we found that incorporation of the A8V and D145E HCM-cTnC mutants, but not E134D into thin filaments (TFs), increased the apparent Ca(2+) affinity relative to TFs containing the WT protein. Here, we show that the addition of myosin subfragment 1 (S1) to TFs reconstituted with these mutants in the absence of MgATP(2-), the condition conducive to rigor cross-bridge formation, further increased the apparent Ca(2+) affinity. Stopped-flow fluorescence techniques were used to determine the kinetics of Ca(2+) dissociation (k(off)) from the cTnC mutants in the presence of TFs and S1. At a high level of complexity (i.e. TF + S1), an increase in the Ca(2+) affinity and decrease in k(off) was achieved for the A8V and D145E mutants when compared with WT. Therefore, it appears that the cTnC Ca(2+) off-rate is most likely to be affected rather than the Ca(2+) on rate. At all levels of TF complexity, the results obtained with the E134D mutant reproduced those seen with the WT protein. We conclude that strong cross-bridges potentiate the Ca(2+)-sensitizing effect of HCM-cTnC mutants on the myofilament. Finally, the slower k(off) from the A8V and D145E mutants can be directly correlated with the diastolic dysfunction seen in these patients.

Fetal Cardiac Troponin Isoforms Rescue the Increased Ca2+ Sensitivity Produced by a Novel Double Deletion in Cardiac Troponin T Linked to Restrictive Cardiomyopathy: a Clinical, Genetic, and Functional Approach

A novel double deletion in cardiac troponin T (cTnT) of two highly conserved amino acids (Asn-100 and Glu-101) was found in a restrictive cardiomyopathic (RCM) pediatric patient. Clinical evaluation revealed the presence of left atrial enlargement and marked left ventricle diastolic dysfunction. The explanted heart examined by electron microscopy revealed myofibrillar disarray and mild fibrosis. Pedigree analysis established that this mutation arose de novo. The patient tested negative for six other sarcomeric genes. The single and double recombinant cTnT mutants were generated, and their functional consequences were analyzed in porcine skinned cardiac muscle. In the adult Tn environment (cTnT3 + cardiac troponin I), the single cTnT3-ΔN100 and cTnT3-ΔE101 mutations had opposing effects on the Ca(2+) sensitivity of force development compared with WT, whereas the double deletion cTnT3-ΔN100/ΔE101 increased the Ca(2+) sensitivity + 0.19 pCa units. In addition, cTnT3-ΔN100/ΔE101 decreased the cooperativity of force development, suggesting alterations in intrafilament protein-protein interactions. In the fetal Tn environment, (cTnT1 + slow skeletal troponin I), the single (cTnT1-ΔN110) and double (cTnT1-ΔN110/ΔE111) deletions did not change the Ca(2+) sensitivity compared with control. To recreate the patient's heterozygous genotype, we performed a reconstituted ATPase activity assay. Thin filaments containing 50:50 cTnT3-ΔN100/ΔE101:cTnT3-WT also increased the myofilament Ca(2+) sensitivity compared with WT. Co-sedimentation of thin filament proteins indicated that no significant changes occurred in the binding of Tn containing the RCM cTnT mutation to actin-Tm. This report reveals the protective role of Tn fetal isoforms as they rescue the increased Ca(2+) sensitivity produced by a cTnT-RCM mutation and may account for the lack of lethality during gestation.

Functional Characterization of TNNC1 Rare Variants Identified in Dilated Cardiomyopathy

TNNC1, which encodes cardiac troponin C (cTnC), remains elusive as a dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) gene. Here, we report the clinical, genetic, and functional characterization of four TNNC1 rare variants (Y5H, M103I, D145E, and I148V), all previously reported by us in association with DCM (Hershberger, R. E., Norton, N., Morales, A., Li, D., Siegfried, J. D., and Gonzalez-Quintana, J. (2010) Circ. Cardiovasc. Genet. 3, 155-161); in the previous study, two variants (Y5H and D145E) were identified in subjects who also carried MYH7 and MYBPC3 rare variants, respectively. Functional studies using the recombinant human mutant cTnC proteins reconstituted into porcine papillary skinned fibers showed decreased Ca(2+) sensitivity of force development (Y5H and M103I). Furthermore, the cTnC mutants diminished (Y5H and I148V) or abolished (M103I) the effects of PKA phosphorylation on Ca(2+) sensitivity. Only M103I decreased the troponin activation properties of the actomyosin ATPase when Ca(2+) was present. CD spectroscopic studies of apo (absence of divalent cations)-, Mg(2+)-, and Ca(2+)/Mg(2+)-bound states indicated that all of the cTnC mutants (except I148V in the Ca(2+)/Mg(2+) condition) decreased the α-helical content. These results suggest that each mutation alters the function/ability of the myofilament to bind Ca(2+) as a result of modifications in cTnC structure. One variant (D145E) that was previously reported in association with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and that produced results in vivo in this study consistent with prior hypertrophic cardiomyopathy functional studies was found associated with the MYBPC3 P910T rare variant, likely contributing to the observed DCM phenotype. We conclude that these rare variants alter the regulation of contraction in some way, and the combined clinical, molecular, genetic, and functional data reinforce the importance of TNNC1 rare variants in the pathogenesis of DCM.

