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In JoVE (1)
- Simultaneous Recording of Calcium Signals from Identified Neurons and Feeding Behavior of Drosophila melanogaster
Other Publications (9)
- Genesis (New York, N.Y. : 2000)
- Current Opinion in Neurobiology
- The Journal of Biological Chemistry
- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
- The Journal of Cell Biology
- The Neuroscientist : a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
- Science (New York, N.Y.)
- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Articles by Motojiro Yoshihara in JoVE
Simultaneous Recording of Calcium Signals from Identified Neurons and Feeding Behavior of Drosophila melanogaster
Department of Neurobiology, University of Massachusetts Medical School
The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, extends its proboscis for feeding, responding to a sugar stimulus from its proboscis or tarsus. I have combined observations of the proboscis extension response (PER) with a calcium imaging technique, allowing us to monitor the activity of neurons in the brain, simultaneously with behavioral observation.
Other articles by Motojiro Yoshihara on PubMed
GETDB, a Database Compiling Expression Patterns and Molecular Locations of a Collection of Gal4 Enhancer Traps
Genesis (New York, N.Y. : 2000). Sep-Oct, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 12324948
Neuron. Dec, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 12467593
To characterize Ca(2+)-mediated synaptic vesicle fusion, we analyzed Drosophila synaptotagmin I mutants deficient in specific interactions mediated by its two Ca(2+) binding C2 domains. In the absence of synaptotagmin I, synchronous release is abolished and a kinetically distinct delayed asynchronous release pathway is uncovered. Synapses containing only the C2A domain of synaptotagmin partially recover synchronous fusion, but have an abolished Ca(2+) cooperativity. Mutants that disrupt Ca(2+) sensing by the C2B domain have synchronous release with normal Ca(2+) cooperativity, but with reduced release probability. Our data suggest the Ca(2+) cooperativity of neurotransmitter release is likely mediated through synaptotagmin-SNARE interactions, while phospholipid binding and oligomerization trigger rapid fusion with increased release probability. These results indicate that synaptotagmin is the major Ca(2+) sensor for evoked release and functions to trigger synchronous fusion in response to Ca(2+), while suppressing asynchronous release.
Current Opinion in Neurobiology. Jun, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12850216
After much debate, recent progress indicates that the synaptic vesicle protein synaptotagmin I probably functions as the calcium sensor for synchronous neurotransmitter release. Following calcium influx into presynaptic terminals, synaptotagmin I rapidly triggers the fusion of synaptic vesicles with the plasma membrane and underlies the fourth-order calcium cooperativity of release. Biochemical and genetic studies suggest that lipid and SNARE interactions underlie synaptotagmin's ability to mediate the incredible speed of vesicle fusion that is the hallmark of fast synaptic transmission.
The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Oct, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12896973
Voltage-gated calcium channels couple changes in membrane potential to neuronal functions regulated by calcium, including neurotransmitter release. Here we report that presynaptic N-type calcium channels not only control neurotransmitter release but also regulate synaptic growth at Drosophila neuromuscular junctions. In a screen for behavioral mutants that disrupt synaptic transmission, an allele of the N-type calcium channel locus (Dmca1A) was identified that caused synaptic undergrowth. The underlying molecular defect was identified as a neutralization of a charged residue in the third S4 voltage sensor. RNA interference reduction of N-type calcium channel expression also reduced synaptic growth. Hypomorphic mutations in syntaxin-1A or n-synaptobrevin, which also disrupt neurotransmitter release, did not affect synapse proliferation at the neuromuscular junction, suggesting calcium entry through presynaptic N-type calcium channels, not neurotransmitter release per se, is important for synaptic growth. The reduced synapse proliferation in Dmca1A mutants is not due to increased synapse retraction but instead reflects a role for calcium influx in synaptic growth mechanisms. These results suggest N-type channels participate in synaptic growth through signaling pathways that are distinct from those that mediate neurotransmitter release. Linking presynaptic voltage-gated calcium entry to downstream calcium-sensitive synaptic growth regulators provides an efficient activity-dependent mechanism for modifying synaptic strength.
Cytoplasmic Aggregates Trap Polyglutamine-containing Proteins and Block Axonal Transport in a Drosophila Model of Huntington's Disease
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Mar, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 14978262
Huntington's disease is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder caused by expansion of a polyglutamine tract in the huntingtin protein that results in intracellular aggregate formation and neurodegeneration. Pathways leading from polyglutamine tract expansion to disease pathogenesis remain obscure. To elucidate how polyglutamine expansion causes neuronal dysfunction, we generated Drosophila transgenic strains expressing human huntingtin cDNAs encoding pathogenic (Htt-Q128) or nonpathogenic proteins (Htt-Q0). Whereas expression of Htt-Q0 has no discernible effect on behavior, lifespan, or neuronal morphology, pan-neuronal expression of Htt-Q128 leads to progressive loss of motor coordination, decreased lifespan, and time-dependent formation of huntingtin aggregates specifically in the cytoplasm and neurites. Huntingtin aggregates sequester other expanded polyglutamine proteins in the cytoplasm and lead to disruption of axonal transport and accumulation of aggregates at synapses. In contrast, Drosophila expressing an expanded polyglutamine tract alone, or an expanded polyglutamine tract in the context of the spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 protein, display only nuclear aggregates and do not disrupt axonal trafficking. Our findings indicate that nonnuclear events induced by cytoplasmic huntingtin aggregation play a central role in the progressive neurodegeneration observed in Huntington's disease.
