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In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (33)
- Plant Molecular Biology
- Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
- Plant Physiology
- Plant Physiology
- Journal of the American Chemical Society
- The Plant Journal : for Cell and Molecular Biology
- Plant Physiology
- Plant Physiology
- Trends in Plant Science
- Trends in Biotechnology
- Genome Biology
- BMC Genomics
- The Plant Journal : for Cell and Molecular Biology
- The Plant Journal : for Cell and Molecular Biology
- TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische Und Angewandte Genetik
- BMC Plant Biology
- Plant, Cell & Environment
- Plant & Cell Physiology
- Plant Physiology
- BMC Plant Biology
- BioFactors (Oxford, England)
- BMC Plant Biology
- Plant Physiology and Biochemistry : PPB / Société Française De Physiologie Végétale
- BMC Plant Biology
- BMC Genomics
- Metabolic Engineering
- Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
- TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische Und Angewandte Genetik
- Journal of the American Chemical Society
- Journal of Experimental Botany
- Journal of Biotechnology
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Articles by Oliver Yu in JoVE
Генерация Композитный Растения в Medicago прудовик Используется для нодуляции Анализы
Ying Deng*, Guohong Mao*, William Stutz, Oliver Yu
Donald Danforth Plant Science Center, St. Louis, Missouri
Мы показываем, как волосатый корень композитных растения могут быть использованы для изучения растительного Rhizobium взаимодействия и узелков в трудных для преобразования вида
Other articles by Oliver Yu on PubMed
Phytochemistry. Aug, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12877915
Isoflavone levels in Glycine max (soybean) were increased via metabolic engineering of the complex phenylpropanoid biosynthetic pathway. Phenylpropanoid pathway genes were activated by expression of the maize C1 and R transcription factors in soybean seed, which decreased genistein and increased the daidzein levels with a small overall increase in total isoflavone levels. Cosuppression of flavanone 3-hydroxylase to block the anthocyanin branch of the pathway, in conjunction with C1/R expression, resulted in higher levels of isoflavones. The combination of transcription factor-driven gene activation and suppression of a competing pathway provided a successful means of enhancing accumulation of isoflavones in soybean seed.
The Promoters of Two Isoflavone Synthase Genes Respond Differentially to Nodulation and Defense Signals in Transgenic Soybean Roots
Plant Molecular Biology. Mar, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15356384
Isoflavonoids are a group of secondary metabolites common to leguminous plants that play roles in nodulation and defense responses. Isoflavone synthase (IFS) catalyzes the key entry point step of isoflavone biosynthesis from the general phenylpropanoid pathway. We have cloned the 5' upstream regions of the genes encoding the two isoflavone synthase isoforms from soybean. We characterized the tissue-specific expression patterns of IFS1 and IFS2 genes of soybean by quantitative RT-PCR. Isoflavone synthase transcripts were detected primarily in the roots and seeds. In transgenic soybean plants in which the IFS1 promoter drove expression of the bacterial uidA (GUS) gene, the expression was localized to the root epidermis and root hairs. We detected differential tissue-specific expression of IFS1:GUS in response to nodulation and defense signals. Bradyrhizobium japonicum, a diazotropic symbiont of soybean, induced the expression of IFS1:GUS in root hairs and xylem poles in the young differentiation zone of the root. This observation suggests novel roles for isoflavonoids in nodulation. The defense related hormone salicylic acid induced the expression of IFS1:GUS in all cell types of the root. We also noticed corresponding alterations in the transcript levels of IFS1 and IFS2 in response to B. japonicum or salicylic acid as identified by quantitative RT-PCR. Using hairy root transformed soybean composite plants, we have identified regions of the IFS1 and IFS2 promoters mediating response to B. japonicum. We have also shown conserved root-specific expression of IFS1 in rice and Arabidopsis. The expression pattern of IFS1 in soybean is consistent with the physiological roles of isoflavonoids as defense compounds against pathogens and signal molecules to symbiotic bacteria in soybean.
Accumulation of Genistein and Daidzein, Soybean Isoflavones Implicated in Promoting Human Health, is Significantly Elevated by Irrigation
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. Dec, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15675806
To circumvent drought conditions persisting during seed fill in the mid-south U.S. soybean production region, researchers have developed the early soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) production system (ESPS), which entails early planting of short-season varieties. Because soybean supplies a preponderance of the world's protein and oil and consumption of soy-based foods has been associated with multiple health benefits, the effects of this agronomic practice on seed quality traits such as protein, oil, and isoflavones should be investigated. Four cultivars of soybean, two from maturity group IV and two from maturity group V, were planted in April (ESPS) and May (traditional) in a two-year study at Stoneville, MS. Near-infrared analysis of soybean seed was utilized to determine the percentages of protein and oil. Dependent upon variety, the oil content of the early-planted crop was increased by 3-8%, whereas protein was not significantly changed. Visualization of protein extracts fractionated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide electrophoresis and fluorescence two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis revealed that early planting did not affect the relative accumulation of the major seed-storage proteins; thus, protein composition was equal to that of traditionally cultivated soybeans. Maturity group IV cultivars contained a higher percentage of oil and a lower percentage of protein than did the maturity group V cultivars, regardless of planting date. Gas chromatographic separation of fatty acids revealed that the percentages of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids were not significantly altered by planting date. Methanol extracts of seed harvested from different planting dates when analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography showed striking differences in isoflavone content. Dependent upon the variety, total isoflavone content was increased as much as 1.3-fold in early-planted soybeans. Irrigation enhanced the isoflavone content of both early- and late-planted soybeans as much as 2.5-fold. Accumulation of individual isoflavones, daidzein and genistein, was also elevated by irrigation. Because this cultural practice improves the quality traits of seeds, ESPS provides an opportunity for enhancing the quality of soybean.
