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In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (25)
- Environmental Health Perspectives
- Molecular Biology of the Cell
- Environmental Health Perspectives
- Journal of Neurochemistry
- Journal of Neurochemistry
- Environmental Health Perspectives
- Pharmacology & Therapeutics
- PloS One
- Environmental Health Perspectives
- Journal of Neurochemistry
- Environmental Health Perspectives
- Toxicological Sciences : an Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
- Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
- PloS One
- Methods in Molecular Biology (Clifton, N.J.)
- The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
- Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
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Articles by Pamela J. Lein in JoVE
Induktion Dendritic Tillväxten i Odlade sympatiska nervceller
Atefeh Ghogha, Donald A. Bruun, Pamela J. Lein
Department of Molecular Biosciences, University of California, Davis
Vi beskriver ett protokoll för användning av benmorfogenetiskt protein-7 (BMP-7) eller Matrigel att selektivt inducera dendritisk tillväxt i primära sympatiska neuroner dissocierade från ganglion cervicale superius (SCG) hos perinatal råtta.
Other articles by Pamela J. Lein on PubMed
Environmental Health Perspectives. Mar, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18335107
Recent epidemiologic studies have identified organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) as environmental factors potentially contributing to the increase in asthma prevalence over the last 25 years. In support of this hypothesis, we have demonstrated that environmentally relevant concentrations of OPs induce airway hyperreactivity in guinea pigs.
Neurotoxicology. May, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18394707
Symposium 5 focused on research approaches that are aimed at understanding common patterns of immunological and neurological dysfunction contributing to neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism and ADHD. The session focused on genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors that might act in concert to influence autism risk, severity and co-morbidities, and immunological and neurobiological targets as etiologic contributors. The immune system of children at risk of autism may be therefore especially susceptible to psychological stressors, exposure to chemical triggers, and infectious agents. Identifying early biomarkers of risk provides tangible approaches toward designing studies in animals and humans that yield a better understanding of environmental risk factors, and can help identify rational intervention strategies to mitigate these risks.
Cross-talk Between Fibroblast Growth Factor and Bone Morphogenetic Proteins Regulates Gap Junction-mediated Intercellular Communication in Lens Cells
Molecular Biology of the Cell. Jun, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18400943
Homeostasis in the lens is dependent on an extensive network of cell-to-cell gap junctional channels. Gap junction-mediated intercellular coupling (GJIC) is higher in the equatorial region of the lens than at either pole, an asymmetry believed essential for lens transparency. Primary cultures of embryonic chick lens epithelial cells up-regulate GJIC in response to purified fibroblast growth factor (FGF)1/2 or to medium conditioned by vitreous bodies, the major reservoir of factors (including FGF) for the lens equator. We show that purified bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)2, -4, and -7 also up-regulate GJIC in these cultures. BMP2, -4, or both are present in vitreous body conditioned medium, and BMP4 and -7 are endogenously expressed by lens cells. Remarkably, lens-derived BMP signaling is required for up-regulation of GJIC by purified FGF, and sufficient for up-regulation by vitreous humor. This is the first demonstration of an obligatory interaction between FGF and BMPs in postplacode lens cells, and of a role for FGF/BMP cross-talk in regulating GJIC in any cell type. Our results support a model in which the angular gradient in GJIC in the lens, and thus proper lens function, is dependent on signaling between the FGF and BMP pathways.
Environmental Health Perspectives. Apr, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18414629
The "developmental origins of adult disease" hypothesis was originally derived from evidence linking low birth weight to cardiovascular diseases including stroke. Subsequently, it has been expanded to include developmental exposures to environmental contaminants as risk factors for adult onset disease.
Rit Signaling Contributes to Interferon-gamma-induced Dendritic Retraction Via P38 Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Activation
Journal of Neurochemistry. Dec, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18957053
The proinflammatory cytokine interferon-gamma (IFNgamma) alters neuronal connectivity via selective regressive effects on dendrites but the signaling pathways that mediate this effect are poorly understood. We recently demonstrated that signaling by Rit, a member of the Ras family of GTPases, modulates dendritic growth in primary cultures of sympathetic and hippocampal neurons. In this study, we investigated a role for Rit signaling in IFNgamma-induced dendritic retraction. Expression of a dominant negative Rit mutant inhibited IFNgamma-induced dendritic retraction in cultured embryonic rat sympathetic and hippocampal neurons. In pheochromacytoma cells and hippocampal neurons, IFNgamma caused rapid Rit activation as indicated by increased GTP binding to Rit. Silencing of Rit by RNA interference suppressed IFNgamma-elicited activation of p38 MAPK in pheochromacytoma cells, and pharmacological inhibition of p38 MAPK significantly attenuated the dendrite-inhibiting effects of IFNgamma in cultured sympathetic and hippocampal neurons without altering signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 activation. These observations identify Rit as a downstream target of IFNgamma and suggest that a novel IFNgamma-Rit-p38 signaling pathway contributes to dendritic retraction and may, therefore, represent a potential therapeutic target in diseases with a significant neuroinflammatory component.
