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In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (11)
Articles by Padma-Sheela Jayaraman in JoVE
In situ Subcellular Fractionation of Adherent and Non-adherent Mammalian Cells
Anyaporn Sawasdichai1, Hsin-Tien Chen1, Nazefah Abdul Hamid1, Padma-Sheela Jayaraman2, Kevin Gaston1
1Department of Biochemistry, School of Medical Sciences, University of Bristol, 2Division of Immunity and Infection, School of Medicine, University of Birmingham
In situ subcellular fractionation of mammalian cells on microscope coverslips allows the visualisation of protein localisation.
Other articles by Padma-Sheela Jayaraman on PubMed
The Biochemical Journal. Sep, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12826010
PRH (proline-rich homeodomain protein)/Hex is important in the control of cell proliferation and differentiation. We have shown previously that PRH contains two domains that can bring about transcriptional repression independently; the PRH homeodomain represses transcription by binding to TATA box sequences, whereas the proline-rich N-terminal domain can repress transcription by interacting with members of the Groucho/TLE (transducin-like enhancer of split) family of co-repressor proteins. The proteasome is a multi-subunit protein complex involved in the processing and degradation of proteins. Some proteasome subunits have been suggested to play a role in the regulation of transcription. In the present study, we show that PRH interacts with the HC8 subunit of the proteasome in the context of both 20 and 26 S proteasomes. Moreover, we show that PRH is associated with the proteasome in haematopoietic cells and that the proline-rich PRH N-terminal domain is responsible for this interaction. Whereas PRH can be cleaved by the proteasome, it does not appear to be degraded rapidly in vitro or in vivo, and the proteolytic activity of the proteasome is not required for transcriptional repression by PRH. However, proteasomal digestion of PRH can liberate truncated PRH proteins that retain the ability to bind to DNA. We discuss these findings in terms of the biological role of PRH in gene regulation and the control of cell proliferation.
The Proline-rich Homeodomain Protein Recruits Members of the Groucho/Transducin-like Enhancer of Split Protein Family to Co-repress Transcription in Hematopoietic Cells
The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Aug, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15187083
The proline-rich homeodomain protein (PRH/Hex) is important in the control of cell proliferation and differentiation and in the regulation of multiple processes in embryonic development. We have shown previously that PRH contains two domains that can independently bring about transcriptional repression. The PRH homeodomain represses transcription by binding to TATA box sequences, whereas the proline-rich N-terminal domain of PRH can repress transcription when attached to a heterologous DNA-binding domain. The Groucho/transducin-like enhancer of split (TLE) family of proteins are transcriptional co-repressors that interact with a number of DNA-bound transcription factors and play multiple roles in development. Here we demonstrate that the proline-rich N-terminal domain of PRH binds to TLE1 in vitro and in yeast two-hybrid assays. We show that PRH and TLE proteins are co-expressed in hematopoietic cells and interact in co-immunoprecipitation assays. We demonstrate that TLE1 increases repression by PRH in transient transfection assays and that titration of endogenous TLE proteins by co-expression of Grg5, a natural trans-dominant negative protein, alleviates transcriptional repression by PRH. Finally, we show that a mutation in the PRH N-terminal domain that blocks the PRH-TLE1 interaction in vitro eliminates co-repression. We discuss these results in terms of the roles of PRH and TLE in cell differentiation and development.
Purification and Characterisation of the PRH Homeodomain: Removal of the N-terminal Domain of PRH Increases the PRH Homeodomain-DNA Interaction
International Journal of Biological Macromolecules. Aug, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16494938
The Proline-Rich Homeodomain (PRH) protein is a regulator of transcription and translation and plays a key role in the control of cell proliferation and cell differentiation. PRH contains an N-terminal proline-rich domain that can repress transcription when expressed as a fusion protein with an unrelated DNA binding domain, a central homeodomain that binds to specific DNA sequences and an acidic C-terminal domain of no known function. In order to investigate the structure and functions of PRH we have purified the full-length protein and truncated proteins corresponding to different domains of PRH fused to histidine tags. Here we compare the effects of elution conditions and column volume on protein purification and we investigate the DNA binding activity of these proteins. We show that the PRH homeodomain co-purifies with nucleic acids even after nuclease treatment and that a high salt-wash is required to remove bound nucleic acids. In contrast with the full-length PRH protein, the PRH homeodomain binds to DNA with high affinity. We show that a truncated protein comprising the homeodomain and C-terminal domain also binds to DNA with high affinity and we conclude that the N-terminal domain of PRH inhibits the homeodomain-DNA interaction.