RNA Interference of Soybean Isoflavone Synthase Genes Leads to Silencing in Tissues Distal to the Transformation Site and to Enhanced Susceptibility to Phytophthora Sojae
Plant Physiology. Apr, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15778457
Isoflavones are thought to play diverse roles in plant-microbe interactions and are also potentially important to human nutrition and medicine. Isoflavone synthase (IFS) is a key enzyme for the formation of the isoflavones. Here, we examined the consequences of RNAi silencing of genes for this enzyme in soybean (Glycine max). Soybean cotyledon tissues were transformed with Agrobacterium rhizogenes carrying an RNAi silencing construct designed to silence expression of both copies of IFS genes. Approximately 50% of emerging roots were transformed with the RNAi construct, and most transformed roots exhibited >95% silencing of isoflavone accumulation. Silencing of IFS was also demonstrated throughout the entire cotyledon (in tissues distal to the transformation site) both by high-performance liquid chromatography analysis of isoflavones and by real-time reverse transcription-PCR. This distal silencing led to a nearly complete suppression of mRNA accumulation for both the IFS1 and IFS2 genes and of isoflavone accumulations induced by wounding or treatment with the cell wall glucan elicitor from Phytophthora sojae. Preformed isoflavone conjugates were not reduced in distal tissues, suggesting little turnover of these stored isoflavone pools. Distal silencing was established within just 5 d of transformation and was highly efficient for a 3- to 4-d period, after which it was no longer apparent in most experiments. Silencing of IFS was effective in at least two genotypes and led to enhanced susceptibility to P. sojae, disrupting both R gene-mediated resistance in roots and nonrace-specific resistance in cotyledon tissues. The soybean cotyledon system, already a model system for defense signal-response and cell-to-cell signaling, may provide a convenient and effective system for functional analysis of plant genes through gene silencing.
Partial Reconstruction of Flavonoid and Isoflavonoid Biosynthesis in Yeast Using Soybean Type I and Type II Chalcone Isomerases
Plant Physiology. Apr, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15778463
Flavonoids and isoflavonoids are major plant secondary metabolites that mediate diverse biological functions and exert significant ecological impacts. These compounds play important roles in many essential physiological processes. In addition, flavonoids and isoflavonoids have direct but complex effects on human health, ranging from reducing cholesterol levels and preventing certain cancers to improving women's health. In this study, we cloned and functionally characterized five soybean (Glycine max) chalcone isomerases (CHIs), key enzymes in the phenylpropanoid pathway that produces flavonoids and isoflavonoids. Gene expression and kinetics analysis suggest that the soybean type I CHI, which uses naringenin chalcone as substrate, is coordinately regulated with other flavonoid-specific genes, while the type II CHIs, which use a variety of chalcone substrates, are coordinately regulated with an isoflavonoid-specific gene and specifically activated by nodulation signals. Furthermore, we found that some of the newly identified soybean CHIs do not require the 4'-hydroxy moiety on the substrate for high enzyme activity. We then engineered yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) to produce flavonoid and isoflavonoid compounds. When one of the type II CHIs was coexpressed with an isoflavone synthase, the enzyme catalyzing the first committed step of isoflavonoid biosynthesis, various chalcone substrates added to the culture media were converted to an assortment of isoflavanones and isoflavones. We also reconstructed the flavonoid pathway by coexpressing CHI with either flavanone 3beta-hydroxylase or flavone synthase II. The in vivo reconstruction of the flavonoid and isoflavonoid pathways in yeast provides a unique platform to study enzyme interactions and metabolic flux.
