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In JoVE (1)

Other Publications (11)

Articles by Pamela A. Padilla in JoVE

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Use of Time Lapse Microscopy to Visualize Anoxia-induced Suspended Animation in C. elegans Embryos

1Department of Biological Sciences, University of North Texas


JoVE 4319

Described here is an in vivo technique to image sub-cellular structures in animals exposed to anoxia using a gas flow through microincubation chamber in conjunction with a spinning disc confocal microscope. This method is straightforward and flexible enough to suit a variety of experimental parameters and model systems.

Other articles by Pamela A. Padilla on PubMed

Dephosphorylation of Cell Cycle-regulated Proteins Correlates with Anoxia-induced Suspended Animation in Caenorhabditis Elegans

Some metazoans have evolved the capacity to survive severe oxygen deprivation. The nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans, exposed to anoxia (0 kPa, 0% O(2)) enters into a recoverable state of suspended animation during all stages of the life cycle. That is, all microscopically observable movement ceases including cell division, developmental progression, feeding, and motility. To understand suspended animation, we compared oxygen-deprived embryos to nontreated embryos in both wild-type and hif-1 mutants. We found that hif-1 mutants survive anoxia, suggesting that the mechanisms for anoxia survival are different from those required for hypoxia. Examination of wild-type embryos exposed to anoxia show that blastomeres arrest in interphase, prophase, metaphase, and telophase but not anaphase. Analysis of the energetic state of anoxic embryos indicated a reversible depression in the ATP to ADP ratio. Given that a decrease in ATP concentrations likely affects a variety of cellular processes, including signal transduction, we compared the phosphorylation state of several proteins in anoxic embryos and normoxic embryos. We found that the phosphorylation state of histone H3 and cell cycle-regulated proteins recognized by the MPM-2 antibody were not detectable in anoxic embryos. Thus, dephosphorylation of specific proteins correlate with the establishment and/or maintenance of a state of anoxia-induced suspended animation.

Suspended Animation in C. Elegans Requires the Spindle Checkpoint

In response to environmental signals such as anoxia, many organisms enter a state of suspended animation, an extreme form of quiescence in which microscopically visible movement ceases. We have identified a gene, san-1, that is required for suspended animation in Caenorhabditis elegans embryos. We show that san-1 functions as a spindle checkpoint component in C. elegans. During anoxia-induced suspended animation, embryos lacking functional SAN-1 or a second spindle checkpoint component, MDF-2, failed to arrest the cell cycle, exhibited chromosome missegregation, and showed reduced viability. These data provide a model for how a dynamic biological process is arrested in suspended animation.

Characterization of Sub-nuclear Changes in Caenorhabditis Elegans Embryos Exposed to Brief, Intermediate and Long-term Anoxia to Analyze Anoxia-induced Cell Cycle Arrest

The soil nematode C. elegans survives oxygen-deprived conditions (anoxia; <.001 kPa O2) by entering into a state of suspended animation in which cell cycle progression reversibly arrests. The majority of blastomeres of embryos exposed to anoxia arrest at interphase, prophase and metaphase. The spindle checkpoint proteins SAN-1 and MDF-2 are required for embryos to survive 24 hours of anoxia. To further investigate the mechanism of cell-cycle arrest we examined and compared sub-nuclear changes such as chromatin localization pattern, post-translational modification of histone H3, spindle microtubules, and localization of the spindle checkpoint protein SAN-1 with respect to various anoxia exposure time points. To ensure analysis of embryos exposed to anoxia and not post-anoxic recovery we fixed all embryos in an anoxia glove box chamber.

Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate Dehydrogenase Mediates Anoxia Response and Survival in Caenorhabditis Elegans

Oxygen deprivation has a role in the pathology of many human diseases. Thus it is of interest in understanding the genetic and cellular responses to hypoxia or anoxia in oxygen-deprivation-tolerant organisms such as Caenorhabditis elegans. In C. elegans the DAF-2/DAF-16 pathway, an IGF-1/insulin-like signaling pathway, is involved with dauer formation, longevity, and stress resistance. In this report we compared the response of wild-type and daf-2(e1370) animals to anoxia. Unlike wild-type animals, the daf-2(e1370) animals have an enhanced anoxia-survival phenotype in that they survive long-term anoxia and high-temperature anoxia, do not accumulate significant tissue damage in either of these conditions, and are motile after 24 hr of anoxia. RNA interference was used to screen DAF-16-regulated genes that suppress the daf-2(e1370)-enhanced anoxia-survival phenotype. We identified gpd-2 and gpd-3, two nearly identical genes in an operon that encode the glycolytic enzyme glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. We found that not only is the daf-2(e1370)-enhanced anoxia phenotype dependent upon gpd-2 and gpd-3, but also the motility of animals exposed to brief periods of anoxia is prematurely arrested in gpd-2/3(RNAi) and daf-2(e1370);gpd-2/3(RNAi) animals. These data suggest that gpd-2 and gpd-3 may serve a protective role in tissue exposed to oxygen deprivation.

Genetic Analysis of the Spindle Checkpoint Genes San-1, Mdf-2, Bub-3 and the CENP-F Homologues Hcp-1 and Hcp-2 in Caenorhabditis Elegans

The spindle checkpoint delays the onset of anaphase until all sister chromatids are aligned properly at the metaphase plate. To investigate the role san-1, the MAD3 homologue, has in Caenorhabditis elegans embryos we used RNA interference (RNAi) to identify genes synthetic lethal with the viable san-1(ok1580) deletion mutant.

Large P Body-like RNPs Form in C. Elegans Oocytes in Response to Arrested Ovulation, Heat Shock, Osmotic Stress, and Anoxia and Are Regulated by the Major Sperm Protein Pathway

As Caenorhabditis elegans hermaphrodites age, sperm become depleted, ovulation arrests, and oocytes accumulate in the gonad arm. Large ribonucleoprotein (RNP) foci form in these arrested oocytes that contain RNA-binding proteins and translationally masked maternal mRNAs. Within 65 min of mating, the RNP foci dissociate and fertilization proceeds. The majority of arrested oocytes with foci result in viable embryos upon fertilization, suggesting that foci are not deleterious to oocyte function. We have determined that foci formation is not strictly a function of aging, and the somatic, ceh-18, branch of the major sperm protein pathway regulates the formation and dissociation of oocyte foci. Our hypothesis for the function of oocyte RNP foci is similar to the RNA-related functions of processing bodies (P bodies) and stress granules; here, we show three orthologs of P body proteins, DCP-2, CAR-1 and CGH-1, and two markers of stress granules, poly (A) binding protein (PABP) and TIA-1, appear to be present in the oocyte RNP foci. Our results are the first in vivo demonstration linking components of P bodies and stress granules in the germ line of a metazoan. Furthermore, our data demonstrate that formation of oocyte RNP foci is inducible in non-arrested oocytes by heat shock, osmotic stress, or anoxia, similar to the induction of stress granules in mammalian cells and P bodies in yeast. These data suggest commonalities between oocytes undergoing delayed fertilization and cells that are stressed environmentally, as to how they modulate mRNAs and regulate translation.

Reduction in Ovulation or Male Sex Phenotype Increases Long-term Anoxia Survival in a Daf-16-independent Manner in Caenorhabditis Elegans

