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In JoVE (1)
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Articles by Nuno Costa-Borges in JoVE
Recolha e criopreservação de óvulos e embriões de camundongos Hamster
Nuno Costa-Borges, Sheyla González, Elena Ibáñez, Josep Santaló
Unitat Biologia Cellular (Facultat de Biociències), Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona
Neste vídeo-artigo apresentamos uma demonstração passo-a-passo sobre como coletar e criopreservar oócitos de hamster com altas taxas de sobrevivência pós-descongelamento. O mesmo procedimento também pode ser aplicado com sucesso congelar e descongelar embriões de camundongos em diferentes estágios de desenvolvimento pré-implantação.
Other articles by Nuno Costa-Borges on PubMed
Cloning and Stem Cells. Mar, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19226218
Chemically assisted enucleation has been successfully applied to porcine and bovine oocytes to prepare recipient cytoplasts for nuclear transfer procedures. In this study, the antimitotic drugs demecolcine, nocodazole, and vinblastine were first assessed for their ability to induce the formation of cortical membrane protrusions in mouse, goat, and human oocytes. While only 2% of the treated human oocytes were able to form a protrusion, high rates of protrusion formation were obtained both in mouse (84%) and goat oocytes (92%), once the treatment was optimized for each species. None of the antimitotics applied was superior to the others in terms of protrusion formation, but mouse oocytes treated with vinblastine were unable to restore normal spindle morphology after drug removal and their in vitro development after parthenogenetic activation was severely compromised, rendering this antimitotic useless for chemically assisted enucleation approaches. Aspiration of the protrusions in mouse oocytes treated with demecolcine or nocodazole yielded 90% of successfully enucleated oocytes and allowed the extraction of a smaller amount of cytoplasm than with mechanical enucleation, but both enucleation methods resulted in the depletion of spindle-associated gamma-tubulin from the prepared cytoplasts. Treatment of mouse oocytes with demecolcine or nocodazole had no effect on their in vitro development after parthenogenetic activation, or on their ability to repolymerize a new spindle after the removal of the drug or the reconstruction of the treated cytoplasts with a somatic nucleus. Therefore, demecolcine- and nocodazole-assisted enucleation appears as an efficient alternative to mechanical enucleation, which can simplify nuclear transfer procedures.
Comparison Between the Effects of Valproic Acid and Trichostatin A on the in Vitro Development, Blastocyst Quality, and Full-term Development of Mouse Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer Embryos
Cellular Reprogramming. Aug, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20698782
Reprogramming of differentiated nuclei into a totipotent embryonic state following somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is not efficient. Previous studies in the hybrid B6D2F1 mouse strain revealed that a transient treatment of the SCNT embryos with the histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) trichostatin A (TSA) significantly enhance the potential of the cloned embryos to develop in vitro and to term. Here, we compare two different SCNT protocols with TSA and explore, for the first time, the effect of another HDACi, valproic acid (VPA), on the in vitro development, blastocyst quality, and full-term development of mouse B6CBAF1 cloned embryos. Rates of blastocyst development in SCNT embryos treated with either 5 nM TSA during and after activation (31.8%) or with 100 nM TSA or 2 mM VPA before and during activation (34.5 and 38.3%, respectively) were clearly superior to those of nontreated SCNT embryos (22.9-25.1%). These increased in vitro development rates of the HDACi-treated embryos were correlated with an increased level of histone H3 lysine 14 acetylation and an improved blastocyst quality, as judged by the increased number of total and ICM cells in comparison to the nontreated embryos (30-35% increase). Treatment of SCNT embryos with TSA or VPA also allowed the obtention of viable cloned mice, whereas none could be produced from untreated SCNT embryos. In conclusion, we have demonstrated for the first time that VPA can improve the in vitro and full-term development of B6CBAF1 SCNT embryos, at a similar level as TSA. Our findings may open new opportunities to improve cloning efficiencies in other mouse strains or species.
Demecolcine- and Nocodazole-induced Enucleation in Mouse and Goat Oocytes for the Preparation of Recipient Cytoplasts in Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer Procedures
Theriogenology. Feb, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21074837
Treatment of pre-activated oocytes with demecolcine (DEM) has been shown to induce the extrusion of all oocyte chromosomes within the second polar body (PB2). However, induced enucleation (IE) rates are generally low and the competence of these cytoplasts to support embryonic development following somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is impaired. Here, we explored whether short treatments with DEM or another antimitotic, nocodazole (NOC), improve IE efficiency, and determined the most appropriate timing for nuclear transfer in the cytoplasts produced. We show, for the first time, that IE can be accomplished in mouse and goat oocytes using NOC and that short treatments with DEM or NOC result in similar IE rates, which proved to be strain- and species-specific. Because enucleation induced by both antimitotic drugs is reversible, the IE protocol was combined with the mechanical aspiration of PB2s to increase permanent enucleation rates in mouse oocytes. None of the cloned mouse embryos produced from the resultant cytoplasts developed to the blastocyst stage. However, when they were reconstructed prior to the activation and antimitotic treatment, their in vitro embryonic development was similar to that of cloned embryos produced from mechanically-enucleated oocytes.
Effect of the Enucleation Procedure on the Reprogramming Potential and Developmental Capacity of Mouse Cloned Embryos Treated with Valproic Acid
Reproduction (Cambridge, England). Jun, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21444624
Mouse recipient cytoplasts for somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) are routinely prepared by mechanical enucleation (ME), an invasive procedure that requires expensive equipment and considerable micromanipulation skills. Alternatively, oocytes can be enucleated using chemically assisted (AE) or chemically induced (IE) enucleation methods that are technically simple. In this study, we compared the reprogramming potential and developmental capacity of cloned embryos generated by ME, AE, and IE procedures and treated with the histone deacetylase inhibitor valproic acid. A rapid and almost complete deacetylation of histone H3 lysine 14 in the somatic nucleus followed by an equally rapid and complete re-acetylation after activation was observed after the injection of a cumulus cell nucleus into ME and AE cytoplasts. In contrast, histone deacetylation occurred at a much lower level in IE cytoplasts. Despite these differences, the cloned embryos generated from the three types of cytoplasts developed into blastocysts of equivalent total and inner cell mass mean cell numbers, and the rates of blastocyst formation and embryonic stem cell derivation were similar among the three groups. The cloned embryos produced from ME and AE cytoplasts showed an equivalent rate of full-term development, but no offspring could be obtained from the IE group, suggesting a lower reprogramming capacity of IE cytoplasts. Our results demonstrate the usefulness of AE in mouse SCNT procedures, as an alternative to ME. AE can facilitate oocyte enucleation and avoid the need for expensive microscope optics, or for potentially damaging Hoechst staining and u.v. irradiation, normally required in ME procedures.