Journal of the American Chemical Society. Oct, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 17017764
Resveratrol is a naturally occurring defense compound produced by a limited number of plants in response to stresses. Besides cardiovascular benefits, this health-promoting compound has been reported to extend life spans in yeasts, flies, worms, and fish. To biosynthesize resveratrol de novo, tyrosine ammonia lyase (TAL), 4-coumarate CoA-ligase (4CL), and stilbene synthase (STS) were isolated from Rhodobacter sphaeroides, Arabidopsis thaliana, and Vitis vinifera, respectively. Yeast cells expressing 4CL and STS produce resveratrol when fed with 4-coumaric acid, the substrate of 4CL. When a translational fusion protein joining 4CL and STS was used, yeast cells produced 15-fold more resveratrol than the cotransformed cells, suggesting that physical localization of 4CL and STS facilitate resveratrol production. When the resveratrol pathway was introduced into human HEK293 cells, de novo biosynthesis was detected, leading to intracellular accumulation of resveratrol. We successfully engineered an entire plant natural product pathway into a mammalian host.
Endogenous Isoflavones Are Essential for the Establishment of Symbiosis Between Soybean and Bradyrhizobium Japonicum
The Plant Journal : for Cell and Molecular Biology. Oct, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 17018035
Legume iso/flavonoids have been implicated in the nodulation process, but questions remain as to their specific role(s), and no unequivocal evidence exists showing that these compounds are essential for nodulation. Two hypotheses suggest that the primary role of iso/flavonoids is their ability to induce rhizobial nod gene expression and/or their ability to modulate internal root auxin concentrations. The present work provides direct, genetic evidence that isoflavones are essential for nodulation of soybean roots because of their ability to induce the nodulation genes of Bradyrhizobium japonicum. Expression of isoflavone synthase (IFS), a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of isoflavones, is specifically induced by B. japonicum. When IFS was silenced using RNA interference in soybean hairy root composite plants, these plants had severely reduced nodulation. Surprisingly, pre-treatment of B. japonicum or exogenous application to the root system of either of the major soybean isoflavones, daidzein or genistein, failed to restore normal nodulation. Silencing of chalcone reductase led to very low levels of daidzein and increased levels of genistein, but did not affect nodulation, suggesting that the endogenous production of genistein was sufficient to support nodulation. Consistent with a role for isoflavones as endogenous regulators of auxin transport in soybean roots, silencing of IFS resulted in altered auxin-inducible gene expression and auxin transport. However, use of a genistein-hypersensitive B. japonicum strain or purified B. japonicum Nod signals rescued normal nodulation in IFS-silenced roots, indicating that the ability of isoflavones to modulate auxin transport is not essential to nodulation.
RNAi Silencing of Genes for Elicitation or Biosynthesis of 5-deoxyisoflavonoids Suppresses Race-specific Resistance and Hypersensitive Cell Death in Phytophthora Sojae Infected Tissues
Plant Physiology. Jun, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17416637
Isoflavonoids are thought to play an important role in soybean (Glycine max) resistance to Phytophthora sojae. This was addressed by silencing two genes for their biosynthesis and a third gene controlling their elicitation. Silencing of genes for isoflavone synthase (IFS) or chalcone reductase (CHR) was achieved in soybean roots through an Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated RNAi approach. Effectiveness of silencing was followed both by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and high-performance liquid chromatography analyses. Silencing either IFS or CHR led to a breakdown of Rps-mediated resistance to race 1 of P. sojae in 'W79' (Rps 1c) or 'W82' (Rps 1k) soybean. Loss of resistance was accompanied by suppression of hypersensitive (HR) cell death in both cultivars and suppression of cell death-associated activation of hydrogen peroxide and peroxidase. The various results suggest that the 5-deoxyisoflavonoids play a critical role in the establishment of cell death and race-specific resistance. The P. sojae cell wall glucan elicitor, a potent elicitor of 5-deoxyisoflavonoids, triggered a cell death response in roots that was also suppressed by silencing either CHR or IFS. Furthermore, silencing of the elicitor-releasing endoglucanase (PR-2) led to a loss of HR cell death and race-specific resistance to P. sojae and also to a loss of isoflavone and cell death responses to cell wall glucan elicitor. Taken together, these results suggest that in situ release of active fragments from a general resistance elicitor (pathogen-associated molecular pattern) is necessary for HR cell death in soybean roots carrying resistance genes at the Rps 1 locus, and that this cell death response is mediated through accumulations of the 5-deoxyisoflavones.
Flavone Synthases from Medicago Truncatula Are Flavanone-2-hydroxylases and Are Important for Nodulation
Plant Physiology. Jun, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17434990
Flavones are important copigments found in the flowers of many higher plants and play a variety of roles in plant adaptation to stress. In Medicago species, flavones also act as signal molecules during symbiotic interaction with the diazotropic bacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti. They are the most potent nod gene inducers found in root exudates. However, flavone synthase II (FNS II), the key enzyme responsible for flavone biosynthesis, has not been characterized in Medicago species. We cloned two FNS II genes from Medicago truncatula using known FNS II sequences from other species and named them MtFNSII-1 and MtFNSII-2. Functional assays in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) suggested that the catalytic mechanisms of both cytochrome P450 monooxygenases were similar to the other known legume FNS II from licorice (Glycyrrhiza echinata). MtFNSII converted flavanones to 2-hydroxyflavanones instead of flavones whereas FNS II from the nonlegume Gerbera hybrida, converted flavanones to flavones directly. The two MtFNSII genes had distinct tissue-specific expression patterns. MtFNSII-1 was highly expressed in roots and seeds whereas MtFNSII-2 was highly expressed in flowers and siliques. In addition, MtFNSII-2 was inducible by S. meliloti and methyl jasmonate treatment, whereas MtFNSII-1 was not. Histochemical staining of transgenic hairy roots carrying the promoter-reporter constructs indicated that the MtFNSII-2 induction was tissue specific, mostly localized to vascular tissues and root hairs. RNA interference-mediated suppression of MtFNSII genes resulted in flavone depleted roots and led to significantly reduced nodulation when inoculated with S. meliloti. Our results provide genetic evidence supporting that flavones are important for nodulation in M. truncatula.
