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In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (7)
Articles by Miguel G. Toscano in JoVE
Cecal Ligation Puncture Procedure
Miguel G. Toscano1, Doina Ganea1, Ana M. Gamero2
1Department of Microbiology and Immunology School of Medicine, Temple University, 2Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Temple University
The mouse model of cecal ligation and puncture as a valuable tool for the study of human sepsis.
Other articles by Miguel G. Toscano on PubMed
Hematopoietic-specific Lentiviral Vectors Circumvent Cellular Toxicity Due to Ectopic Expression of Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Protein
Human Gene Therapy. Feb, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18240968
Efficient and safe gene modification of hematopoietic stem cells is a requirement for gene therapy of primary immunodeficiencies such as Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome. However, deregulated expression or ectopic expression in the progeny of transduced nonhematopoietic progenitor cells may lead to unwanted toxicity. We therefore analyzed the effect of ectopic expression of Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASp) and the potential benefits of hematopoietic-specific lentiviral vectors (driven by the WAS proximal promoter). Overexpression of WASp by constitutive lentiviral vectors is highly toxic in nonhematopoietic cells because it causes dramatic changes in actin localization and polymerization that result in decreased cell viability, as evidenced by a significant growth disadvantage of WASp-overexpressing nonhematopoietic cells and increased cell death. These toxic effects do not affect cells of hematopoietic origin because, remarkably, we found that WASp cannot be readily overexpressed in T cells, even after multiple vector integrations per cell. The adverse cellular effects found after transduction of nonhematopoietic cells with constitutive lentiviral vectors are overcome by the use of transcriptionally targeted lentiviral vectors expressing WASp, which, at the same time, are efficient tools for gene therapy of WAS as demonstrated by their ability to reconstitute cellular defects from WASp-deficient mouse and human cells. We therefore postulate that transcriptionally regulated lentiviral vectors represent a safer and efficient alternative for the development of clinical protocols of WAS gene therapy.
In Vivo Delivery of Lentiviral Vectors Expressing Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide Complementary DNA As Gene Therapy for Collagen-induced Arthritis
Arthritis and Rheumatism. Apr, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18383372
Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) has been shown to exert potent immunomodulatory activity, and the use of lentiviral vectors has been found to be an effective means of gene delivery. The present study was therefore undertaken to investigate the feasibility and efficiency of gene therapy using lentiviral vectors expressing VIP (LentiVIP) for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA).
Current Gene Therapy. Aug, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19534652
Primary immunodeficiencies (PID) are caused by mutations in genes that impair the development or activity of the immune system. Although bone marrow transplants achieve long time restoration in up to 90% of treated patients, morbidity and mortality are still high for some PID and adequate donors are not always available. Gene Therapy (GT) was envisioned as an alternative treatment for PID by inserting the correct gene into the patient's haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Up to date, GT for PID has succeeded in 40 of 44 patients treated in four clinical trials. However, five children enrolled in the SCID-X1 clinical trial developed leukaemia-like disease produced by aberrant expression of oncogenes. This phenomenon resulted fatal in one patient and represented a severe setback for gene therapy. Since then, vector development has been a priority in the GT field, by refining existing Murine laeukemia virus (MLV)-based vectors or by developing new ones. This review summarize existing methodologies for PID GT highlighting the importance of animal models in the PID GT success and focusing on new gene transfer vectors to achieve safe, efficient and stable gene modification.
Human Gene Therapy. Nov, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19630517
Abstract The development of vectors that express a therapeutic transgene efficiently and specifically in hematopoietic cells (HCs) is an important goal for gene therapy of hematological disorders. We have previously shown that a 500-bp fragment from the proximal Was gene promoter in a lentiviral vector (LV) was sufficient to achieve more than 100-fold higher levels of Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein in HCs than in nonhematopoietic cells (non-HCs). We show now that this differential was reduced up to 10 times when the enhanced green fluorescent protein gene (eGFP) was expressed instead of Was in the same LV backbone. Insertion of Was cDNA sequences downstream of eGFP in these LVs had a negative effect on transgene expression. This effect varied in different cell types but, overall, Was cDNA sequences increased the hematopoietic specificity of Was promoter-driven LV. We have characterized the minimal fragment required to increase hematopoietic specificity and have demonstrated that the mechanism involves Was promoter regulation and RNA processing. In addition, we have shown that Was cDNA sequences interfere with the enhancer activity of the woodchuck posttranscriptional regulatory element. These results represent the first data showing the role of Was intragenic sequences in gene regulation.
