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In JoVE (1)
- Высокая профилирования микроРНК Производительность: Оптимизированная Мультиплекс QRT-PCR на шкале Nanoliter на Fluidigm Динамический МФХБ ArrayTM
Other Publications (2)
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Articles by Nathan Hunkapiller in JoVE
Высокая профилирования микроРНК Производительность: Оптимизированная Мультиплекс QRT-PCR на шкале Nanoliter на Fluidigm Динамический МФХБ ArrayTM
Felix Moltzahn1,2,3, Nathan Hunkapiller1,2,4, Alain A. Mir5, Tal Imbar1,2,6, Robert Blelloch1,2,3,7
1The Eli and Edythe Broad Center of Regeneration Medicine and Stem Cell Research, University of California San Francisco, 2Center for Reproductive Sciences, University of California San Francisco, 3Department of Urology, University of California San Francisco, 4Department of Cell and Tissue Biology, University of California San Francisco, 5Fluidigm Corporation, Fluidigm Corporation, 6Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Center, 7UCSF - Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California San Francisco
Здесь мы опишем оптимизированы мультиплекс обратной транскриптазы количественный ПЦР (QRT-PCR) протокол в сочетании с микрожидкостных платформе, стоимость и время, эффективная высокопроизводительного скрининга инструмент для микроРНК (миРНК) уровни экспрессии, особенно при работе с ограниченным количеством образцов.
Other articles by Nathan Hunkapiller on PubMed
Methods in Enzymology. 2008 | Pubmed ID: 19022064
In eutherian mammals, the first functional organ is the placenta, a transient structure that is rapidly assembled in the extraembryonic compartment. By necessity the placenta develops in advance of the embryo, which it supports in utero by performing many of the same functions that the lungs, gastrointestinal tract, and urinary system carry out after birth. Specialized epithelial cells that arise from the placenta, termed cytotrophoblasts (CTBs), are responsible for redirecting maternal blood to the developing conceptus, which occurs as a result of the cells' aggressive invasion through the maternal endometrial stroma (interstitial invasion) and resident blood vessels (endovascular invasion). The latter process involves displacement of maternal endothelium and induction of apoptosis in the surrounding smooth muscle. Together, these events result in a reduction of blood vessel elasticity and increased blood flow. In the past, investigations of human CTB endovascular invasion have been limited to immunohistochemical examination of tissue sections. In this chapter, we will discuss the use of in vitro and in vivo techniques that have been recently adapted for the study of the complex events that occur during CTB endovascular invasion. As an introduction, we provide background on placental anatomy and the molecular basis of CTB behaviors. To follow, we present techniques used in the isolation and culture of primary CTBs and chorionic villous explants. Approaches for identifying trophoblast-modified blood vessels in placental tissue sections are also described. Next, we review methods used by other groups to study CTB/endothelial interactions in culture focusing on techniques that employ isolated cells and chorionic explants. Finally, we conclude with methods devised by our group and others to explore the complex heterotypic cell-cell interactions that occur as CTBs invade blood vessels in vivo in the nude mouse.
A Role for Notch Signaling in Trophoblast Endovascular Invasion and in the Pathogenesis of Pre-eclampsia
Development (Cambridge, England). Jul, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21693515
Placental trophoblasts (TBs) invade and remodel uterine vessels with an arterial bias. This process, which involves vascular mimicry, re-routes maternal blood to the placenta, but fails in pre-eclampsia. We investigated Notch family members in both contexts, as they play important roles in arterial differentiation/function. Immunoanalyses of tissue sections showed step-wise modulation of Notch receptors/ligands during human TB invasion. Inhibition of Notch signaling reduced invasion of cultured human TBs and expression of the arterial marker EFNB2. In mouse placentas, Notch activity was highest in endovascular TBs. Conditional deletion of Notch2, the only receptor upregulated during mouse TB invasion, reduced arterial invasion, the size of maternal blood canals by 30-40% and placental perfusion by 23%. By E11.5, there was litter-wide lethality in proportion to the number of mutant offspring. In pre-eclampsia, expression of the Notch ligand JAG1 was absent in perivascular and endovascular TBs. We conclude that Notch signaling is crucial for TB vascular invasion.