Trends in Plant Science. Jul, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17591456
RNA interference-mediated silencing of the key flavonoid and isoflavone biosynthesis enzyme, respectively, by two different research groups has provided direct genetic evidence for the essential roles that these compounds play in nodulation. Anton Wasson et al. have shown that flavonoids are essential for localized auxin transport inhibition during nodulation in the indeterminate legume Medicago truncatula. By contrast, Senthil Subramanian et al. have shown that isoflavones are essential for endogenous nod gene induction in the determinate legume soybean.
Trends in Biotechnology. Feb, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18191264
Resveratrol, an interesting plant phenolic compound, is found in red wine but is not widely distributed in other common food sources. Health benefits of resveratrol include prevention of cardiovascular diseases and cancers, and--as discovered more recently--promotion of longevity in several animal systems. The pathway and enzymes for resveratrol biosynthesis are well characterized. Furthermore, metabolic engineering of this compound has been achieved in plants, microbes and animals. This review attempts to summarize current understanding of resveratrol pathway-engineering in various systems, to outline the challenges in commercial applications and to identify future opportunities for resveratrol bioengineering.
Contributions of Conserved Serine and Tyrosine Residues to Catalysis, Ligand Binding, and Cofactor Processing in the Active Site of Tyrosine Ammonia Lyase
Phytochemistry. May, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18346767
Tyrosine ammonia lyase (TAL) catalyzes the conversion of L-tyrosine to p-coumaric acid using a 3,5-dihydro-5-methylidene-4H-imidazole-4-one (MIO) prosthetic group. In bacteria, TAL is used for production of the photoactive yellow protein chromophore and for caffeic acid biosynthesis in certain actinomycetes. Here we biochemically examine wild-type and mutant forms of TAL from Rhodobacter sphaeroides (RsTAL). Kinetic analysis of RsTAL shows that the enzyme displays a 90-fold preference for L-tyrosine versus L-phenylalanine as a substrate. The pH-dependence of TAL activity with L-tyrosine and L-phenylalanine demonstrates a common protonation state for catalysis, but indicates a difference in charge-state for binding of either amino acid. Site-directed mutagenesis demonstrates that Ser150, Tyr60, and Tyr300 are essential for catalysis. Mutation of Ser150 to an alanine abrogates formation of the MIO prosthetic group, as shown by mass spectrometry, and prevents catalysis. The Y60F and Y300F mutants were inactive with both amino acid substrates, but bound p-coumaric and cinnamic acids with less than 12-fold changes in affinity compared the wild-type enzyme. Analysis of MIO-dithiothreitol adduct formation shows that the reactivity of the prosthetic group is not significantly altered by mutation of either Tyr60 or Tyr300. The mechanistic roles of Ser150, Tyr60, and Tyr300 are discussed in relation to the three-dimensional structure of RsTAL and related MIO-containing enzymes.
Transcriptional Analysis of Highly Syntenic Regions Between Medicago Truncatula and Glycine Max Using Tiling Microarrays
Genome Biology. 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18348734
Legumes are the third largest family of flowering plants and are unique among crop species in their ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen. As a result of recent genome sequencing efforts, legumes are now one of a few plant families with extensive genomic and transcriptomic data available in multiple species. The unprecedented complexity and impending completeness of these data create opportunities for new approaches to discovery.
BMC Genomics. 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18402695
Small RNAs regulate a number of developmental processes in plants and animals. However, the role of small RNAs in legume-rhizobial symbiosis is largely unexplored. Symbiosis between legumes (e.g. soybean) and rhizobia bacteria (e.g. Bradyrhizobium japonicum) results in root nodules where the majority of biological nitrogen fixation occurs. We sought to identify microRNAs (miRNAs) regulated during soybean-B. japonicum symbiosis.
