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Articles by Nicki Panoskaltsis in JoVE
Ex vivo Mimicry for normale og unormale menneskelige hematopoiese
Teresa Mortera-Blanco1, Maria Rende1, Hugo Macedo1, Serene Farah1, Alexander Bismarck1, Athanasios Mantalaris1, Nicki Panoskaltsis2
1Department of Chemical Engineering and Chemical Technology, South Kensington campus, Imperial College London, 2Department of Hematology, Northwick Park & St. Mark's campus, Imperial College London
Et 3D dyrkningssystem for hematopoiese er beskrevet under anvendelse af humant navlestrengsblod og leukæmiske knoglemarvsceller. Fremgangsmåden er baseret på anvendelsen af en porøs syntetisk polyurethan skelet overtrukket med ekstracellulære matrix-proteiner. Dette skelet kan tilpasses til at rumme en lang række celler.
Other articles by Nicki Panoskaltsis on PubMed
Optimal Cytokine Stimulation for the Enhanced Generation of Leukemic Dendritic Cells in Short-term Culture
Leukemia Research. Feb, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 11755469
Dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen presenting cells derived from myeloid or lymphoid precursors. Functional DCs have been generated from the malignant counterpart of these precursor cells. Herein, we describe the generation of DCs from different leukemias and determine the optimal culture conditions with minimal manipulation. Primary leukemic cells were cultured for 1, 3, and 5 days in 11 different cytokine combinations and analyzed for the expression of a mature DC phenotype. Optimal growth and DC characteristics were obtained with GM-CSF, FL, and SCF in 3-5 day cultures, suggesting a practical strategy for the immunotherapy of leukemia.
Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering. Jul, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16233847
Hematopoietic stem cells reside in specific niches in the bone marrow and give rise to either more stem cells or maturing hematopoietic progeny depending on the signals provided in the bone marrow microenvironment. This microenvironment is comprised of cellular components as well as soluble constituents called cytokines. The use of cytokines alone for the ex vivo expansion of stem cells in flat, two-dimensional culture flasks, dishes or bags is inadequate and, given the three-dimensionality of the in vivo bone marrow microenvironment, inappropriate. Three-dimensional culture conditions can therefore provide an ex vivo mimicry of bone marrow, recapitulate the desired niche, and provide a suitable environment for stem cell expansion and differentiation. Choice of scaffold, manipulation and reproducibility of the scaffold properties and directed structuring of the niche, by choosing pore size and porosity may inform the resident stem cells of their fate in a directed fashion. The use of bioreactors for cultivation of hematopoietic cells will allow for culture control, optimization, standardization, scale-up, and a "hands-off" operation making the end-product dependable, predictable and free of contaminants, and therefore suitable for human use and therapeutic applications.
The New England Journal of Medicine. Sep, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16908486
Six healthy young male volunteers at a contract research organization were enrolled in the first phase 1 clinical trial of TGN1412, a novel superagonist anti-CD28 monoclonal antibody that directly stimulates T cells. Within 90 minutes after receiving a single intravenous dose of the drug, all six volunteers had a systemic inflammatory response characterized by a rapid induction of proinflammatory cytokines and accompanied by headache, myalgias, nausea, diarrhea, erythema, vasodilatation, and hypotension. Within 12 to 16 hours after infusion, they became critically ill, with pulmonary infiltrates and lung injury, renal failure, and disseminated intravascular coagulation. Severe and unexpected depletion of lymphocytes and monocytes occurred within 24 hours after infusion. All six patients were transferred to the care of the authors at an intensive care unit at a public hospital, where they received intensive cardiopulmonary support (including dialysis), high-dose methylprednisolone, and an anti-interleukin-2 receptor antagonist antibody. Prolonged cardiovascular shock and acute respiratory distress syndrome developed in two patients, who required intensive organ support for 8 and 16 days. Despite evidence of the multiple cytokine-release syndrome, all six patients survived. Documentation of the clinical course occurring over the 30 days after infusion offers insight into the systemic inflammatory response syndrome in the absence of contaminating pathogens, endotoxin, or underlying disease.
Intelligent Bioprocessing for Haemotopoietic Cell Cultures Using Monitoring and Design of Experiments
Biotechnology Advances. Jul-Aug, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17428632
The need for successful ex-vivo expansion and directed differentiation of haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) for therapeutic applications has increased over the past decade. Haematopoietic cell cultures are complex and full characterisation of the process environment has yet to be achieved. The complexity and transient nature of HSC cultures make the identification, maintenance and control of optimal operating conditions challenging. Application of real-time, on-line monitoring techniques and process control strategies enhances the ability to operate bioprocesses of desired reproducibility and high product quality. In this review, we discussed the methods by which in vitro culture information necessary for bioprocess control may be obtained, including process considerations, monitoring and analytical tools, and design of experiments (DOE). The successful application of these tools may result in time- and cost-effective cultures for directed differentiation and expansion of haematopoietic components intended for clinical use.
