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In JoVE (1)
- Delivery of Therapeutic Agents Through Intracerebroventricular (ICV) and Intravenous (IV) Injection in Mice
Other Publications (13)
- The Journal of Biological Chemistry
- Journal of Virology
- Molecular Therapy : the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
- Molecular Therapy : the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
- PloS One
- Human Molecular Genetics
- Human Molecular Genetics
- Drug News & Perspectives
- Journal of Molecular Neuroscience : MN
- Human Gene Therapy
- Human Gene Therapy
- Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
- Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
Articles by Monir Shababi in JoVE
Delivery of Therapeutic Agents Through Intracerebroventricular (ICV) and Intravenous (IV) Injection in Mice
Jacqueline J. Glascock1, Erkan Y. Osman1, Tristan H. Coady2, Ferrill F. Rose1, Monir Shababi3, Christian L. Lorson3
1Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Bond Life Sciences Center, University of Missouri, 2Department of Biological Sciences, Columbia University, 3Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, Bond Life Sciences Center, University of Missouri
This article demonstrates two very different methods of injection: 1) into the brain (intracerebroventricular) and 2) systemic (intravenous) to introduce the therapeutic agents into the central nervous system of neonatal mice.
Other articles by Monir Shababi on PubMed
A Cytosolic Domain of the Yeast Zrt1 Zinc Transporter is Required for Its Post-translational Inactivation in Response to Zinc and Cadmium
The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Oct, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12893829
Nutrient metals such as zinc are both essential to life and potentially toxic if overaccumulated by cells. Non-essential toxic metals like cadmium can enter cells through the uptake transporters responsible for nutrient metal acquisition. Therefore, in the face of ever changing extracellular metal levels, organisms tightly control their intracellular levels of nutrient metals and prevent accumulation of toxic metals. We show here that post-translational inactivation of the yeast Zrt1 zinc uptake transporter is important for zinc homeostasis. During the transition from zinc-limiting to zinc-replete growth conditions (i.e. zinc shock), the Zrt1 transporter is ubiquitinated, endocytosed, and subsequently degraded in the vacuole. To further understand this process at a molecular level, we mapped a region of Zrt1 required for ubiquitination and endocytosis in response to zinc to a domain located on the intracellular surface of the plasma membrane. This domain is a critical cis-acting component of the metal signaling pathway that controls Zrt1 protein trafficking. Using mutant alleles defective for metal-responsive inactivation, we also show that Zrt1 inactivation may be an important mechanism for preventing cadmium uptake and toxicity in zinc-limited cells.
The Ribosomal Shunt Translation Strategy of Cauliflower Mosaic Virus Has Evolved from Ancient Long Terminal Repeats
Journal of Virology. Apr, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16571798
We have screened portions of the large intergenic region of the Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) genome for promoter activity in baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and have identified an element that contributes to promoter activity in yeast but has negligible activity in plant cells when expressed in an agroinfiltration assay. A search of the yeast genome sequence revealed that the CaMV element had sequence similarity with the R region of the long terminal repeat (LTR) of the yeast Ty1 retrotransposon, with significant statistical confidence. In plants, the same CaMV sequence has been shown to have an essential role in the ribosomal shunt mechanism of translation, as it forms the base of the right arm of the stem-loop structure that is required for the ribosomal shunt. Since the left arm of the stem-loop structure must represent an imperfect reverse copy of the right arm, we propose that the ribosomal shunt has evolved from a pair of LTRs that have become incorporated end to end into the CaMV genome.
Molecular Therapy : the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy. Jul, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16580882
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an autosomal recessive neuromuscular disorder that is the leading genetic cause of infant mortality. SMA is caused by the loss of survival motor neuron-1 (SMN1). In humans, a nearly identical copy gene is present, called SMN2. SMN2 is retained in all SMA patients and encodes an identical protein compared to SMN1. However, a single silent nucleotide difference in SMN2 exon 7 results in the production of a spliced isoform (called SMNDelta7) that encodes a nonfunctional protein. The presence of SMN2 represents a unique therapeutic target since SMN2 has the capacity to encode a fully functional protein. Here we describe an in vivo delivery system for short bifunctional RNAs that modulate SMN2 splicing. Bifunctional RNAs derive their name from the presence of two domains: an antisense RNA sequence specific to a target RNA and an untethered RNA segment that serves as a binding platform for splicing factors. Plasmid-based and recombinant adeno-associated virus vectors were developed that expressed bifunctional RNAs that stimulated SMN2 exon 7 inclusion and full-length SMN protein in patient fibroblasts. These experiments provide a mechanism to modulate splicing from a variety of genetic contexts and demonstrate directly a novel therapeutic approach for SMA.
