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In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (9)
Articles by Nancy Vu in JoVE
Detection and Genogrouping of Noroviruses from Children's Stools By Taqman One-step RT-PCR
Sonia Apaza1, Susan Espetia1, Robert H. Gilman1,2, Sonia Montenegro3, Susana Pineda3, Fanny Herhold1, Romeo Pomari1, Margaret Kosek2, Nancy Vu1, Mayuko Saito1,2,4
1Laboratorio de Investigación y Desarrollo (LID), Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, 2Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, 3Laboratorio de Diagnostico Molecular, Facultad de Medicina, University of Concepcion,Chile, 4University of California San Diego School of Medicine
A One-Step RT-PCR assay for detection and genogroup identification of Norovirus isolates from children’s stools, that utilizes primers and TaqMan probes specific to the open reading frame 1 (ORF1)-ORF2 junction region, the most conserved region of the Norovirus genome is described. A non-commercial, cost-effective RNA extraction method is detailed.
Other articles by Nancy Vu on PubMed
Generation of Isogenic Pluripotent Stem Cells Differing Exclusively at Two Early Onset Parkinson Point Mutations
Cell. Jul, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21757228
Patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) derived from somatic cells provide a unique tool for the study of human disease, as well as a promising source for cell replacement therapies. One crucial limitation has been the inability to perform experiments under genetically defined conditions. This is particularly relevant for late age onset disorders in which in vitro phenotypes are predicted to be subtle and susceptible to significant effects of genetic background variations. By combining zinc finger nuclease (ZFN)-mediated genome editing and iPSC technology, we provide a generally applicable solution to this problem, generating sets of isogenic disease and control human pluripotent stem cells that differ exclusively at either of two susceptibility variants for Parkinson's disease by modifying the underlying point mutations in the α-synuclein gene. The robust capability to genetically correct disease-causing point mutations in patient-derived hiPSCs represents significant progress for basic biomedical research and an advance toward hiPSC-based cell replacement therapies.
Polymorphisms in Regulator of Protease B (RopB) Alter Disease Phenotype and Strain Virulence of Serotype M3 Group A Streptococcus
The Journal of Infectious Diseases. Jun, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22262791
Whole-genome sequencing of serotype M3 group A streptococci (GAS) from oropharyngeal and invasive infections in Ontario recently showed that the gene encoding regulator of protease B (RopB) is highly polymorphic in this population. To test the hypothesis that ropB is under diversifying selective pressure among all serotype M3 GAS strains, we sequenced this gene in 1178 strains collected from different infection types, geographic regions, and time periods. The results confirmed our hypothesis and discovered a significant association between mutant ropB alleles, decreased activity of its major regulatory target SpeB, and pharyngitis. Additionally, isoallelic strains with ropB polymorphisms were significantly less virulent in a mouse model of necrotizing fasciitis. These studies provide a model strategy for applying whole-genome sequencing followed by deep single-gene sequencing to generate new insight to the rapid evolution and virulence regulation of human pathogens.
Impact of Education and Network for Avian Influenza H5N1 in Human: Knowledge, Clinical Practice, and Motivation on Medical Providers in Vietnam
PloS One. 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22291946
Knowledge, clinical practice, and professional motivation of medical providers relating to H5N1 infection have an important influence on care for H5N1 patients who require early diagnosis and early medical intervention.