Journal of the Royal Society, Interface / the Royal Society. Mar, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19033137
In recent years, the potential of stem cell research for tissue engineering-based therapies and regenerative medicine clinical applications has become well established. In 2006, Chung pioneered the first entire organ transplant using adult stem cells and a scaffold for clinical evaluation. With this a new milestone was achieved, with seven patients with myelomeningocele receiving stem cell-derived bladder transplants resulting in substantial improvements in their quality of life. While a bladder is a relatively simple organ, the breakthrough highlights the incredible benefits that can be gained from the cross-disciplinary nature of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine (TERM) that encompasses stem cell research and stem cell bioprocessing. Unquestionably, the development of bioprocess technologies for the transfer of the current laboratory-based practice of stem cell tissue culture to the clinic as therapeutics necessitates the application of engineering principles and practices to achieve control, reproducibility, automation, validation and safety of the process and the product. The successful translation will require contributions from fundamental research (from developmental biology to the 'omics' technologies and advances in immunology) and from existing industrial practice (biologics), especially on automation, quality assurance and regulation. The timely development, integration and execution of various components will be critical-failures of the past (such as in the commercialization of skin equivalents) on marketing, pricing, production and advertising should not be repeated. This review aims to address the principles required for successful stem cell bioprocessing so that they can be applied deftly to clinical applications.
The Development of a Three-dimensional Scaffold for Ex Vivo Biomimicry of Human Acute Myeloid Leukaemia
Biomaterials. Mar, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20015543
Acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) is a cancer of haematopoietic cells that develops in three-dimensional (3-D) bone marrow niches in vivo. The study of AML has been hampered by lack of appropriate ex vivo models that mimic this microenvironment. We hypothesised that fabrication and optimisation of suitable biomimetic scaffolds for culturing leukaemic cells ex vivo might facilitate the study of AML in its native 3-D niche. We evaluated the growth of three leukaemia subtype-specific cell lines, K-562, HL60 and Kasumi-6, on highly porous scaffolds fabricated from biodegradable and non-biodegradable polymeric materials, such as poly (L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), polyurethane (PU), poly (methyl-methacrylate), poly (D, L-lactade), poly (caprolactone), and polystyrene. Our results show that PLGA and PU supported the best seeding efficiency and leukaemic growth. Furthermore, the PLGA and PU scaffolds were coated with extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, collagen type I (62.5 or 125 microg/ml) and fibronectin (25 or 50 microg/ml) to provide biorecognition signals. The 3 leukaemia subtype-specific lines grew best on PU scaffolds coated with 62.5 microg/ml collagen type I over 6 weeks in the absence of exogenous growth factors. In conclusion, PU-collagen scaffolds may provide a practical model to study the biology and treatment of primary AML in an ex vivo mimicry.
Biomaterials. Dec, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21908041
Cord blood expansion ex vivo can be achieved in liquid suspension through the addition of cytokines at the expense of often undesirable cell differentiation. In order to derive a cytokine-free dynamic culture system, we hypothesised that a three-dimensional (3D) environment in the form of highly porous scaffolds made of poly (D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) or polyurethane (PU) for the biomimetic growth of cord blood mononuclear cells (CBMNCs), would facilitate expansion of hematopoietic cells without exogenous cytokines. Both scaffolds supported cellular expansion ex vivo. Cytokine-free, long-term culture was best in PU coated with collagen type I (54-fold expansion). In contrast, traditional 2D well-plate cultures collapsed within 4 days in the absence of cytokines. CBMNCs cultured in the scaffolds were visualised by scanning electron microscopy and immunophenotypic/immunostaining analysis and the studies validated the presence of a dynamic culture containing erythroid precursors (CD45(-)/CD71(+)/CD235a(+)), hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (CD38(-)CD34(+), CD117(+)), maturing myeloid cells (CD38(+), MPO(+)), CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-lymphocytes and megakaryocytes (FVIII(+)). Colony forming unit (CFU) assays indicated that BFU-E and CFU-GM increased (p < 0.05) whereas CFU-GEMM were maintained at week 4. In conclusion, this 3D culture system is capable of long-term, cytokine-free expansion of CBMNCs, enabling the study of hematopoiesis and providing a potential platform for drug discovery and therapeutic applications ex vivo.