Molecular Therapy : the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy. Aug, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17551501
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is caused by loss of survival motor neuron-1 (SMN1). A nearly identical copy gene called SMN2 is present in all SMA patients; however SMN2 produces low levels of functional protein due to alternative splicing. Recently a therapeutic approach has been developed referred to as trans-splicing. Conceptually, this strategy relies upon pre-messenger RNA (pre-mRNA) splicing occurring between two separate molecules: (i) the endogenous target RNA and (ii) the therapeutic RNA that provides the correct RNA sequence via a trans-splicing event. SMN trans-splicing RNAs were initially examined and expressed from a plasmid-backbone and shown to re-direct splicing from a SMN2 mini-gene as well as from endogenous transcripts. Subsequently, recombinant adeno-associated viral vectors were developed that expressed and delivered trans-splicing RNAs to SMA patient fibroblasts. In the severe SMA patient fibroblasts, SMN2 splicing was redirected via trans-splicing to produce increased levels of full-length SMN mRNA and total SMN protein levels. Finally, small nuclear ribonucleoprotein (snRNP) assembly, a critical function of SMN, was restored to SMN-deficient SMA fibroblasts following treatment with the trans-splicing vector. Together these results demonstrate that the alternatively spliced SMN2 exon 7 is a tractable target for replacement by trans-splicing.
PloS One. 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18941511
RNA modalities are developing as a powerful means to re-direct pathogenic pre-mRNA splicing events. Improving the efficiency of these molecules in vivo is critical as they move towards clinical applications. Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is caused by loss of SMN1. A nearly identical copy gene called SMN2 produces low levels of functional protein due to alternative splicing. We previously reported a trans-splicing RNA (tsRNA) that re-directed SMN2 splicing. Now we show that reducing the competition between endogenous splices sites enhanced the efficiency of trans-splicing. A single vector system was developed that expressed the SMN tsRNA and a splice-site blocking antisense (ASO-tsRNA). The ASO-tsRNA vector significantly elevated SMN levels in primary SMA patient fibroblasts, within the central nervous system of SMA mice and increased SMN-dependent in vitro snRNP assembly. These results demonstrate that the ASO-tsRNA strategy provides insight into the trans-splicing mechanism and a means of significantly enhancing trans-splicing activity in vivo.
Human Molecular Genetics. Apr, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20392710
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder and a leading genetic cause of infantile mortality. SMA is caused by mutation or deletion of Survival Motor Neuron-1 (SMN1). The clinical features of the disease are caused by specific degeneration of alpha-motor neurons in the spinal cord, leading to muscle weakness, atrophy and, in the majority of cases, premature death. A highly homologous copy gene (SMN2) is retained in almost all SMA patients but fails to generate adequate levels of SMN protein due to its defective splicing pattern. The severity of the SMA phenotype is inversely correlated with SMN2 copy number and the level of full-length SMN protein produced by SMN2 ( approximately 10-15% compared with SMN1). The natural history of SMA has been altered over the past several decades, primarily through supportive care measures, but an effective treatment does not presently exist. However, the common genetic etiology and recent progress in pre-clinical models suggest that SMA is well-suited for the development of therapeutic regimens. We summarize recent advances in translational research that hold promise for the progression towards clinical trials.
Human Molecular Genetics. Oct, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20696672
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an autosomal recessive disorder, which is the leading genetic cause of infantile death. SMA is the most common inherited motor neuron disease and occurs in approximately 1:6000 live births. The gene responsible for SMA is called Survival Motor Neuron-1 (SMN1). Interestingly, a human-specific copy gene is present on the same region of chromosome 5q, called SMN2. Motor neurons are the primary tissue affected in SMA. Although it is clear that SMA is a neurodegenerative disease, there are clinical reports that suggest that other tissues contribute to the overall phenotype, especially in the most severe forms of the disease. In severe SMA cases, a growing number of congenital heart defects have been identified upon autopsy. The most common defect is a developmental defect referred to as hypoplastic left heart. The purpose of this report is to determine whether cardiac tissue is altered in SMA models and whether this could contribute to SMA pathogenesis. Here we identified early-stage developmental defects in a severe model of SMA. Additionally, pathological responses including fibrosis and oxidative stress markers were observed shortly after birth in a less severe model of disease. Similarly, functional differences were detected between wild-type and early-stage SMA animals. Collectively, this work demonstrates the importance of cardiac development and function in these severe models of SMA.