Oligomerisation of the Developmental Regulator Proline Rich Homeodomain (PRH/Hex) is Mediated by a Novel Proline-rich Dimerisation Domain
Journal of Molecular Biology. May, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16540119
Homeodomain proteins regulate multiple developmental pathways by altering gene expression temporally and in a tissue-specific fashion. The Proline Rich Homeodomain protein (PRH/Hex) is a transcription factor and an essential regulator of embryonic development and haematopoiesis. Recent discoveries have implicated self-association as an important feature of transcription factor function. Here, we show using a variety of techniques including gel-filtration, analytical ultracentrifugation, electron microscopy and in vitro cross-linking, that purified recombinant PRH is oligomeric and we use in vivo cross-linking to confirm that this protein exists as oligomers in cells. This is the first demonstration that a homeodomain protein can oligomerise in vivo. Consistent with these findings we show that a fraction of endogenous and exogenous PRH appears as discrete foci within the nucleus and at the nuclear periphery. The N-terminal domain of PRH is involved in the regulation of cell proliferation and transcriptional repression and can make multiple protein-protein interactions. We show that this region of PRH contains a novel proline-rich dimerisation domain that mediates oligomerisation. We propose a model that explains how PRH forms oligomers and we discuss how these oligomers might control transcription.
The Biochemical Journal. Jun, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18498250
The PRH (proline-rich homeodomain) [also known as Hex (haematopoietically expressed homeobox)] protein is a critical regulator of vertebrate development. PRH is able to regulate cell proliferation and differentiation and is required for the formation of the vertebrate body axis, the haematopoietic and vascular systems and the formation of many vital organs. PRH is a DNA-binding protein that can repress and activate the transcription of its target genes using multiple mechanisms. In addition, PRH can regulate the nuclear transport of specific mRNAs making PRH a member of a select group of proteins that control gene expression at the transcriptional and translational levels. Recent biophysical analysis of the PRH protein has shown that it forms homo-oligomeric complexes in vivo and in vitro and that the proline-rich region of PRH forms a novel dimerization interface. Here we will review the current literature on PRH and discuss the complex web of interactions centred on this multifunctional protein.
Journal of Molecular Biology. Oct, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18755198
Many transcription factors alter DNA or chromatin structure. Changes in chromatin structure are often brought about by the recruitment of chromatin-binding proteins, chromatin-modifying proteins, or other transcription co-activator or co-repressor proteins. However, some transcription factors form oligomeric assemblies that may themselves induce changes in DNA conformation and chromatin structure. The proline-rich homeodomain (PRH/Hex) protein is a transcription factor that regulates cell differentiation and cell proliferation, and has multiple roles in embryonic development. Earlier, we showed that PRH can repress transcription by multiple mechanisms, including the recruitment of co-repressor proteins belonging to the TLE family of chromatin-binding proteins. Our in vivo crosslinking studies have shown that PRH forms oligomeric complexes in cells and a variety of biophysical techniques suggest that the protein forms octamers. However, as yet we have little knowledge of the role played by PRH oligomerisation in the regulation of promoter activity or of the architecture of promoters that are regulated directly by PRH in cells. Here, we compare the binding of PRH and the isolated PRH homeodomain to DNA fragments with single and multiple PRH sites, using gel retardation assays and DNase I and chemical footprinting. We show that the PRH oligomer binds to multiple sites within the human Goosecoid promoter with high affinity and that the binding of PRH brings about DNA distortion. We suggest that PRH octamers wrap DNA in order to bring about transcriptional repression.
Nucleic Acids Research. Jun, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19324893
The proline-rich homeodomain protein (PRH/Hex) regulates transcription by binding to specific DNA sequences and regulates mRNA transport by binding to translation initiation factor eIF4E. Protein kinase CK2 plays multiple roles in the regulation of gene expression and cell proliferation. Here, we show that PRH interacts with the beta subunit of CK2 in vitro and in cells and that CK2 phosphorylates PRH. Phosphorylation of PRH by CK2 inhibits the DNA binding activity of this protein and dephosphorylation restores DNA binding indicating that this modification acts as a reversible switch. We show that phosphorylation of the homeodomain is sufficient to block DNA binding and we identify two amino acids within this the domain that are phosphorylated by CK2: S163 and S177. Site-directed mutagenesis demonstrates that mutation of either of these residues to glutamic acid partially mimics phosphorylation but is insufficient to completely block DNA binding whereas an S163E/S177E double mutation severely inhibits DNA binding. Significantly, the S163E and S177E mutations and the S163E/S177E double mutation all inhibit the ability of PRH to regulate transcription in cells. Since these amino acids are conserved between many homeodomain proteins, our results suggest that CK2 may regulate the activity of several homeodomain proteins in this manner.