Catestatin (chromogranin A(352-372)) and Novel Effects on Mobilization of Fat from Adipose Tissue Through Regulation of Adrenergic and Leptin Signaling
The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Jun, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22535963
Chromogranin A knock-out (Chga-KO) mice display increased adiposity despite high levels of circulating catecholamines and leptin. Consistent with diet-induced obese mice, desensitization of leptin receptors caused by hyperleptinemia is believed to contribute to the obese phenotype of these KO mice. In contrast, obesity in ob/ob mice is caused by leptin deficiency. To characterize the metabolic phenotype, Chga-KO mice were treated with the CHGA-derived peptide catestatin (CST) that is deficient in these mice. CST treatment reduced fat depot size and increased lipolysis and fatty acid oxidation. In liver, CST enhanced oxidation of fatty acids as well as their assimilation into lipids, effects that are attributable to the up-regulation of genes promoting fatty acid oxidation (Cpt1α, Pparα, Acox, and Ucp2) and incorporation into lipids (Gpat and CD36). CST did not affect basal or isoproterenol-stimulated cAMP production in adipocytes but inhibited phospholipase C activation by the α-adrenergic receptor (AR) agonist phenylephrine, suggesting inhibition of α-AR signaling by CST. Indeed, CST mimicked the lipolytic effect of the α-AR blocker phentolamine on adipocytes. Moreover, CST reversed the hyperleptinemia of Chga-KO mice and improved leptin signaling as determined by phosphorylation of AMPK and Stat3. CST also improved peripheral leptin sensitivity in diet-induced obese mice. In ob/ob mice, CST enhanced leptin-induced signaling in adipose tissue. In conclusion, our results implicate CST in a novel pathway that promotes lipolysis and fatty acid oxidation by blocking α-AR signaling as well as by enhancing leptin receptor signaling.
Writing Affects the Brain Network of Reading in Chinese: A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study
Human Brain Mapping. Feb, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22378588
We examined the hypothesis that learning to write Chinese characters influences the brain's reading network for characters. Students from a college Chinese class learned 30 characters in a character-writing condition and 30 characters in a pinyin-writing condition. After learning, functional magnetic resonance imaging collected during passive viewing showed different networks for reading Chinese characters and English words, suggesting accommodation to the demands of the new writing system through short-term learning. Beyond these expected differences, we found specific effects of character writing in greater activation (relative to pinyin writing) in bilateral superior parietal lobules and bilateral lingual gyri in both a lexical decision and an implicit writing task. These findings suggest that character writing establishes a higher quality representation of the visual-spatial structure of the character and its orthography. We found a greater involvement of bilateral sensori-motor cortex (SMC) for character-writing trained characters than pinyin-writing trained characters in the lexical decision task, suggesting that learning by doing invokes greater interaction with sensori-motor information during character recognition. Furthermore, we found a correlation of recognition accuracy with activation in right superior parietal lobule, right lingual gyrus, and left SMC, suggesting that these areas support the facilitative effect character writing has on reading. Finally, consistent with previous behavioral studies, we found character-writing training facilitates connections with semantics by producing greater activation in bilateral middle temporal gyri, whereas pinyin-writing training facilitates connections with phonology by producing greater activation in right inferior frontal gyrus. Hum Brain Mapp, 2012. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry. Feb, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22203370
This paper describes a novel platform that utilizes micropatterning and electrochemistry to release cells-on-hydrogel microstructures from conductive indium tin oxide (ITO) substrates. In this approach, UV photopolymerization was employed to micropattern heparin-based hydrogels onto glass substrates containing ITO electrodes. ITO/glass substrates were first functionalized with acrylated silane to promote attachment of hydrogel structures. The surfaces containing hydrogel micropatterns were further functionalized with poly(ethylene glycol) thiol, rendering the regions around the hydrogel structures non-fouling to proteins and cells. After incubating surfaces with collagen (I), primary rat hepatocytes were shown to selectively attach on top of the hydrogel and not on surrounding glass/ITO regions. Electrical activation of specific ITO electrodes (-1.8 V vs. Ag/AgCl reference) was then used to release cells-on-hydrogel microstructures from the substrate. Immunostaining and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis of albumin, an important indicator of hepatic function, showed that the hepatocyte-on-hydrogel microstructures released from the surface maintained their function at levels similar to hepatocytes remaining on the culture substrate. In the future, switchable conductive substrates described here may be to collect cell samples at different time points and may also be used for harvesting cell-carrying vehicles for transplantation studies.