The Plant Journal : for Cell and Molecular Biology. May, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18476876
Plants produce large amounts of phenylpropanoids, both in terms of molecular diversity and absolute quantity of these compounds. The phenylpropanoids, and the related plant polyketides, have multiple biological functions. They serve to attract pollinators, support secondary cell-wall growth, provide protection against various plant diseases, and interact with beneficial soil microbes. Their basic chemical properties also make them useful in the biofuel and biomaterial industries. Phenylpropanoid metabolism begins with the amino acid phenylalanine, which feeds into various biosynthetic pathways that generate a wide range of structurally related polyphenolic compounds. This review focuses on four sub-groups of these polyphenolic compounds - polyketides, stilbenes, isoflavones and catechins. We discuss the biosynthesis of these molecules, their physiological role in plants, and their striking pharmacological and physiological effects on humans. This review also highlights metabolic engineering efforts aimed at increasing or decreasing the amounts of each class of compound in various model plants and crops.
Flavones and Flavonols Play Distinct Critical Roles During Nodulation of Medicago Truncatula by Sinorhizobium Meliloti
The Plant Journal : for Cell and Molecular Biology. Jan, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 18786000
Flavonoids play critical roles in legume-rhizobium symbiosis. However, the role of individual flavonoid compounds in this process has not yet been clearly established. We silenced different flavonoid-biosynthesis enzymes to generate transgenic Medicago truncatula roots with different flavonoid profiles. Silencing of chalcone synthase, the key entry-point enzyme for flavonoid biosynthesis led to flavonoid-deficient roots. Silencing of isoflavone synthase and flavone synthase led to roots deficient for a subset of flavonoids, isoflavonoids (formononetin and biochanin A) and flavones (7,4'-dihydroxyflavone), respectively. When tested for nodulation by Sinorhizobium meliloti, flavonoid-deficient roots had a near complete loss of nodulation, whereas flavone-deficient roots had reduced nodulation. Isoflavone-deficient roots nodulated normally, suggesting that isoflavones might not play a critical role in M. truncatula nodulation, even though they are the most abundant root flavonoids. Supplementation of flavone-deficient roots with 7, 4'-dihydroxyflavone, a major inducer of S. meliloti nod genes, completely restored nodulation. However, the same treatment did not restore nodulation in flavonoid-deficient roots, suggesting that other non-nod gene-inducing flavonoid compounds are also critical to nodulation. Supplementation of roots with the flavonol kaempferol (an inhibitor of auxin transport), in combination with the use of flavone pre-treated S. meliloti cells, completely restored nodulation in flavonoid-deficient roots. In addition, S. meliloti cells constitutively producing Nod factors were able to nodulate flavone-deficient roots, but not flavonoid-deficient roots. These observations indicated that flavones might act as internal inducers of rhizobial nod genes, and that flavonols might act as auxin transport regulators during nodulation. Both these roles of flavonoids appear critical for symbiosis in M. truncatula.
Genetic Control of Soybean Seed Isoflavone Content: Importance of Statistical Model and Epistasis in Complex Traits
TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische Und Angewandte Genetik. Oct, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19626310
A major objective for geneticists is to decipher genetic architecture of traits associated with agronomic importance. However, a majority of such traits are complex, and their genetic dissection has been traditionally hampered not only by the number of minor-effect quantitative trait loci (QTL) but also by genome-wide interacting loci with little or no individual effect. Soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) seed isoflavonoids display a broad range of variation, even in genetically stabilized lines that grow in a fixed environment, because their synthesis and accumulation are affected by many biotic and abiotic factors. Due to this complexity, isoflavone QTL mapping has often produced conflicting results especially with variable growing conditions. Herein, we comparatively mapped soybean seed isoflavones genistein, daidzein, and glycitein by using several of the most commonly used mapping approaches: interval mapping, composite interval mapping, multiple interval mapping and a mixed-model based composite interval mapping. In total, 26 QTLs, including many novel regions, were found bearing additive main effects in a population of RILs derived from the cross between Essex and PI 437654. Our comparative approach demonstrates that statistical mapping methodologies are crucial for QTL discovery in complex traits. Despite a previous understanding of the influence of additive QTL on isoflavone production, the role of epistasis is not well established. Results indicate that epistasis, although largely dependent on the environment, is a very important genetic component underlying seed isoflavone content, and suggest epistasis as a key factor causing the observed phenotypic variability of these traits in diverse environments.
Distinct Changes in Soybean Xylem Sap Proteome in Response to Pathogenic and Symbiotic Microbe Interactions
BMC Plant Biology. 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19772575
Plant systemic signaling characterized by the long distance transport of molecules across plant organs involves the xylem and phloem conduits. Root-microbe interactions generate systemic signals that are transported to aerial organs via the xylem sap. We analyzed the xylem sap proteome of soybean seedlings in response to pathogenic and symbiotic interactions to identify systemic signaling proteins and other differentially expressed proteins.