Synaptotagmins Are Trafficked to Distinct Subcellular Domains Including the Postsynaptic Compartment
The Journal of Cell Biology. Jul, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15263020
The synaptotagmin family has been implicated in calcium-dependent neurotransmitter release, although Synaptotagmin 1 is the only isoform demonstrated to control synaptic vesicle fusion. Here, we report the characterization of the six remaining synaptotagmin isoforms encoded in the Drosophila genome, including homologues of mammalian Synaptotagmins 4, 7, 12, and 14. Like Synaptotagmin 1, Synaptotagmin 4 is ubiquitously present at synapses, but localizes to the postsynaptic compartment. The remaining isoforms were not found at synapses (Synaptotagmin 7), expressed at very low levels (Synaptotagmins 12 and 14), or in subsets of putative neurosecretory cells (Synaptotagmins alpha and beta). Consistent with their distinct localizations, overexpression of Synaptotagmin 4 or 7 cannot functionally substitute for the loss of Synaptotagmin 1 in synaptic transmission. Our results indicate that synaptotagmins are differentially distributed to unique subcellular compartments. In addition, the identification of a postsynaptic synaptotagmin suggests calcium-dependent membrane-trafficking functions on both sides of the synapse.
The Neuroscientist : a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry. Dec, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15534041
The synaptotagmin family of vesicle proteins is believed to mediate calcium-dependent regulation of membrane trafficking. Detailed biochemical and in vivo studies of the most characterized isoform, synaptotagmin 1 (syt 1), have provided compelling evidence that it functions as a calcium sensor for fast neurotransmitter release at synapses. However, the function of the remaining isoforms is unclear, and multiple roles have been hypothesized for several of these. Recent evidence in Drosophila has given insight into the function of some of the remaining synaptotagmin family members. Of the five evolutionarily conserved isoforms in Drosophila, only two, syt 1 and syt 4, localize to most, if not all, synapses. The former is localized to presynaptic terminals, whereas the latter is predominantly postsynaptic. This suggests an intriguing possibility that syt 4 may mediate a postsynaptic vesicle trafficking pathway, providing a molecular basis for an evolutionarily conserved bidirectional vesicular trafficking communication system at synapses.
Science (New York, N.Y.). Nov, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16272123
The molecular pathways involved in retrograde signal transduction at synapses and the function of retrograde communication are poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that postsynaptic calcium 2+ ion (Ca2+) influx through glutamate receptors and subsequent postsynaptic vesicle fusion trigger a robust induction of presynaptic miniature release after high-frequency stimulation at Drosophila neuromuscular junctions. An isoform of the synaptotagmin family, synaptotagmin 4 (Syt 4), serves as a postsynaptic Ca2+ sensor to release retrograde signals that stimulate enhanced presynaptic function through activation of the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-cAMP-dependent protein kinase pathway. Postsynaptic Ca2+ influx also stimulates local synaptic differentiation and growth through Syt 4-mediated retrograde signals in a synapse-specific manner.
Differential Regulation of Synchronous Versus Asynchronous Neurotransmitter Release by the C2 Domains of Synaptotagmin 1
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Aug, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20679236
Synaptic vesicle fusion at many synapses has been kinetically separated into two distinct Ca(2+)-dependent temporal components consisting of a rapid synchronous phase followed by a slower asynchronous component. Mutations in the synaptic vesicle Ca(2+) sensor Synaptotagmin 1 (Syt 1) reduce synchronous neurotransmission while enhancing the slower asynchronous phase of release. Syt 1 regulation of vesicle fusion requires interactions mediated by its tandem cytoplasmic C2 domains (C2A and C2B). Although Ca(2+) binding by Syt 1 is predicted to drive synchronous release, it is unknown if Ca(2+) interactions with either C2 domain is required for suppression of asynchronous release. To determine if Ca(2+) binding by Syt 1 regulates these two phases of release independently, we performed electrophysiological analysis of transgenically expressed Syt 1 mutated at Ca(2+) binding sites in C2A or C2B in the background of Drosophila Syt 1-null mutants. Transgenic animals expressing mutations that disrupt Ca(2+) binding to C2A fully restored the synchronous phase of neurotransmitter release, whereas the asynchronous component was not suppressed. In contrast, rescue with Ca(2+)-binding mutants in C2B displayed little rescue of the synchronous release component, but reduced asynchronous release. These results suggest that the tandem C2 domains of Syt 1 play independent roles in neurotransmission, as Ca(2+) binding to C2A suppresses asynchronous release, whereas Ca(2+) binding to C2B mediates synchronous fusion.