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In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (18)
- Tissue Engineering. Part A
- Cancer Research
- Nature Immunology
- Infection and Immunity
- Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
- Cell Metabolism
- Journal of Virology
- The American Journal of Pathology
- European Journal of Immunology
- The Journal of Infectious Diseases
- Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
- PloS One
- The Journal of Clinical Investigation
- PloS One
- Nature Medicine
- PloS One
Articles by Nico van Rooijen in JoVE
Depletion and Reconstitution of Macrophages in Mice
Shelley B. Weisser1, Nico van Rooijen2, Laura M. Sly3
1Department of Graduate Studies, University of British Columbia, 2Department of Molecular Biology, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, 3Department of Pediatrics, University of British Columbia
Macrophages play a central role in homeostasis and pathology in many tissues. The protocol presented here describes methods for depleting macrophages in vivo, deriving polarized macrophages from bone marrow aspirates, and adoptively transferring macrophages into mice. These techniques allow determination of the role that polarized macrophages play in health and disease.
Other articles by Nico van Rooijen on PubMed
Tissue Engineering. Part A. Oct, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19265460
Modular tissue engineering is a novel microscale approach that aims to assemble tissue constructs with inherent vascularization. We transplanted endothelialized modules (sub-millimeter-sized collagen gel cylinders covered with human umbilical vein endothelial cell [HUVEC] on the outside surface) in the omental pouch of nude rats to characterize remodeling of the collagen gels and the fate of the transplanted HUVEC. Endothelialized modules randomly assembled in vivo to form channels among individual modules that persisted for at least 14 days. Transplanted HUVEC migrated and formed primitive vessels in these channels; however, host inflammation limited HUVEC survival beyond 3 days. Temporary depletion of peritoneal macrophages (by treatment with clodronate liposomes) prolonged the survival of HUVEC-derived vessels to 7 days, and some vessels appeared to be perfused with host erythrocytes and invested with host vascular cells (either rat von Willebrand factor or smooth muscle alpha-actin-positive cells). Despite treatment, HUVEC were presumed to be still subject to immune rejection. The presence of primitive HUVEC-derived vessels is encouraging in this first in vivo study of the modular approach, in a partially immune-compromised animal model. It suggests that with appropriate attention to the host response to transplanted endothelial cells and improved vessel survival, cells that would be embedded in modules could be adequately perfused.
Cancer Research. Apr, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19293185
An important step in the process of metastasis from the primary tumor is invasive spread into the surrounding stroma. Using an in vivo invasion assay, we have previously shown that imposed gradients of epidermal growth factor (EGF) or colony-stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1) can induce invasion through an EGF/CSF-1 paracrine loop between cancer cells and macrophages. We now report that invasion induced by other ligands also relies on this EGF/CSF-1 paracrine invasive loop. Using an in vivo invasion assay, we show that MTLn3 breast cancer cells overexpressing ErbB3 exhibit enhanced invasion compared with control MTLn3 cells in response to the ErbB3 ligand HRG-beta1. The invasive response of both MTLn3-ErbB3 and transgenic MMTV-Neu tumors to HRG-beta1 is inhibited by blocking EGF receptor, CSF-1 receptor, or macrophage function, indicating that invasiveness to HRG-beta1 is dependent on the EGF/CSF-1 paracrine loop. Furthermore, we show that CXCL12 also triggers in vivo invasion of transgenic MMTV-PyMT tumors in an EGF/CSF-1-dependent manner. Although the invasion induced by HRG-beta1 or CXCL12 is dependent on the EGF/CSF-1 paracrine loop, invasion induced by EGF is not dependent on HRG-beta1 or CXCL12 signaling, showing an asymmetrical relationship between different ligand/receptor systems in driving invasion. Our results identify a stromal/tumor interaction that acts as an engine underlying invasion induced by multiple ligands.