Dendritic Cells Transduced with Lentiviral Vectors Expressing VIP Differentiate into VIP-secreting Tolerogenic-like DCs
Molecular Therapy : the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy. May, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20068554
Dendritic cells (DCs) initiate immune responses as well as tolerance. We showed previously that the neuropeptide vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) suppresses innate immune responses, modulates adaptive responses by generating regulatory T cells (Treg) through the induction of tolerogenic DCs (tDCs), and has therapeutic effects in models of autoimmune/inflammatory disorders. Systemic VIP administration is limited by its short biological half-life and by its pleiotropic effects on the cardiovascular system and gastrointestinal tract. Therefore, we used lentiviral vectors to genetically engineer VIP-expressing bone marrow-derived DC (BMDC) and characterized the transduced LentiVIP-DC in terms of phenotype and therapeutic effects in models of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) and cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) sepsis. LentiVIP-DCs secrete VIP, and resemble tDCs through lack of co-stimulatory molecule upregulation, lack of proinflammatory cytokine secretion, increased interleukin (IL)-10 production, and poor stimulation of allogeneic T cells. A single inoculation of LentiVIP-DC in EAE or CLP mice had therapeutic effects, which correlated with reduced expression of proinflammatory cytokines and increased IL-10 production in spinal cord and peritoneal fluid, respectively. In contrast to systemic VIP administration that requires repeated, high-dose inoculations, local delivery of VIP by LentiVIP-DC may represent a promising therapeutic tool for the treatment of autoimmune diseases and inflammatory disorders.
Docosahexaenoic Acid Prevents Dendritic Cell Maturation and in Vitro and in Vivo Expression of the IL-12 Cytokine Family
Lipids in Health and Disease. 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20122166
Acute and chronic inflammation play essential roles in inflammatory/autoimmune conditions. Protective anti-inflammatory effects of the n-3 fatty acids docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) were reported in animal models of colitis, sepsis, and stroke. Since dendritic cells (DC) represent the essential cellular link between innate and adaptive immunity and have a prominent role in tolerance for self-antigens, we sought to investigate the impact of DHA on DC maturation and proinflammatory cytokine production.
Development of an All-in-one Lentiviral Vector System Based on the Original TetR for the Easy Generation of Tet-ON Cell Lines
PloS One. 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21876765
Lentiviral vectors (LVs) are considered one of the most promising vehicles to efficiently deliver genetic information for basic research and gene therapy approaches. Combining LVs with drug-inducible expression systems should allow tight control of transgene expression with minimal side effect on relevant target cells. A new doxycycline-regulated system based on the original TetR repressor was developed in 1998 as an alternative to the TetR-VP16 chimeras (tTA and rtTA) to avoid secondary effects due to the expression of transactivator domains. However, previously described TetR-based systems required cell cloning and/or antibiotic selection of tetracycline-responsive cells in order to achieve good regulation. In the present manuscript we have constructed a dual Tet-ON system based on two lentiviral vectors, one expressing the TetR through the spleen focus forming virus (SFFV) promoter (STetR) and a second expressing eGFP through the regulatable CMV-TetO promoter (CTetOE). Using these vectors we have demonstrated that the TetR repressor, contrary to the reverse transactivator (rtTA), can be expressed in excess to bind and modulate a high number of TetO operons. We have also showed that this dual vector system can generate regulatable bulk cell lines (expressing high levels of TetR) that are able to modulate transgene expression either by varying doxycycline concentration and/or by varying the amount of CTetOE vector genomes per cell. Based on these results we have developed a new all-in-one lentiviral vector (CEST) driving the expression of TetR through the SFFV promoter and the expression of eGFP through the doxycycline-responsive CMV-TetO operon. This vector efficiently produced Tet-ON regulatable immortalized (293T) and primary (human mesenchymal stem cells and human primary fibroblasts) cells. Bulk doxycycline-responsive cell lines express high levels of the transgene with low amount of doxycycline and are phenotypically indistinct from its parental cells.