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In JoVE (1)
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Articles by Monica Teta in JoVE
مناعي الكشف عن النظائر ثيميدين الثاني (CldU وإيدو) في الأنسجة الابتدائية
Alex H. Tuttle*, Matthew M. Rankin*, Monica Teta, Daniel J. Sartori, Geneva M. Stein, Gina J. Kim, Cristina Virgilio, Anne Granger, Di Zhou, Simon H. Long, Alisa B. Schiffman, Jake A. Kushner
Division of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, Institute of Diabetes Obesity and Metabolism, Institute for Regenerative Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, University of Pennsylvania-School of Medicine
وتستمد لدينا استراتيجية للكشف عن دمج متتابعة من نظائرها ثيميدين (CldU وإيدو) في أنسجة فئران بالغة لتحديد جولتين متعاقبة من انقسام الخلايا. هذه الاستراتيجية مفيدة للكشف عن دوران خلية من خلايا أنسجة طويلة الأمد ، والتحول أنكجنيك أو خلايا العبور تضخيم.
Other articles by Monica Teta on PubMed
Molecular and Cellular Biology. May, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15831479
Regulation of adult beta-cell mass in pancreatic islets is essential to preserve sufficient insulin secretion in order to appropriately regulate glucose homeostasis. In many tissues mitogens influence development by stimulating D-type cyclins (D1, D2, or D3) and activating cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK4 or CDK6), which results in progression through the G(1) phase of the cell cycle. Here we show that cyclins D2 and D1 are essential for normal postnatal islet growth. In adult murine islets basal cyclin D2 mRNA expression was easily detected, while cyclin D1 was expressed at lower levels and cyclin D3 was nearly undetectable. Prenatal islet development occurred normally in cyclin D2(-/-) or cyclin D1(+/-) D2(-/-) mice. However, beta-cell proliferation, adult mass, and glucose tolerance were decreased in adult cyclin D2(-/-) mice, causing glucose intolerance that progressed to diabetes by 12 months of age. Although cyclin D1(+/-) mice never developed diabetes, life-threatening diabetes developed in 3-month-old cyclin D1(-/+) D2(-/-) mice as beta-cell mass decreased after birth. Thus, cyclins D2 and D1 were essential for beta-cell expansion in adult mice. Strategies to tightly regulate D-type cyclin activity in beta cells could prevent or cure diabetes.
Diabetes. Sep, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16123343
Although many signaling pathways have been shown to promote beta-cell growth, surprisingly little is known about the normal life cycle of preexisting beta-cells or the signaling pathways required for beta-cell survival. Adult beta-cells have been speculated to have a finite life span, with ongoing adult beta-cell replication throughout life to replace lost cells. However, little solid evidence supports this idea. To more accurately measure adult beta-cell turnover, we performed continuous long-term labeling of proliferating cells with the DNA precursor analog 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) in 1-year-old mice. We show that beta-cells of aged adult mice have extremely low rates of replication, with minimal evidence of turnover. Although some pancreatic components acquired BrdU label in a linear fashion, only 1 in approximately 1,400 adult beta-cells were found to undergo replication per day. We conclude that adult beta-cells are very long lived.
Developmental Cell. May, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17488631
Cellular progenitors remain poorly characterized in many adult tissues, limited in part by the lack of unbiased techniques to identify progenitors and their progeny. To address this fundamental problem, we developed a novel DNA analog-based lineage-tracing technique to detect multiple rounds of cell division in vivo. Here, we apply this technique to determine the adult lineage mechanism of the insulin-secreting beta cells of pancreatic islets, an important unresolved question in diabetes research. As expected, gastrointestinal and skin epithelia involve specialized progenitors that repeatedly divide to give rise to postmitotic cells. In contrast, specialized progenitors do not contribute to adult beta cells, not even during acute beta cell regeneration. Instead, beta cells are the products of uniform self-renewal, slowed by a replication refractory period that prevents beta cells from immediately redividing. Our approach provides unbiased resolution of previously inaccessible developmental niches and can elucidate lineage mechanisms without candidate markers.