Regulation of Growth Response to Water Stress in the Soybean Primary Root. I. Proteomic Analysis Reveals Region-specific Regulation of Phenylpropanoid Metabolism and Control of Free Iron in the Elongation Zone
Plant, Cell & Environment. Feb, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 19906149
In water-stressed soybean primary roots, elongation was maintained at well-watered rates in the apical 4 mm (region 1), but was progressively inhibited in the 4-8 mm region (region 2), which exhibits maximum elongation in well-watered roots. These responses are similar to previous results for the maize primary root. To understand these responses in soybean, spatial profiles of soluble protein composition were analysed. Among the changes, the results indicate that region-specific regulation of phenylpropanoid metabolism may contribute to the distinct growth responses in the different regions. Several enzymes related to isoflavonoid biosynthesis increased in abundance in region 1, correlating with a substantial increase of isoflavonoid content in this region which could contribute to growth maintenance via various potential mechanisms. In contrast, caffeoyl-CoA O-methyltransferase, which is involved in lignin synthesis, was highly up-regulated in region 2. This response was associated with enhanced accumulation of lignin, which may be related to the inhibition of growth in this region. Several proteins that increased in abundance in both regions of water-stressed roots were related to protection from oxidative damage. In particular, an increase in the abundance of ferritin proteins effectively sequestered more iron and prevented excess free iron in the elongation zone under water stress.
Plant & Cell Physiology. Jun, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20430761
Numerous environmental factors influence isoflavone accumulation and have long hampered their genetic dissection. Temperature and water regimes are two of the most significant abiotic factors. However, while the effects of temperature have been widely studied, little is known about how water scarcity might affect isoflavone concentration in seeds. Studies have shown that accumulation of isoflavones is promoted by well-watered conditions, but the molecular basis remains elusive. The length and severity of the water stress required to induce changes are also still unknown. In the present work, several intensities of water stress were evaluated at various critical stages for soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] seed development, in both field and controlled environments. The results suggested that only long-term progressive drought, spanning most of the seed developmental stages, significantly decreased isoflavone content in seeds. The reduction is proportional to the intensity of the stress and appears to occur in a genotype-dependent manner. However, regardless of water regime, isoflavone compounds were mainly accumulated in the later seed developmental stages. Transcripts of the most important genes for isoflavone biosynthesis were also quantified from samples collected at key seed developmental stages under well-watered and long-term water deficit conditions. Expression of CHS7, CHS8 and IFS2 correlated with isoflavone accumulation under well-watered conditions. Interestingly, we found that the two isoflavone synthase genes in soybean (IFS1 and IFS2) showed different patterns of expression. The abundance of IFS1 transcripts was maintained at a constant rate, whereas IFS2 was down-regulated and highly correlated with isoflavone accumulation under both water deficit and well-watered conditions, suggesting IFS2 as a main contributor to isoflavone diminution under drought.
Plant Physiology. Aug, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20508137
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important regulators of plant growth and development. Previously, we identified a group of conserved and novel miRNA families from soybean (Glycine max) roots. Many of these miRNAs are specifically induced during soybean-Bradyrhizobium japonicum interactions. Here, we examined the gene expression levels of six families of novel miRNAs and investigated their functions in nodule development. We used northern-blot analyses to study the tissue specificity and time course of miRNA expression. Transgenic expression of miR482, miR1512, and miR1515 led to significant increases of nodule numbers, while root length, lateral root density, and the number of nodule primordia were not altered in all tested miRNA lines. We also found differential expression of these miRNAs in nonnodulating and supernodulating soybean mutants. The expression levels of 22 predicted target genes regulated by six novel miRNAs were studied by real-time polymerase chain reaction and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. These results suggested that miRNAs play important roles in soybean nodule development.
BMC Plant Biology. 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20540761
Soybean (Glycine max [L] Merr.) seed isoflavones have long been considered a desirable trait to target in selection programs for their contribution to human health and plant defense systems. However, attempts to modify seed isoflavone contents have not always produced the expected results because their genetic basis is polygenic and complex. Undoubtedly, the extreme variability that seed isoflavones display over environments has obscured our understanding of the genetics involved.
BioFactors (Oxford, England). Sep, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20848556
Resveratrol, a compound commonly found in red wine, has attracted many attentions recently. It is a diphenolic natural product accumulated in grapes and a few other species under stress conditions. It possesses a special ability to increase the life span of eukaryotic organisms, ranging from yeast, to fruit fly, to obese mouse. The demand for resveratrol as a food and nutrition supplement has increased significantly in recent years. Extensive work has been carried out to increase the production of resveratrol in plants and microbes. In this review, we will discuss the biosynthetic pathway of resveratrol and engineering methods to heterologously express the pathway in various organisms. We will outline the shortcuts and limitations of common engineering efforts. We will also discuss briefly the features and engineering challenges of other longevity boosting compounds.
Whole Genome Co-expression Analysis of Soybean Cytochrome P450 Genes Identifies Nodulation-specific P450 Monooxygenases
BMC Plant Biology. 2010 | Pubmed ID: 21062474
Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s) catalyze oxidation of various substrates using oxygen and NAD(P)H. Plant P450s are involved in the biosynthesis of primary and secondary metabolites performing diverse biological functions. The recent availability of the soybean genome sequence allows us to identify and analyze soybean putative P450s at a genome scale. Co-expression analysis using an available soybean microarray and Illumina sequencing data provides clues for functional annotation of these enzymes. This approach is based on the assumption that genes that have similar expression patterns across a set of conditions may have a functional relationship.