Drug News & Perspectives. Oct, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 21031163
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is the second most common autosomal recessive disease and is a leading cause of infantile death. This disease has a carrier frequency of 1:35, affecting 1/6,000 live births and is the result of a homozygous loss of the survival of motor neuron 1 gene (SMN1). Humans carry a nearly identical copy gene, SMN2, that codes for very low levels of the full-length protein, ∼10% when compared to SMN1. This is due to one silent nucleotide transition at the 5' end of exon 7 that disrupts a critical splicing regulatory domain. The underlying protein coding region, however, is unaffected by this and other nucleotide differences between SMN1 and SMN2. SMN2 has, therefore, been envisioned as an outstanding target for therapeutic strategies that 1) increases SMN2 expression, 2) alters the pre-messenger RNA splicing of exon 7 or 3) stabilizes the SMN2-derived protein products. In this review, we summarize numerous therapeutic approaches including nucleic acid-based and drug-oriented therapies that have progressed toward treating SMA.
Journal of Molecular Neuroscience : MN. Aug, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21826391
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), a neurodegenerative disease, is the leading genetic cause of infantile death and is caused by the loss of survival motor neuron 1 (SMN1). Humans carry a duplicated copy gene, SMN2, which produces very low levels of functional protein due to an alternative splicing event. This splicing difference is the reason that SMN2 cannot prevent SMA development when SMN1 is deleted. SMN2 generates a transcript lacking exon 7 and consequently gives rise to an unstable truncated SMN protein that cannot protect from SMA. To increase full-length SMN protein, we utilize a strategy referred to as trans-splicing. This strategy relies upon pre-mRNA splicing occurring between two separate molecules: (1) the endogenous target RNA and (2) the therapeutic RNA that provides the correct RNA sequence via a trans-splicing event. The initial trans-splicing RNA targeted intron 6 and replaced exon 7 with the SMN1 exon 7 in SMN2 pre-mRNA. To determine the most efficient intron for SMN trans-splicing event, a panel of trans-splicing RNA molecules was constructed. Each trans-splicing RNA molecule targets a specific intron within the SMN2 pre-mRNA and based on the target intron, replaces the downstream exons including exon 7. These constructs were examined by RT-PCR, immunofluorescence, and Western blotting. We have identified intron 3 as the most efficient intron to support trans-splicing in cellular assays. The intron 3 trans-splicing construct targets intron 3 and replaces exons 4-7 and was distinguished based on its ability to produce the highest level of the trans-spliced RNA and full-length SMN protein in SMA patient fibroblasts. The efficiency of the intron 3 construct was further improved by addition of an antisense that blocks the 3' splice site at the intron 4/exon 5 junction. Most importantly, intracerebroventricular injection of the Int3 construct into SMNΔ7 mice elevated the SMN protein levels in the central nervous system. This research demonstrates an alternative platform to correct genetic defects, including SMN expression and examines the molecular basis for trans-splicing.
Combination of SMN Trans-splicing and a Neurotrophic Factor Increases the Life Span and Body Mass in a Severe Model of Spinal Muscular Atrophy
Human Gene Therapy. Feb, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 20804424
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), a neurodegenerative disease, is the second most common genetic disorder and the leading genetic cause of infantile death. SMA arises from the loss of Survival Motor Neuron-1 (SMN1), leading to degeneration of lower motor neurons and, consequently, the atrophy of voluntary muscles. A duplicated copy gene called SMN2 exists in humans. SMN2 is unable to fully compensate for the loss of SMN1 because it produces very low levels of functional SMN protein due to an alternative splicing event. A C/T transition in SMN2 exon 7 results in a transcript lacking exon 7 and, therefore, creates a truncated SMN protein that cannot fully compensate for the loss of SMN1. However, SMN2 is an ideal target for therapeutic strategies that redirect this critical splicing event. Previously, we developed the first trans-splicing strategy to increase the full-length mRNA and functional SMN protein from the SMN2 gene. To improve the trans-splicing efficacy, we then developed a single-vector system that expressed a trans-splicing RNA (tsRNA) and an antisense blocking the downstream splice site. This single vector greatly enhanced trans-splicing of SMN2 transcripts in vitro and in vivo. In this report, we have added a neurotrophic factor [insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1] to this single vector to determine whether neuroprotection and SMN induction provide greater protection in an SMA animal model. Intracerebroventricular injection of the trans-splicing/IGF vector significantly increased SMN protein in brain and spinal cord of SMAΔ7 mice and lessened the severity of disease in a more severe mouse model as evidenced by an extension of life span and increased body mass.