Nature Immunology. Jul, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19465906
Dendritic cells can prime naive CD4+ T cells; however, here we demonstrate that dendritic cell-mediated priming was insufficient for the development of T helper type 2 cell-dependent immunity. We identify basophils as a dominant cell population that coexpressed major histocompatibility complex class II and interleukin 4 message after helminth infection. Basophilia was promoted by thymic stromal lymphopoietin, and depletion of basophils impaired immunity to helminth infection. Basophils promoted antigen-specific CD4+ T cell proliferation and interleukin 4 production in vitro, and transfer of basophils augmented the population expansion of helminth-responsive CD4+ T cells in vivo. Collectively, our studies suggest that major histocompatibility complex class II-dependent interactions between basophils and CD4+ T cells promote T helper type 2 cytokine responses and immunity to helminth infection.
Inescapable Need for Neutrophils As Mediators of Cellular Innate Immunity to Acute Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Pneumonia
Infection and Immunity. Dec, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19805527
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a leading cause of pneumonia, and many components of the innate immune system have been proposed to exert important effects in preventing lung infection. However, a vigorous experimental system to identify an overriding, key effector mediating innate immunity to lung infection has not been utilized. As many of the important components of innate immunity are involved in recruitment and activation of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) to infected tissues, we hypothesized that the cells and factors needed for their proper recruitment to the lung comprised the major mediators of innate immunity. In neutropenic mice, intranasal (i.n.) doses of P. aeruginosa as low as 10 to 100 CFU/mouse produced a fatal lung infection, compared with 10(7) to >10(8) CFU for nonneutropenic mice. There was only a very modest increased mortality in mice lacking mature lymphocytes and no increased mortality in mice depleted of alveolar macrophages when administered i.n. P. aeruginosa. Recombinant mouse granulocyte colony-stimulating factor increased survival of neutropenic mice after i.n. P. aeruginosa inoculation. MyD88(-/-) mice, which cannot recruit PMNs to the lungs, were highly susceptible to fatal P. aeruginosa lung infection, with bacterial doses of <120 CFU being lethal. Activation of a MyD88-independent pathway for PMN recruitment to the lungs in MyD88(-/-) mice resulted in enhanced protection against P. aeruginosa lung infection. Overall, in the absence of PMNs, mice cannot resist P. aeruginosa lung infection from extremely small bacterial doses. There is an inescapable requirement for local PMN recruitment and activation to mediate innate immunity to P. aeruginosa lung infection.
Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science. Mar, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 19892870
To determine the role of IL-33 in resistance to Pseudomonas aeruginosa keratitis.
Interleukin-6 Signaling in Liver-parenchymal Cells Suppresses Hepatic Inflammation and Improves Systemic Insulin Action
Cell Metabolism. Sep, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20816090
The contribution of interleukin (IL)-6 signaling in obesity-induced inflammation remains controversial. To specifically define the role of hepatic IL-6 signaling in insulin action and resistance, we have generated mice with hepatocyte-specific IL-6 receptor (IL-6R) alpha deficiency (IL-6Ralpha(L-KO) mice). These animals showed no alterations in body weight and fat content but exhibited a reduction in insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance. Impaired glucose metabolism originated from attenuated insulin-stimulated glucose transport in skeletal muscle and fat. Surprisingly, hepatic IL-6Ralpha-disruption caused an exaggerated inflammatory response during euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp analysis, as revealed by increased expression of IL-6, TNF-alpha, and IL-10, as well as enhanced activation of inflammatory signaling such as phosphorylation of IkappaBalpha. Neutralization of TNF-alpha or ablation of Kupffer cells restored glucose tolerance in IL-6Ralpha(L-KO) mice. Thus, our results reveal an unexpected role for hepatic IL-6 signaling to limit hepatic inflammation and to protect from local and systemic insulin resistance.