Identifying genotypes and phenotypes that enhance an organism's ability to survive stress is of interest. We used Caenorhabditis elegans mutants, RNA interference (RNAi), and the chemical 5-fluorodeoxyuridine (FUDR) to test the hypothesis that a reduction in progeny would increase oxygen deprivation (anoxia) survival. In the hermaphrodite gonad, germ line processes such as spermatogenesis and oogenesis can be simultaneously as well as independently disrupted by genetic mutations. We analyzed genetic mutants [glp-1(q158), glp-4(bn2ts), plc-1(rx1), ksr-1(ku68), fog-2(q71), fem-3(q20), spe-9(hc52ts), fer-15(hc15ts)] with reduced progeny production due to various reproductive defects. Furthermore, we used RNAi to inhibit the function of gene products in the RTK/Ras/MAPK signaling pathway, which is known to be involved in a variety of developmental processes including gonad function. We determined that reduced progeny production or complete sterility enhanced anoxia survival except in the case of sterile hermaphrodites [spe-9(hc52ts), fer-15(hc15ts)] undergoing oocyte maturation and ovulation as exhibited by the presence of laid unfertilized oocytes. Furthermore, the fog-2(q71) long-term anoxia survival phenotype was suppressed when oocyte maturation and ovulation were induced by mating with males that have functional or nonfunctional sperm. The mutants with a reduced progeny production survive long-term anoxia in a daf-16- and hif-1-independent manner. Finally, we determined that wild-type males were able to survive long-term anoxia in a daf-16-independent manner. Together, these results suggest that the insulin signaling pathway is not the only mechanism to survive oxygen deprivation and that altering gonad function, in particular oocyte maturation and ovulation, leads to a physiological state conducive for oxygen deprivation survival.

NPP-16/Nup50 Function and CDK-1 Inactivation Are Associated with Anoxia-induced Prophase Arrest in Caenorhabditis Elegans

Oxygen, an essential nutrient, is sensed by a multiple of cellular pathways that facilitate the responses to and survival of oxygen deprivation. The Caenorhabditis elegans embryo exposed to severe oxygen deprivation (anoxia) enters a state of suspended animation in which cell cycle progression reversibly arrests at specific stages. The mechanisms regulating interphase, prophase, or metaphase arrest in response to anoxia are not completely understood. Characteristics of arrested prophase blastomeres and oocytes are the alignment of condensed chromosomes at the nuclear periphery and an arrest of nuclear envelope breakdown. Notably, anoxia-induced prophase arrest is suppressed in mutant embryos lacking nucleoporin NPP-16/NUP50 function, indicating that this nucleoporin plays an important role in prophase arrest in wild-type embryos. Although the inactive form of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK-1) is detected in wild-type-arrested prophase blastomeres, the inactive state is not detected in the anoxia exposed npp-16 mutant. Furthermore, we found that CDK-1 localizes near chromosomes in anoxia-exposed embryos. These data support the notion that NPP-16 and CDK-1 function to arrest prophase blastomeres in C. elegans embryos. The anoxia-induced shift of cells from an actively dividing state to an arrested state reveals a previously uncharacterized prophase checkpoint in the C. elegans embryo.

Environmental and Genetic Preconditioning for Long-term Anoxia Responses Requires AMPK in Caenorhabditis Elegans

Preconditioning environments or therapeutics, to suppress the cellular damage associated with severe oxygen deprivation, is of interest to our understanding of diseases associated with oxygen deprivation. Wildtype C. elegans exposed to anoxia enter into a state of suspended animation in which energy-requiring processes reversibly arrest. C. elegans at all developmental stages survive 24-hours of anoxia exposure however, the ability of adult hermaphrodites to survive three days of anoxia significantly decreases. Mutations in the insulin-like signaling receptor (daf-2) and LIN-12/Notch (glp-1) lead to an enhanced long-term anoxia survival phenotype.

Suspended Animation, Diapause and Quiescence: Arresting the Cell Cycle in C. Elegans

Developing organisms require nutrients to support cell division vital for growth and development. An adaptation to stress, used by many organisms, is to reversibly enter an arrested state by reducing energy-requiring processes, such as development and cell division. This "wait it out" approach to survive stress until the environment is conductive for growth and development is used by many metazoans. Much is known about the molecular regulation of cell division, metazoan development and responses to environmental stress. However, how these biological processes intersect is less understood. Here, we review studies conducted in Caenorhabditis elegans that investigate how stresses such as oxygen deprivation (hypoxia and anoxia), exogenous chemicals or starvation affect cellular processes in the embryo, larvae or adult germline. Using C. elegans to identify how stress signals biological arrest can help in our understanding of evolutionary pressures as well as human health-related issues.

IBI Series Winner. A Mutant Search--Caenorhabditis Elegans and Gene Discovery

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