Decreasing Disease Severity in Symptomatic, Smn(-/-);SMN2(+/+), Spinal Muscular Atrophy Mice Following ScAAV9-SMN Delivery
Human Gene Therapy. Jan, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22029744
Abstract Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), an autosomal recessive neuromuscular disorder, is the leading genetic cause of infant mortality. SMA is caused by the homozygous loss of Survival Motor Neuron-1 (SMN1). In humans, a nearly identical copy gene is present, SMN2. SMN2 is retained in all SMA patients and encodes the same protein as SMN1. However, SMN1 and SMN2 differ by a silent C-to-T transition at the 5' end of exon 7, causing alternative splicing of SMN2 transcripts and low levels of full-length SMN. SMA is monogenic and therefore well suited for gene-replacement strategies. Recently, self-complementary adeno-associated virus (scAAV) vectors have been used to deliver the SMN cDNA to an animal model of disease, the SMNΔ7 mouse. In this study, we examine a severe model of SMA, Smn(-/-);SMN2(+/+), to determine whether gene replacement is viable in a model in which disease development begins in utero. Using two delivery paradigms, intracerebroventricular injections and intravenous injections, we delivered scAAV9-SMN and demonstrated a two to four fold increase in survival, in addition to improving many of the phenotypic parameters of the model. This represents the longest extension in survival for this severe model for any therapeutic intervention and suggests that postsymptomatic treatment of SMA may lead to significant improvement of disease severity.
Direct Central Nervous System Delivery Provides Enhanced Protection Following Vector Mediated Gene Replacement in a Severe Model of Spinal Muscular Atrophy
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. Jan, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22172949
Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA), an autosomal recessive neuromuscular disorder, is the leading genetic cause of infant mortality. SMA is caused by the homozygous loss of Survival Motor Neuron-1 (SMN1). SMA, however, is not due to complete absence of SMN, rather a low level of functional full-length SMN is produced by a nearly identical copy gene called SMN2. Despite SMN's ubiquitous expression, motor neurons are preferentially affected by low SMN levels. Recently gene replacement strategies have shown tremendous promise in animal models of SMA. In this study, we used self-complementary Adeno Associated Virus (scAAV) expressing full-length SMN cDNA to compare two different routes of viral delivery in a severe SMA mouse model. This was accomplished by injecting scAAV9-SMN vector intravenously (IV) or intracerebroventricularly (ICV) into SMA mice. Both routes of delivery resulted in a significant increase in lifespan and weight compared to untreated mice with a subpopulation of mice surviving more than 200days. However, the ICV injected mice gained significantly more weight than their IV treated counterparts. Likewise, survival analysis showed that ICV treated mice displayed fewer early deaths than IV treated animals. Collectively, this report demonstrates that route of delivery is a crucial component of gene therapy treatment for SMA.
Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology. Jan, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22285962
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a leading genetic cause of infantile death. Loss of a gene called Survival Motor Neuron 1 (SMN1) and, as a result, reduced levels of the Survival Motor Neuron (SMN) protein leads to SMA development. SMA is characterized by the loss of functional motor neurons in the spinal cord. However, accumulating evidence suggests the contribution of other organs to the composite SMA phenotype and disease progression. A growing number of congenital heart defects have been identified in severe SMA patients. Consistent with the clinical cases, we have recently identified developmental and functional heart defects in two SMA mouse models, occurring at embryonic stage in a severe SMA model and shortly after birth in a less severe model (SMN∆7). Our goal was to examine the late stage cardiac abnormalities in untreated SMN∆7 mice and to determine whether gene replacement therapy restores cardiac structure/function in rescued SMN∆7 model. To reveal the extent of the cardiac structural/functional repair in the rescued mice, we analyzed the heart of untreated and treated SMN∆7 model using self-complementary Adeno-associated virus (serotype 9) expressing the full-length SMN cDNA. We examined the characteristics of the heart failure such as remodeling, fibrosis, oxidative stress, and vascular integrity in both groups. Our results clearly indicate that fibrosis, oxidative stress activation, vascular remodeling, and a significant decrease in the number of capillaries exist in the SMA heart. The cardiac structural defects were improved drastically in the rescued animals, however, the level of impairment was still significant compared to the age-matched wildtype littermates. Furthermore, functional analysis by in vivo cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed that the heart of the treated SMA mice still exhibits functional defects. In conclusion, cardiac abnormalities are only partially rescued in post-birth treated SMA animals and these abnormalities may contribute to the premature death of vector-treated SMA animals with seemingly rescued motor function but an average life span of less than 70days as reported in several studies.