Critical Role of Airway Macrophages in Modulating Disease Severity During Influenza Virus Infection of Mice
Journal of Virology. Aug, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20504924
Airway macrophages provide a first line of host defense against a range of airborne pathogens, including influenza virus. In this study, we show that influenza viruses differ markedly in their abilities to infect murine macrophages in vitro and that infection of macrophages is nonproductive and no infectious virus is released. Virus strain BJx109 (H3N2) infected macrophages with high efficiency and was associated with mild disease following intranasal infection of mice. In contrast, virus strain PR8 (H1N1) was poor in its ability to infect macrophages and highly virulent for mice. Depletion of airway macrophages by clodronate-loaded liposomes led to the development of severe viral pneumonia in BJx109-infected mice but did not modulate disease severity in PR8-infected mice. The severe disease observed in macrophage-depleted mice infected with BJx109 was associated with exacerbated virus replication in the airways, leading to severe airway inflammation, pulmonary edema, and vascular leakage, indicative of lung injury. Thymic atrophy, lymphopenia, and dysregulated cytokine and chemokine production were additional systemic manifestations associated with severe disease. Thus, airway macrophages play a critical role in limiting lung injury and associated disease caused by BJx109. Furthermore, the inability of PR8 to infect airway macrophages may be a critical factor contributing to its virulence for mice.
The American Journal of Pathology. Jun, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21641405
Invasion of tumor cells into the local stroma is an important component in cancer progression. Here we report studies of the in vivo invasion of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cells in response to applied gradients of a growth factor [epidermal growth factor (EGF)] and a chemokine (CXCL12), using orthotopic floor-of-mouth models. Analysis of the invading cells indicated that >75% of them were tumor cells, about 15% macrophages, and <10% were unidentified. Surprisingly, although macrophages invaded together with tumor cells, macrophage contributions were not required for HNSCC invasion. CXCL12-induced in vivo invasion of HNSCC cells was also observed and found to occur via a unidirectional transactivation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) through CXCR4. Inhibition of tumor necrosis factor-α-converting enzyme using TNF-α protease inhibitor-2 selectively inhibited CXCL12-induced invasion but not EGF-induced invasion, consistent with CXCL12 activation of EGFR via release of EGFR ligands.
European Journal of Immunology. Oct, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21728173
Myeloid cells express a plethora of C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) that can regulate immune responses. CLEC-2 belongs to the Dectin-1 sub-family of CLRs that possess an extracellular C-type lectin-like domain and a single intracellular hemITAM motif. CLEC-2 is highly expressed on mouse and human platelets where it signals via Syk to promote aggregation. We generated a monoclonal antibody (mAb) against mouse CLEC-2 and found that CLEC-2 is additionally widely expressed on leukocytes and that its expression is upregulated during inflammation. MAb-mediated crosslinking of CLEC-2 leads to hemITAM-dependent signaling via Syk, Ca(2+) and NFAT and, in myeloid cells, modulates the effect of toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists to selectively potentiate production of IL-10. A macrophage/dendritic cell-dependent increase in IL-10 is also observed in mice given anti-CLEC-2 mAb together with LPS. Collectively, these data indicate that CLEC-2 is expressed in myeloid cells and acts as a Syk-coupled CLR able to modulate TLR signaling and inflammatory responses.
Nature. Jul, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21765430
Interleukin (IL)-17-producing T helper cells (T(H)17) are a recently identified CD4(+) T cell subset distinct from T helper type 1 (T(H)1) and T helper type 2 (T(H)2) cells. T(H)17 cells can drive antigen-specific autoimmune diseases and are considered the main population of pathogenic T cells driving experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the mouse model for multiple sclerosis. The factors that are needed for the generation of T(H)17 cells have been well characterized. However, where and how the immune system controls T(H)17 cells in vivo remains unclear. Here, by using a model of tolerance induced by CD3-specific antibody, a model of sepsis and influenza A viral infection (H1N1), we show that pro-inflammatory T(H)17 cells can be redirected to and controlled in the small intestine. T(H)17-specific IL-17A secretion induced expression of the chemokine CCL20 in the small intestine, facilitating the migration of these cells specifically to the small intestine via the CCR6/CCL20 axis. Moreover, we found that T(H)17 cells are controlled by two different mechanisms in the small intestine: first, they are eliminated via the intestinal lumen; second, pro-inflammatory T(H)17 cells simultaneously acquire a regulatory phenotype with in vitro and in vivo immune-suppressive properties (rT(H)17). These results identify mechanisms limiting T(H)17 cell pathogenicity and implicate the gastrointestinal tract as a site for control of T(H)17 cells.