Controlled Silencing of 4-coumarate:CoA Ligase Alters Lignocellulose Composition Without Affecting Stem Growth
Plant Physiology and Biochemistry : PPB / Société Française De Physiologie Végétale. Jan, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21094613
Many bioenergy feedstocks are not easily converted to fermentable substrates due to of high proportions of lignin, which impedes the degradation of cell wall polysaccharides to fermentable sugars. To reduce lignin levels during plant growth, we generated transgenic Arabidopsis plants that contain a gene that confers inducible silencing of both 4CL1 and 4CL2 genes; these genes play a compensatory role in normal development of Arabidopsis, including in mechanisms of stem growth. To alter lignocellulose composition at specific times in plant development, genes were silenced at bolting, immature stages (5-7 cm high), and intermediate stages (10-15 cm high). The stems of induced plants at all stages of development exhibited increased cellulose content and reduced amounts of total lignin when compared with non-induced stems. Furthermore, treating plants at advanced stages of development (the immature and intermediate stages) had little impact on plant growth and development while plants treated at the bolting stage exhibited modest abnormal development. Our results suggest that it is possible to alter lignocellulose composition in plants without negative effects on plant growth.
Berry Skin Development in Norton Grape: Distinct Patterns of Transcriptional Regulation and Flavonoid Biosynthesis
BMC Plant Biology. 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21219654
The complex and dynamic changes during grape berry development have been studied in Vitis vinifera, but little is known about these processes in other Vitis species. The grape variety 'Norton', with a major portion of its genome derived from Vitis aestivalis, maintains high levels of malic acid and phenolic acids in the ripening berries in comparison with V. vinifera varieties such as Cabernet Sauvignon. Furthermore, Norton berries develop a remarkably high level of resistance to most fungal pathogens while Cabernet Sauvignon berries remain susceptible to those pathogens. The distinct characteristics of Norton and Cabernet Sauvignon merit a comprehensive analysis of transcriptional regulation and metabolite pathways.
Deep Sequencing of the Camellia Sinensis Transcriptome Revealed Candidate Genes for Major Metabolic Pathways of Tea-specific Compounds
BMC Genomics. 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21356090
Tea is one of the most popular non-alcoholic beverages worldwide. However, the tea plant, Camellia sinensis, is difficult to culture in vitro, to transform, and has a large genome, rendering little genomic information available. Recent advances in large-scale RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) provide a fast, cost-effective, and reliable approach to generate large expression datasets for functional genomic analysis, which is especially suitable for non-model species with un-sequenced genomes.
Stepwise Increase of Resveratrol Biosynthesis in Yeast Saccharomyces Cerevisiae by Metabolic Engineering
Metabolic Engineering. Sep, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21570474
Resveratrol is a unique, natural polyphenolic compound with diverse health benefits. In the present study, we attempted to improve resveratrol biosynthesis in yeast by different methods of metabolic engineering. We first mutated and then re-synthesized tyrosine ammonia lyase (TAL) by replacing the bacteria codons with yeast-preferred codons, which increased translation and improved p-coumaric acid and resveratrol biosynthesis drastically. We then demonstrated that low-affinity, high-capacity bacterial araE transporter could enhance resveratrol accumulation, without transporting resveratrol directly. Yeast cells carrying the araE gene produced up to 2.44-fold higher resveratrol than control cells. For commercial applications, resveratrol biosynthesis was detected in sucrose medium and fresh grape juice using our engineered yeast cells. In collaboration with the Chaumette Winery of Missouri, we were able to produce resveratrol-containing white wines, with levels comparable to the resveratrol levels found in most red wines.
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology. Aug, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21732240
Over 9,000 flavonoid compounds have been found in various plants, comprising one of the largest families of natural products. Flavonoids are an essential factor in plant interactions with the environment, often serving as the first line of defense against UV irradiation and pathogen attacks. Flavonoids are also major nutritional compounds in foods and beverages, with demonstrated health benefits. Some flavonoids are potent antioxidants, and specific flavonoid compounds are beneficial in many physiological and pharmacological processes. Therefore, engineering of flavonoid biosynthesis in plants or in microorganisms has significant scientific and economical importance. Construction of biosynthetic pathways in heterologous systems offers promising results for large-scale flavonoid production by fermentation or bioconversion. Genomics and metabolomics now offer unprecedented tools for detailed understanding of the engineered transgenic organism and for developing novel technologies to further increase flavonoid production yields. We summarize some of the recent metabolic engineering strategies in plants and microorganisms, with a focus on applications of metabolic flux analysis. We are confident that these engineering approaches will lead to successful industrial flavonoid production in the near future.