Adsorption of Cu(II) from Aqueous Solution by Anatase Mesoporous TiO2 Nanofibers Prepared Via Electrospinning
Journal of Colloid and Interface Science. Feb, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22137166
Anatase mesoporous titanium nanofibers (m-TiO(2) NFs) have been synthesized from calcination of the as-spun TiO(2)/polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP)/pluronic123 (P123) composite nanofibers at 450 °C in air for 3h. The structures and the physicochemical properties of m-TiO(2) NFs are characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherm analysis, and determination point of zero charge, respectively. An investigation of Cu(II) adsorption onto m-TiO(2) NFs has been studied in this research. The pH effect, adsorption kinetics, and adsorption isotherms are examined in batch experiments. Experimental data were analyzed using pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order kinetic models. It was found that adsorption kinetics were the best fitting by a pseudo-second order kinetic model. The optimum pH for Cu(II) adsorption was found to be 6.0. The equilibrium data were analyzed by the Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin, and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm models, which revealed that the Freundlich isotherm is the best-fit isotherm for the adsorption of Cu(II). Compared to the TiO(2) NFs (regular anatase titanium nanofibers) in the same experimental conditions to elucidate the role of the mesoporous structure of m-TiO(2) NFs, experimental results showed that the m-TiO(2) NFs had a better adsorption capacity for Cu(II) due to its higher surface area.
Trehalose Transporter from African Chironomid Larvae Improves Desiccation Tolerance of Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells
Cryobiology. Apr, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22155480
Dry preservation has been explored as an energy-efficient alternative to cryopreservation, but the high sensitivity of mammalian cells to desiccation stress has been one of the major hurdles in storing cells in the desiccated state. An important strategy to reduce desiccation sensitivity involves use of the disaccharide trehalose. Trehalose is known to improve desiccation tolerance in mammalian cells when present on both sides of the cell membrane. Because trehalose is membrane impermeant the development of desiccation strategies involving this promising sugar is hindered. We explored the potential of using a high-capacity trehalose transporter (TRET1) from the African chironomid Polypedilum vanderplanki to introduce trehalose into the cytoplasm of mammalian cells and thereby increase desiccation tolerance. When Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO) were stably transfected with TRET1 (CHO-TRET1 cells) and incubated with 0.4M trehalose for 4h at 37°C, a sevenfold increase in trehalose uptake was observed compared to the wild-type CHO cells. Following trehalose loading, desiccation tolerance was investigated by evaporative drying of cells at 14% relative humidity. After desiccation to 2.60g of water per gram dry weight, a 170% increase in viability and a 400% increase in growth (after 7days) was observed for CHO-TRET1 relative to control CHO cells. Our results demonstrate the beneficial effect of intracellular trehalose for imparting tolerance to partial desiccation.
Constitutive TL1A Expression Under Colitogenic Conditions Modulates the Severity and Location of Gut Mucosal Inflammation and Induces Fibrostenosis
The American Journal of Pathology. Feb, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22138299
Intestinal fibrostenosis is a hallmark of severe Crohn's disease and can lead to multiple surgeries. Patients with certain TNFSF15 variants overexpress TL1A. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of TL1A overexpression on intestinal inflammation and the development of fibrostenosis. We assessed the in vivo consequences of constitutive TL1A expression on gut mucosal inflammation and fibrostenosis using two murine models of chronic colitis. In the dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) and adoptive T-cell transfer models, there was proximal migration of colonic inflammation, worsened patchy intestinal inflammation, and long gross intestinal strictures in Tl1a transgenic compared to wild-type littermates. In the DSS model, myeloid- and T-cell-expressing Tl1a transgenic mice had increased T-cell activation markers and interleukin-17 expression compared to wild-type mice. In the T-cell transfer model, Rag1(-/-) mice receiving Tl1a transgenic T cells had increased interferon-γ expression but reduced T-helper 17 cells and IL-17 production. Narrowed ureters with hydronephrosis were found only in the Tl1a transgenic mice in all chronic colitis models. In human translational studies, Crohn's disease patients with higher peripheral TL1A expression also exhibited intestinal fibrostenosis and worsened ileocecal inflammation with relative sparing of rectosigmoid inflammation. These data show that TL1A is an important cytokine that not only modulates the location and severity of mucosal inflammation, but also induces fibrostenosis.