Nature. Sep, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17728714
Stem cells are proposed to segregate chromosomes asymmetrically during self-renewing divisions so that older ('immortal') DNA strands are retained in daughter stem cells whereas newly synthesized strands segregate to differentiating cells. Stem cells are also proposed to retain DNA labels, such as 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU), either because they segregate chromosomes asymmetrically or because they divide slowly. However, the purity of stem cells among BrdU-label-retaining cells has not been documented in any tissue, and the 'immortal strand hypothesis' has not been tested in a system with definitive stem cell markers. Here we tested these hypotheses in haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), which can be highly purified using well characterized markers. We administered BrdU to newborn mice, mice treated with cyclophosphamide and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, and normal adult mice for 4 to 10 days, followed by 70 days without BrdU. In each case, less than 6% of HSCs retained BrdU and less than 0.5% of all BrdU-retaining haematopoietic cells were HSCs, revealing that BrdU has poor specificity and poor sensitivity as an HSC marker. Sequential administration of 5-chloro-2-deoxyuridine and 5-iodo-2-deoxyuridine indicated that all HSCs segregate their chromosomes randomly. Division of individual HSCs in culture revealed no asymmetric segregation of the label. Thus, HSCs cannot be identified on the basis of BrdU-label retention and do not retain older DNA strands during division, indicating that these are not general properties of stem cells.
Development (Cambridge, England). Jun, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18480165
beta-Catenin signaling is required for hair follicle development, but it is unknown whether its activation is sufficient to globally program embryonic epidermis to hair follicle fate. To address this, we mutated endogenous epithelial beta-catenin to a dominant-active form in vivo. Hair follicle placodes were expanded and induced prematurely in activated beta-catenin mutant embryos, but failed to invaginate or form multilayered structures. Eventually, the entire epidermis adopted hair follicle fate, broadly expressing hair shaft keratins in place of epidermal stratification proteins. Mutant embryonic skin was precociously innervated, and displayed prenatal pigmentation, a phenomenon never observed in wild-type controls. Thus, beta-catenin signaling programs the epidermis towards placode and hair shaft fate at the expense of epidermal differentiation, and activates signals directing pigmentation and innervation. In transcript profiling experiments, we identified elevated expression of Sp5, a direct beta-catenin target and transcriptional repressor. We show that Sp5 normally localizes to hair follicle placodes and can suppress epidermal differentiation gene expression. We identified the pigmentation regulators Foxn1, Adamts20 and Kitl, and the neural guidance genes Sema4c, Sema3c, Unc5b and Unc5c, as potential mediators of the effects of beta-catenin signaling on pigmentation and innervation. Our data provide evidence for a new paradigm in which, in addition to promoting hair follicle placode and hair shaft fate, beta-catenin signaling actively suppresses epidermal differentiation and directs pigmentation and nerve fiber growth. Controlled downregulation of beta-catenin signaling is required for normal placode patterning within embryonic ectoderm, hair follicle downgrowth, and adoption of the full range of follicular fates.
Molecular Endocrinology (Baltimore, Md.). Nov, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19628581
The molecular determinants of beta-cell mass expansion remain poorly understood. Cyclin D2 is the major D-type cyclin expressed in beta-cells, essential for adult beta-cell growth. We hypothesized that cyclin D2 could be actively regulated in beta-cells, which could allow mitogenic stimuli to influence beta-cell expansion. Cyclin D2 protein was sharply increased after partial pancreatectomy, but cyclin D2 mRNA was unchanged, suggesting posttranscriptional regulatory mechanisms influence cyclin D2 expression in beta-cells. Consistent with this hypothesis, cyclin D2 protein stability is powerfully regulated in fibroblasts. Threonine 280 of cyclin D2 is phosphorylated, and this residue critically limits D2 stability. We derived transgenic (tg) mice with threonine 280 of cyclin D2 mutated to alanine (T280A) or wild-type cyclin D2 under the control of the insulin promoter. Cyclin D2 T280A protein was expressed at much higher levels than wild-type cyclin D2 protein in beta-cells, despite equivalent expression of tg mRNAs. Cyclin D2 T280A tg mice exhibited a constitutively nuclear cyclin D2 localization in beta-cells, and increased cyclin D2 stability in islets. Interestingly, threonine 280-mutant cyclin D2 tg mice had greatly reduced beta-cell apoptosis, with suppressed expression of proapoptotic genes. Suppressed beta-cell apoptosis in threonine 280-mutant cyclin D2 tg mice resulted in greatly increased beta-cell area in aged mice. Taken together, these data indicate that cyclin D2 is regulated by protein stability in pancreatic beta-cells, that signals that act upon threonine 280 limit cyclin D2 stability in beta-cells, and that threonine 280-mutant cyclin D2 overexpression prolongs beta-cell survival and augments beta-cell mass expansion.