A Mutation in TNNC1-encoded Cardiac Troponin C, TNNC1-A31S, Predisposes to Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy and Ventricular Fibrillation

Defined as clinically unexplained hypertrophy of the left ventricle, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is traditionally understood as a disease of the cardiac sarcomere. Mutations in TNNC1-encoded cardiac troponin C (cTnC) are a relatively rare cause of HCM. Here, we report clinical and functional characterization of a novel TNNC1 mutation, A31S, identified in a pediatric HCM proband with multiple episodes of ventricular fibrillation and aborted sudden cardiac death. Diagnosed at age 5, the proband is family history-negative for HCM or sudden cardiac death, suggesting a de novo mutation. TnC-extracted cardiac skinned fibers were reconstituted with the cTnC-A31S mutant, which increased Ca(2+) sensitivity with no effect on the maximal contractile force generation. Reconstituted actomyosin ATPase assays with 50% cTnC-A31S:50% cTnC-WT demonstrated Ca(2+) sensitivity that was intermediate between 100% cTnC-A31S and 100% cTnC-WT, whereas the mutant increased the activation of the actomyosin ATPase without affecting the inhibitory qualities of the ATPase. The secondary structure of the cTnC mutant was evaluated by circular dichroism, which did not indicate global changes in structure. Fluorescence studies demonstrated increased Ca(2+) affinity in isolated cTnC, the troponin complex, thin filament, and to a lesser degree, thin filament with myosin subfragment 1. These results suggest that this mutation has a direct effect on the Ca(2+) sensitivity of the myofilament, which may alter Ca(2+) handling and contribute to the arrhythmogenesis observed in the proband. In summary, we report a novel mutation in the TNNC1 gene that is associated with HCM pathogenesis and may predispose to the pathogenesis of a fatal arrhythmogenic subtype of HCM.

Structural Considerations for Chromatin State Models with Transcription As a Functional Readout

Lacking from the rapidly evolving field of chromatin regulation is a discrete model of chromatin states. We propose that each state in such a model should meet two conditions: a structural component and a quantifiable effect on transcription. The practical benefits to the field of a model with greater than two states (including one with six states, as described herein) would be to improve interpretation of data from disparate organ systems, to reflect temporal and developmental dynamics and to integrate the, at present, conceptually and experimentally disparate analyses of individual genetic loci (in vitro or using single gene approaches) and genome-wide features (including ChlP-seq, chromosomal capture and mRNA expression via microarrays/sequencing).

The Functional Properties of Human Slow Skeletal Troponin T Isoforms in Cardiac Muscle Regulation

Human slow skeletal troponin T (HSSTnT) shares a high degree of homology with cardiac TnT (CTnT). Although the presence of HSSTnT has not been confirmed in the heart at the protein level, detectable levels of HSSTnT mRNA have been found. Whether HSSTnT isoforms are expressed transiently remains unknown. Because transient re-expression of HSSTnT may be a potential mechanism of regulating function, we explored the effect of HSSTnT on the regulation of cardiac muscle. At least three HSSTnT isoforms have been found to exist in slow skeletal muscle: HSSTnT1 (+exons 5 and 12), HSSTnT2 (+exon 5, -exon 12), and HSSTnT3 (-exons 5 and 12). Another isoform, HSSTnT hypothetical (Hyp) (-exon 5, +exon 12), has only been found at the mRNA level. Compared with HCTnT3 (adult isoform), Tn complexes containing HSSTnT1, -2, and -3 did not alter the actomyosin ATPase activation and inhibition in the presence and absence of Ca(2+), respectively. HSSTnTHyp was not evaluated as it did not form a Tn complex under a variety of conditions. Porcine papillary skinned fibers displaced with HSSTnT1, -2, or -3 and reconstituted with human cardiac troponin I and troponin C (HCTnI·TnC) complex showed a decrease in the Ca(2+) sensitivity of force development and an increase in maximal recovered force (HSSTnT1 and -3) compared with HCTnT3. In contrast, HSSTnTHyp showed an increase in the Ca(2+) sensitivity of force development. This suggests that re- or overexpression of specific SSTnT isoforms might have therapeutic potential in the failing heart because they increase the maximal force of contraction. In addition, circular dichroism and proteolytic digestion experiments revealed structural differences between HSSTnT isoforms and HCTnT3 and that HSSTnT1 is more susceptible to calpain and trypsin proteolysis than the other HSSTnTs. Overall, HSSTnT isoforms despite being homologues of CTnT may display distinct functional properties in muscle regulation.

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