1Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, 2Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry/Physics, Mercyhurst University, 3Department of Physics, Saint Louis University, 4Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Motivated by recent transport experiments and proposed atomic-scale semiconductor devices, we present measurements that extend the reach of scanned-probe methods to discern the properties of individual dopants tens of nanometers below the surface of a silicon sample. Using a capacitance-based approach, we have both spatially resolved individual subsurface boron acceptors and detected spectroscopically single holes entering and leaving these minute systems of atoms. A resonance identified as the B+ state is shown to shift in energy from acceptor to acceptor. We examine this behavior with respect to nearest-neighbor distances. By directly measuring the quantum levels and testing the effect of dopant-dopant interactions, this method represents a valuable tool for the development of future atomic-scale semiconductor devices.