The Biochemical Journal. Jan, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 18713067
The PRH (proline-rich homeodomain) [also known as Hex (haematopoietically expressed homeobox)] protein is a transcription factor that functions as an important regulator of vertebrate development and many other processes in the adult including haematopoiesis. The Groucho/TLE (transducin-like enhancer) family of co-repressor proteins also regulate development and modulate the activity of many DNA-binding transcription factors during a range of diverse cellular processes including haematopoiesis. We have shown previously that PRH is a repressor of transcription in haematopoietic cells and that an Eh-1 (Engrailed homology) motif present within the N-terminal transcription repression domain of PRH mediates binding to Groucho/TLE proteins and enables co-repression. In the present study we demonstrate that PRH regulates the nuclear retention of TLE proteins during cellular fractionation. We show that transcriptional repression and the nuclear retention of TLE proteins requires PRH to bind to both TLE and DNA. In addition, we characterize a trans-dominant-negative PRH protein that inhibits wild-type PRH activity by sequestering TLE proteins to specific subnuclear domains. These results demonstrate that transcriptional repression by PRH is dependent on TLE availability and suggest that subnuclear localization of TLE plays an important role in transcriptional repression by PRH.
Activation of Proteinase-activated Receptor 2 Stimulates Soluble Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor 1 Release Via Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Transactivation in Endothelial Cells
Hypertension. Mar, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20124108
The proteinase-activated receptor 2 (PAR-2) expression is increased in endothelial cells derived from women with preeclampsia, characterized by widespread maternal endothelial damage, which occurs as a consequence of elevated soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 (sVEGFR-1; commonly known as sFlt-1) in the maternal circulation. Because PAR-2 is upregulated by proinflammatory cytokines and activated by blood coagulation serine proteinases, we investigated whether activation of PAR-2 contributed to sVEGFR-1 release. PAR-2-activating peptides (SLIGRL-NH(2) and 2-furoyl-LIGRLO-NH(2)) and factor Xa increased the expression and release of sVEGFR-1 from human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Enzyme-specific, dominant-negative mutants and small interfering RNA were used to demonstrate that PAR-2-mediated sVEGFR-1 release depended on protein kinase C-beta(1) and protein kinase C-epsilon, which required intracellular transactivation of epidermal growth factor receptor 1, leading to mitogen-activated protein kinase activation. Overexpression of heme oxygenase 1 and its gaseous product, carbon monoxide, decreased PAR-2-stimulated sVEGFR-1 release from human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Simvastatin, which upregulates heme oxygenase 1, also suppressed PAR-2-mediated sVEGFR-1 release. These results show that endothelial PAR-2 activation leading to increased sVEGFR-1 release may contribute to the maternal vascular dysfunction observed in preeclampsia and highlights the PAR-2 pathway as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of preeclampsia.
PRH/Hhex Controls Cell Survival Through Coordinate Transcriptional Regulation of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Signaling
Molecular and Cellular Biology. May, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20176809
The proline-rich homeodomain protein (PRH) plays multiple roles in the control of gene expression during embryonic development and in the adult. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a mitogen that stimulates cell proliferation and survival via cell surface receptors including VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2. VEGF signaling is of critical importance in angiogenesis and hematopoiesis and is elevated in many tumors. Here we show that PRH binds directly to the promoter regions of the Vegf, Vegfr-1, and Vegfr-2 genes and that in each case PRH represses transcription. We demonstrate that overexpression or knockdown of PRH directly impinges on the survival of both leukemic and tumor cells and that the modulation of VEGF and VEGF receptor signaling by PRH mediates these effects. Our findings demonstrate that PRH is a key regulator of the VEGF signaling pathway and describe a mechanism whereby PRH plays an important role in tumorigenesis and leukemogenesis.
Nucleic Acids Research. Nov, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20675722
Protein self-organization is essential for the establishment and maintenance of nuclear architecture and for the regulation of gene expression. We have shown previously that the Proline-Rich Homeodomain protein (PRH/Hex) self-assembles to form oligomeric complexes that bind to arrays of PRH binding sites with high affinity and specificity. We have also shown that many PRH target genes contain suitably spaced arrays of PRH sites that allow this protein to bind and regulate transcription. Here, we use analytical ultracentrifugation and electron microscopy to further characterize PRH oligomers. We use the same techniques to show that PRH oligomers bound to long DNA fragments self-associate to form highly ordered assemblies. Electron microscopy and linear dichroism reveal that PRH oligomers can form protein-DNA fibres and that PRH is able to compact DNA in the absence of other proteins. Finally, we show that DNA compaction is not sufficient for the repression of PRH target genes in cells. We conclude that DNA compaction is a consequence of the binding of large PRH oligomers to arrays of binding sites and that PRH is functionally and structurally related to the Lrp/AsnC family of proteins from bacteria and archaea, a group of proteins formerly thought to be without eukaryotic equivalents.