The Journal of Infectious Diseases. Aug, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21791668
Psittacosis is a zoonosis caused by Chlamydia psittaci and is characterized by severe pneumonia and systemic infection. We sought to determine the basis of the 1000-fold difference in lethal dose of 2 C. psittaci 6BC strains in mice.
Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation. Jan, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21106959
abnormal vascular remodeling triggered by hemodynamic stresses and inflammation is believed to be a key process in the pathophysiology of intracranial aneurysms. Numerous studies have shown infiltration of inflammatory cells, especially macrophages, into intracranial aneurysmal walls in humans. Using a mouse model of intracranial aneurysms, we tested whether macrophages play critical roles in the formation of intracranial aneurysms.
Clodronate Liposomes Improve Metabolic Profile and Reduce Visceral Adipose Macrophage Content in Diet-induced Obese Mice
PloS One. 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21931688
Obesity-related adipose inflammation has been thought to be a causal factor for the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Infiltrated macrophages in adipose tissue of obese animals and humans are an important source for inflammatory cytokines. Clodronate liposomes can ablate macrophages by inducing apoptosis. In this study, we aim to determine whether peritoneal injection of clodronate liposomes has any beneficial effect on systemic glucose homeostasis/insulin sensitivity and whether macrophage content in visceral adipose tissue will be reduced in diet-induced obese (DIO) mice.
The Journal of Clinical Investigation. Dec, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 22080867
Erythropoiesis, the production of red blood cells, must be tightly controlled to ensure adequate oxygen delivery to tissues without causing thrombosis or stroke. Control of physiologic and pathologic erythropoiesis is dependent predominantly on erythropoietin (EPO), the expression of which is regulated by hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) activity in response to low oxygen tension. Accumulating evidence indicates that oxygen-independent mediators, including inflammatory stimuli, cytokines, and growth factors, also upregulate HIF activity, but it is unclear whether these signals also result in EPO production and erythropoiesis in vivo. Here, we found that signaling through herpesvirus entry mediator (HVEM), a molecule of the TNF receptor superfamily, promoted HIF-1α activity in the kidney and subsequently facilitated renal Epo production and erythropoiesis in vivo under normoxic conditions. This Epo upregulation was mediated by increased production of NO by renal macrophages. Hvem-deficient mice displayed impaired Epo expression and aggravated anemia in response to erythropoietic stress. These data reveal that HVEM signaling functions to promote HIF-1α activity and Epo production, and thus to regulate erythropoiesis. Furthermore, our findings suggest that this molecular mechanism could represent a therapeutic target for Epo-responsive diseases, including anemia.