Major Locus and Other Novel Additive and Epistatic Loci Involved in Modulation of Isoflavone Concentration in Soybean Seeds
TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische Und Angewandte Genetik. Dec, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21850478
Seeds of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] accumulate more isoflavones than any tissue of any plant species. In other plant parts, isoflavones are usually released to counteract the effects of various biotic and abiotic stresses. Because of the benefits to the plant and positive implications that consumption may have on human health, increasing isoflavones is a goal of many soybean breeding programs. However, altering isoflavone levels through marker-assisted selection (MAS) has been impractical due to the small and often environmentally variable contributions that each individual quantitative trait locus (QTL) has on total isoflavones. In this study, we developed a Magellan × PI 437654 F(7)-RIL population to construct a highly saturated non-redundant linkage map that encompassed 451 SNP and SSR molecular markers and used it to locate genomic regions that govern accumulation of isoflavones in the seeds of soybean. Five QTLs were found that contribute to the concentration of isoflavones, having single or multiple additive effects on isoflavone component traits. We also validated a major locus which alone accounted for up to 10% of the phenotypic variance for glycitein, and 35-37% for genistein, daidzein and the sum of all three soybean isoflavones. This QTL was consistently associated with increased concentration of isoflavones across different locations, years and crosses. It was the most important QTL in terms of net increased amounts of all isoflavone forms. Our results suggest that this locus would be an excellent candidate to target for MAS. Also, several minor QTLs were identified that interacted in an additive-by-additive epistatic manner, to increase isoflavone concentration.
Structural and Kinetic Analysis of the Unnatural Fusion Protein 4-coumaroyl-CoA Ligase::stilbene Synthase
Journal of the American Chemical Society. Dec, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 22129213
To increase the biochemical efficiency of biosynthetic systems, metabolic engineers have explored different approaches for organizing enzymes, including the generation of unnatural fusion proteins. Previous work aimed at improving the biosynthesis of resveratrol, a stilbene associated a range of health-promoting activities, in yeast used an unnatural engineered fusion protein of Arabidopsis thaliana (thale cress) 4-coumaroyl-CoA ligase (At4CL1) and Vitis vinifera (grape) stilbene synthase (VvSTS) to increase resveratrol levels 15-fold relative to yeast expressing the individual enzymes. Here we present the crystallographic and biochemical analysis of the 4CL::STS fusion protein. Determination of the X-ray crystal structure of 4CL::STS provides the first molecular view of an artificial didomain adenylation/ketosynthase fusion protein. Comparison of the steady-state kinetic properties of At4CL1, VvSTS, and 4CL::STS demonstrates that the fusion protein improves catalytic efficiency of either reaction less than 3-fold. Structural and kinetic analysis suggests that colocalization of the two enzyme active sites within 70 Å of each other provides the basis for enhanced in vivo synthesis of resveratrol.
Metabolic Profiling of Strawberry (Fragaria X Ananassa Duch.) During Fruit Development and Maturation
Journal of Experimental Botany. Jan, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21041374
Strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch), a fruit of economic and nutritional importance, is also a model species for fleshy fruits and genomics in Rosaceae. Strawberry fruit quality at different harvest stages is a function of the fruit's metabolite content, which results from physiological changes during fruit growth and ripening. In order to investigate strawberry fruit development, untargeted (GC-MS) and targeted (HPLC) metabolic profiling analyses were conducted. Principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) were employed to explore the non-polar and polar metabolite profiles from fruit samples at seven developmental stages. Different cluster patterns and a broad range of metabolites that exerted influence on cluster formation of metabolite profiles were observed. Significant changes in metabolite levels were found in both fruits turning red and fruits over-ripening in comparison with red-ripening fruits. The levels of free amino acids decreased gradually before the red-ripening stage, but increased significantly in the over-ripening stage. Metabolite correlation and network analysis revealed the interdependencies of individual metabolites and metabolic pathways. Activities of several metabolic pathways, including ester biosynthesis, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, the shikimate pathway, and amino acid metabolism, shifted during fruit growth and ripening. These results not only confirmed published metabolic data but also revealed new insights into strawberry fruit composition and metabolite changes, thus demonstrating the value of metabolomics as a functional genomics tool in characterizing the mechanism of fruit quality formation, a key developmental stage in most economically important fruit crops.
Journal of Biotechnology. Jan, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22100267
Resveratrol is a polyphenolic compound produced by a few higher plants when under attack by pathogens such as bacteria or fungi. Besides antioxidant benefits to humans, this health-promoting compound has been reported to extend longevity in yeasts, flies, worms, fishes and obesity mice. Here we utilized the synthetic scaffolds strategy to improve resveratrol production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We observed a 5.0-fold improvement over the non-scaffolded control, and a 2.7-fold increase over the previous reported with fusion protein. This work demonstrated the synthetic scaffolds can be used for the optimization of engineered metabolic pathway.