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In JoVE (1)
- Transnuclear Mice with Pre-defined T Cell Receptor Specificities Against Toxoplasma gondii Obtained Via SCNT
Other Publications (11)
Articles by Oktay Kirak in JoVE
Transnuclear Mice with Pre-defined T Cell Receptor Specificities Against Toxoplasma gondii Obtained Via SCNT
Oktay Kirak1, Eva-Maria Frickel1, Gijsbert M. Grotenbreg1,2, Heikyung Suh1, Rudolf Jaenisch1,3, Hidde L. Ploegh1,3
1 , Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, 2Departments of Microbiology and Biological Sciences, National University of Singapore, 3Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
We demonstrate here that epigenetic reprogramming via Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer (SCNT) can be used as a tool to generate mouse models with pre-defined T cell receptor (TCR) specificities. These transnuclear mice express the corresponding TCR from their endogenous locus under the control of the endogenous promoter.
Other articles by Oktay Kirak on PubMed
Recombination Signatures Distinguish Embryonic Stem Cells Derived by Parthenogenesis and Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer
Cell Stem Cell. Sep, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 18371368
Parthenogenesis and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) are two methods for deriving embryonic stem (ES) cells that are genetically matched to the oocyte donor or somatic cell donor, respectively. Using genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis, we demonstrate distinct signatures of genetic recombination that distinguish parthenogenetic ES cells from those generated by SCNT. We applied SNP analysis to the human ES cell line SCNT-hES-1, previously claimed to have been derived by SCNT, and present evidence that it represents a human parthenogenetic ES cell line. Genome-wide SNP analysis represents a means to validate the genetic provenance of an ES cell line.
Nature. Feb, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18278031
MicroRNAs are abundant in animal genomes and have been predicted to have important roles in a broad range of gene expression programmes. Despite this prominence, there is a dearth of functional knowledge regarding individual mammalian microRNAs. Using a loss-of-function allele in mice, we report here that the myeloid-specific microRNA-223 (miR-223) negatively regulates progenitor proliferation and granulocyte differentiation and activation. miR-223 (also called Mirn223) mutant mice have an expanded granulocytic compartment resulting from a cell-autonomous increase in the number of granulocyte progenitors. We show that Mef2c, a transcription factor that promotes myeloid progenitor proliferation, is a target of miR-223, and that genetic ablation of Mef2c suppresses progenitor expansion and corrects the neutrophilic phenotype in miR-223 null mice. In addition, granulocytes lacking miR-223 are hypermature, hypersensitive to activating stimuli and display increased fungicidal activity. As a consequence of this neutrophil hyperactivity, miR-223 mutant mice spontaneously develop inflammatory lung pathology and exhibit exaggerated tissue destruction after endotoxin challenge. Our data support a model in which miR-223 acts as a fine-tuner of granulocyte production and the inflammatory response.
Insulin-like Growth Factor-binding Protein 2 Secreted by a Tumorigenic Cell Line Supports Ex Vivo Expansion of Mouse Hematopoietic Stem Cells
Stem Cells (Dayton, Ohio). Jun, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18369099
Successful hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation is often limited by the numbers of HSCs, and robust methods to expand HSCs ex vivo are needed. We previously showed that angiopoietin-like proteins (Angptls), a group of growth factors isolated from a fetal liver HSC-supportive cell population, improved ex vivo expansion of HSCs. Here, we demonstrate that insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 2 (IGFBP2), secreted by a tumorigenic cell line, also enhanced ex vivo expansion of mouse HSCs. On the basis of these findings, we established a completely defined, serum-free culture system for mouse HSCs, containing SCF, thrombopoietin, fibroblast growth factor 1, Angptl3, and IGFBP2. As measured by competitive repopulation analyses, there was a 48-fold increase in numbers of long-term repopulating mouse HSCs after 21 days of culture. This is the first demonstration that IGFBP2 stimulates expansion or proliferation of murine stem cells. Our finding also suggests that certain cancer cells synthesize proteins that can stimulate HSC expansion. Disclosure of potential conflicts of interest is found at the end of this article.