PloS One. 2011 | Pubmed ID: 22110592
Angiogenesis after pulmonary ischemia is initiated by reactive O(2) species and is dependent on CXC chemokine growth factors, and its magnitude is correlated with the number of lavaged macrophages. After complete obstruction of the left pulmonary artery in mice, the left lung is isolated from the peripheral circulation until 5-7 days later, when a new systemic vasculature invades the lung parenchyma. Consequently, this model offers a unique opportunity to study the differentiation and/or proliferation of monocyte-derived cells within the lung. In this study, we questioned whether macrophage subpopulations were differentially expressed and which subset contributed to growth factor release. We characterized the change in number of all macrophages (MHCII(int), CD11C+), alveolar macrophages (MHCII(int), CD11C+, CD11B-) and mature lung macrophages (MHCII(int), CD11C+, CD11B+) in left lungs from mice immediately (0 h) or 24 h after left pulmonary artery ligation (LPAL). In left lung homogenates, only lung macrophages increased 24 h after LPAL (vs. 0 h; p<0.05). No changes in proliferation were seen in any subset by PCNA expression (0 h vs. 24 h lungs). When the number of monocytic cells was reduced with clodronate liposomes, systemic blood flow to the left lung 14 days after LPAL decreased by 42% (p<0.01) compared to vehicle controls. Furthermore, when alveolar macrophages and lung macrophages were sorted and studied in vitro, only lung macrophages secreted the chemokine MIP-2α (ELISA). These data suggest that ischemic stress within the lung contributes to the differentiation of immature monocytes to lung macrophages within the first 24 h after LPAL. Lung macrophages but not alveolar macrophages increase and secrete the proangiogenic chemokine MIP-2α. Overall, an increase in the number of lung macrophages appears to be critical for neovascularization in the lung, since clodronate treatment decreased their number and attenuated functional angiogenesis.
Circulation. Jan, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22144566
Atherosclerotic lesions are believed to grow via the recruitment of bone marrow-derived monocytes. Among the known murine monocyte subsets, Ly-6C(high) monocytes are inflammatory, accumulate in lesions preferentially, and differentiate. Here, we hypothesized that the bone marrow outsources the production of Ly-6C(high) monocytes during atherosclerosis.
An Essential Role for TH2-type Responses in Limiting Acute Tissue Damage During Experimental Helminth Infection
Nature Medicine. Feb, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22245779
Helminths induce potent T helper 2 (TH2)-type immune responses that can mediate worm expulsion, but the role of this response in controlling the acute tissue damage caused by migrating multicellular parasites through vital tissues remains uncertain. We used a helminth infection model in which parasitic nematode larvae migrate transiently through the lung, resulting in hemorrhage and inflammation. We found that IL-17 initially contributed to inflammation and lung damage, whereas subsequent IL-4 receptor (IL-4R) signaling reduced elevations in IL-17 mRNA levels, enhanced the expression of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and IL-10 and stimulated the development of M2 macrophages, all of which contributed to the rapid resolution of tissue damage. These studies indicate an essential role for TH2-type immune responses in mediating acute wound healing during helminth infection.
PloS One. 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22438999
Genetic mapping studies may provide association between sequence variants and disease susceptibility that can, with further experimental and computational analysis, lead to discovery of causal mechanisms and effective intervention. We have previously demonstrated that polymorphisms in immunity-related GTPases (IRG) confer a significant difference in susceptibility to Chlamydia psittaci infection in BXD recombinant mice. Here we combine genetic mapping and network modeling to identify causal pathways underlying this association. We infected a large panel of BXD strains with C. psittaci and assessed host genotype, IRG protein polymorphisms, pathogen load, expression of 32 cytokines, inflammatory cell populations, and weight change. Proinflammatory cytokines correlated with each other and were controlled by a novel genetic locus on chromosome 1, but did not affect disease status, as quantified by weight change 6 days after infection In contrast, weight change correlated strongly with levels of inflammatory cell populations and pathogen load that were controlled by an IRG encoding genetic locus (Ctrq3) on chromosome 11. These data provided content to generate a predictive model of infection using a Bayesian framework incorporating genotypes, immune system parameters, and weight change as a measure of disease severity. Two predictions derived from the model were tested and confirmed in a second round of experiments. First, strains with the susceptible IRG haplotype lost weight as a function of pathogen load whereas strains with the resistant haplotype were almost completely unaffected over a very wide range of pathogen load. Second, we predicted that macrophage activation by Ctrq3 would be central in conferring pathogen tolerance. We demonstrated that macrophage depletion in strains with the resistant haplotype led to neutrophil influx and greater weight loss despite a lower pathogen burden. Our results show that genetic mapping and network modeling can be combined to identify causal pathways underlying chlamydial disease susceptibility.