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In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (3)
Articles by Ok Hyun Cho in JoVE
Chromatin Immunoprecipitation Assay for Tissue-specific Genes using Early-stage Mouse Embryos
Ok Hyun Cho, Jaime A. Rivera-Pérez, Anthony N. Imbalzano
Department of Cell Biology, University of Massachusetts Medical School
We demonstrate a chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) method to identify factor interactions at tissue-specific genes during or after the onset of tissue-specific gene expression in mouse embryonic tissue. This protocol should be widely applicable for the study of tissue-specific gene activation as it occurs during normal embryonic development.
Other articles by Ok Hyun Cho on PubMed
Inhibitors of Gamma-secretase Block in Vivo and in Vitro T Helper Type 1 Polarization by Preventing Notch Upregulation of Tbx21
Nature Immunology. Jul, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15991363
Notch receptors are processed by gamma-secretase acting in synergy with T cell receptor signaling to sustain peripheral T cell activation. Activated CD4+ T cells differentiate into T helper type 1 (TH1) or TH2 subsets. Molecular cues directing TH1 differentiation include expression of the TH1-specific transcription factor T-bet, encoded by Tbx21. However, the regulation of Tbx21 remains incompletely defined. Here we report that Notch1 can directly regulate Tbx21 through complexes formed on the Tbx21 promoter. In vitro, gamma-secretase inhibitors extinguished expression of Notch, interferon-gamma and Tbx21 in TH1-polarized CD4+ cells, whereas ectopic expression of activated Notch1 restored Tbx21 transcription. In vivo, administration of gamma-secretase inhibitors substantially impeded TH1-mediated disease progression in the mouse experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis model of multiple sclerosis. Thus, using gamma-secretase inhibitors to modulate Notch signaling may prove beneficial in treating TH1-mediated autoimmunity.
The EMBO Journal. Jan, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16319921
Notch1 specifically upregulates expression of the cytokine interferon-gamma in peripheral T cells through activation of NF-kappaB. However, how Notch mediates NF-kappaB activation remains unclear. Here, we examined the temporal relationship between Notch signaling and NF-kappaB induction during T-cell activation. NF-kappaB activation occurs within minutes of T-cell receptor (TCR) engagement and this activation is sustained for at least 48 h following TCR signaling. We used gamma-secretase inhibitor (GSI) to prevent the cleavage and subsequent activation of Notch family members. We demonstrate that GSI blocked the later, sustained NF-kappaB activation, but did not affect the initial activation of NF-kappaB. Using biochemical approaches, as well as confocal microscopy, we show that the intracellular domain of Notch1 (N1IC) directly interacts with NF-kappaB and competes with IkappaBalpha, leading to retention of NF-kappaB in the nucleus. Additionally, we show that N1IC can directly regulate IFN-gamma expression through complexes formed on the IFN-gamma promoter. Taken together, these data suggest that there are two 'waves' of NF-kappaB activation: an initial, Notch-independent phase, and a later, sustained activation of NF-kappaB, which is Notch dependent.
Journal of Immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950). Mar, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19265115
The maturation of naive CD8(+) T cells into effector CTLs is a critical feature of a functional adaptive immune system. Development of CTLs depends, in part, upon the expression of the transcriptional regulator eomesodermin (EOMES), which is thought to regulate expression of two key effector molecules, perforin and granzyme B. Although EOMES is important for effector CTL development, the precise mechanisms regulating CD8(+) effector cell maturation remains poorly understood. In this study, we show that Notch1 regulates the expression of EOMES, perforin, and granzyme B through direct binding to the promoters of these crucial effector molecules. By abrogating Notch signaling, both biochemically as well as genetically, we conclude that Notch activity mediates CTL activity through direct regulation of EOMES, perforin, and granzyme B.