Nature Methods. Feb, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19122668
Cell fusion has been used for many different purposes, including generation of hybridomas and reprogramming of somatic cells. The fusion step is the key event in initiation of these procedures. Standard fusion techniques, however, provide poor and random cell contact, leading to low yields. We present here a microfluidic device to trap and properly pair thousands of cells. Using this device, we paired different cell types, including fibroblasts, mouse embryonic stem cells and myeloma cells, achieving pairing efficiencies up to 70%. The device is compatible with both chemical and electrical fusion protocols. We observed that electrical fusion was more efficient than chemical fusion, with membrane reorganization efficiencies of up to 89%. We achieved greater than 50% properly paired and fused cells over the entire device, fivefold greater than with a commercial electrofusion chamber and observed reprogramming in hybrids between mouse embryonic stem cells and mouse embryonic fibroblasts.
Transnuclear Mice with Predefined T Cell Receptor Specificities Against Toxoplasma Gondii Obtained Via SCNT
Science (New York, N.Y.). Apr, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20378817
Mice that are transgenic for rearranged antigen-specific T cell receptors (TCRs) are essential tools to study T cell development and function. Such TCRs are usually isolated from the relevant T cells after long-term culture, often after repeated antigen stimulation, which unavoidably skews the T cell population used. Random genomic integration of the TCR alpha and beta chain and expression from nonendogenous promoters represent additional drawbacks of transgenics. Using epigenetic reprogramming via somatic cell nuclear transfer, we demonstrated that T cells with predefined specificities against Toxoplasma gondii can be used to generate mouse models that express the TCR from their endogenous loci, without experimentally introduced genetic modification. The relative ease and speed with which such transnuclear models can be obtained holds promise for the construction of other disease models.
Cell. Mar, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21376238
During development and regeneration, proliferation of tissue-specific stem cells is tightly controlled to produce organs of a predetermined size. The molecular determinants of this process remain poorly understood. Here, we investigate the function of Yap1, the transcriptional effector of the Hippo signaling pathway, in skin biology. Using gain- and loss-of-function studies, we show that Yap1 is a critical modulator of epidermal stem cell proliferation and tissue expansion. Yap1 mediates this effect through interaction with TEAD transcription factors. Additionally, our studies reveal that α-catenin, a molecule previously implicated in tumor suppression and cell density sensing in the skin, is an upstream negative regulator of Yap1. α-catenin controls Yap1 activity and phosphorylation by modulating its interaction with 14-3-3 and the PP2A phosphatase. Together, these data identify Yap1 as a determinant of the proliferative capacity of epidermal stem cells and as an important effector of a "crowd control" molecular circuitry in mammalian skin.
PLoS Biology. Mar, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21468303
Ubiquitin-dependent processes control much of cellular physiology. We show that expression of a highly active, Epstein-Barr virus-derived deubiquitylating enzyme (EBV-DUB) blocks proteasomal degradation of cytosolic and ER-derived proteins by preemptive removal of ubiquitin from proteasome substrates, a treatment less toxic than the use of proteasome inhibitors. Recognition of misfolded proteins in the ER lumen, their dislocation to the cytosol, and degradation are usually tightly coupled but can be uncoupled by the EBV-DUB: a misfolded glycoprotein that originates in the ER accumulates in association with cytosolic chaperones as a deglycosylated intermediate. Our data underscore the necessity of a DUB activity for completion of the dislocation reaction and provide a new means of inhibition of proteasomal proteolysis with reduced cytotoxicity.
Ubiquitin-dependent Control of Class II MHC Localization is Dispensable for Antigen Presentation and Antibody Production
PloS One. 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21533087
Controlled localization of class II MHC molecules is essential for proper class II MHC-restricted antigen presentation and the subsequent initiation of an adaptive immune response. Ubiquitination of class II MHC molecules on cytosolic lysine (K225) of the β-chain has been shown to affect localization of the complex. We generated mice in which the endogenous β-chain locus is replaced with a GFP tagged mutant version that lacks the cytosolic lysine residue (I-A-β-K225R-EGFP). These mice have elevated levels of class II MHC as compared to I-A-β-EGFP mice, and immature bone marrow-derived dendritic cells show redistribution of class II MHC to the cell surface. Nonetheless, in these same cells efficiency of antigen presentation is unaffected in I-A-β-K225R-EGFP mice, as assayed for presentation of ovalbumin to appropriately specific T cells. The I-A-β-K225R-EGFP animals have normal CD4 T cell populations and are capable of generating antigen-specific antibody in response to model antigens and viral infection. We therefore conclude that in our experimental system modulation of trafficking by ubiquitination of residue K225 of the β-chain is not essential for the function of class II MHC products in antigen presentation or antibody production.
Stem Cells (Dayton, Ohio). Jun, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21563275
Pluripotent cells can be derived from different types of somatic cells by nuclear reprogramming through the ectopic expression of four transcription factors, Oct3/4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc. However, it is unclear whether postmitotic neurons are susceptible to direct reprogramming. Here, we show that postnatal cortical neurons, the vast majority of which are postmitotic, are amenable to epigenetic reprogramming. However, ectopic expression of the four canonical reprogramming factors is not sufficient to reprogram postnatal neurons. Efficient reprogramming was only achieved after forced cell proliferation by p53 suppression. Additionally, overexpression of repressor element-1 silencing transcription, a suppressor of neuronal gene activity, increased reprogramming efficiencies in combination with the reprogramming factors. Our findings indicate that terminally differentiated postnatal neurons are able to acquire the pluripotent state by direct epigenetic reprogramming, and this process is made more efficient through the suppression of lineage specific gene expression.
PLoS Genetics. May, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21573140
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) post-transcriptionally regulate the expression of thousands of distinct mRNAs. While some regulatory interactions help to maintain basal cellular functions, others are likely relevant in more specific settings, such as response to stress. Here we describe such a role for the mir-290-295 cluster, the dominant miRNA cluster in mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). Examination of a target list generated from bioinformatic prediction, as well as expression data following miRNA loss, revealed strong enrichment for apoptotic regulators, two of which we validated directly: Caspase 2, the most highly conserved mammalian caspase, and Ei24, a p53 transcriptional target. Consistent with these predictions, mESCs lacking miRNAs were more likely to initiate apoptosis following genotoxic exposure to gamma irradiation or doxorubicin. Knockdown of either candidate partially rescued this pro-apoptotic phenotype, as did transfection of members of the mir-290-295 cluster. These findings were recapitulated in a specific mir-290-295 deletion line, confirming that they reflect miRNA functions at physiological levels. In contrast to the basal regulatory roles previously identified, the pro-survival phenotype shown here may be most relevant to stressful gestations, where pro-oxidant metabolic states induce DNA damage. Similarly, this cluster may mediate chemotherapeutic resistance in a neoplastic context, making it a useful clinical target.
Mir-290-295 Deficiency in Mice Results in Partially Penetrant Embryonic Lethality and Germ Cell Defects
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Aug, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21844366
Mir-290 through mir-295 (mir-290-295) is a mammalian-specific microRNA (miRNA) cluster that, in mice, is expressed specifically in early embryos and embryonic germ cells. Here, we show that mir-290-295 plays important roles in embryonic development as indicated by the partially penetrant lethality of mutant embryos. In addition, we show that in surviving mir-290-295-deficient embryos, female but not male fertility is compromised. This impairment in fertility arises from a defect in migrating primordial germ cells and occurs equally in male and female mutant animals. Male mir-290-295(-/-) mice, due to the extended proliferative lifespan of their germ cells, are able to recover from this initial germ cell loss and are fertile. Female mir-290-295(-/-) mice are unable to recover and are sterile, due to premature ovarian failure.