Journal of Neurochemistry. Feb, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19209406
Clinical and experimental evidence suggest that statins decrease sympathetic activity, but whether peripheral mechanisms involving direct actions on post-ganglionic sympathetic neurons contribute to this effect is not known. Because tonic activity of these neurons is directly correlated with the size of their dendritic arbor, we tested the hypothesis that statins decrease dendritic arborization in sympathetic neurons. Oral administration of atorvastatin (20 mg/kg/day for 7 days) significantly reduced dendritic arborization in vivo in sympathetic ganglia of adult male rats. In cultured sympathetic neurons, statins caused dendrite retraction and reversibly blocked bone morphogenetic protein-induced dendritic growth without altering cell survival or axonal growth. Supplementation with mevalonate or isoprenoids, but not cholesterol, attenuated the inhibitory effects of statins on dendritic growth, whereas specific inhibition of isoprenoid synthesis mimicked these statin effects. Statins blocked RhoA translocation to the membrane, an event that requires isoprenylation, and constitutively active RhoA reversed statin effects on dendrites. These observations that statins decrease dendritic arborization in sympathetic neurons by blocking RhoA activation suggest a novel mechanism by which statins decrease sympathetic activity and protect against cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease.
Developmental Exposure to Polychlorinated Biphenyls Interferes with Experience-dependent Dendritic Plasticity and Ryanodine Receptor Expression in Weanling Rats
Environmental Health Perspectives. Mar, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19337518
Neurodevelopmental disorders are associated with altered patterns of neuronal connectivity. A critical determinant of neuronal connectivity is the dendritic morphology of individual neurons, which is shaped by experience. The identification of environmental exposures that interfere with dendritic growth and plasticity may, therefore, provide insight into environmental risk factors for neurodevelopmental disorders.
Pharmacology & Therapeutics. Feb, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 19931307
Chronic low-level polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposures remain a significant public health concern since results from epidemiological studies indicate that PCB burden is associated with immune system dysfunction, cardiovascular disease, and impairment of the developing nervous system. Of these various adverse health effects, developmental neurotoxicity has emerged as a particularly vulnerable endpoint in PCB toxicity. Arguably the most pervasive biological effects of PCBs could be mediated by their ability to alter the spatial and temporal fidelity of Ca2+ signals through one or more receptor-mediated processes. This review will focus on our current knowledge of the structure and function of ryanodine receptors (RyRs) in muscle and nerve cells and how PCBs and related non-coplanar structures alter these functions. The molecular and cellular mechanisms by which non-coplanar PCBs and related structures alter local and global Ca2+ signaling properties and the possible short and long-term consequences of these perturbations on neurodevelopment and neurodegeneration are reviewed.
Neurotoxicology. Jun, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20193710
Neurobehavioral deficits have been reported in Egyptian pesticide application teams using organophosphorus (OP) pesticides, but whether these effects are related to OP pesticide exposures has yet to be established. In preparation for a comprehensive study of the relationship between OP pesticide dose and neurobehavioral deficits, we assessed exposure within this population. We conducted occupational surveys and workplace observations, and collected air, dermal patch and biological samples from applicators, technicians and engineers involved in chlorpyrifos applications during cotton production to test the hypotheses that: (1) dermal exposure was an important contributor to internal dose and varied across body regions; and (2) substantial differences would be seen across the three job categories. Applicators were substantially younger and had shorter exposure histories than did technicians and engineers. Applicators and technicians were observed to have relatively high levels of skin or clothing contact with pesticide-treated foliage as they walked through the fields. Both dermal patch loadings of chlorpyrifos and measurements of a chlorpyrifos-specific metabolite (TCPy) in urine confirmed substantial exposure to and skin absorption of chlorpyrifos that varied according to job category; and dermal patch loading was significantly higher on the thighs than on the forearms. These findings support our hypotheses and support the need for research to examine neurobehavioral performance and exposures in this population. More importantly, the exposures reported here are sufficiently high to recommend urgent changes in work practices amongst these workers.
Organophosphorus Pesticides Decrease M2 Muscarinic Receptor Function in Guinea Pig Airway Nerves Via Indirect Mechanisms
PloS One. 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20479945
Epidemiological studies link organophosphorus pesticide (OP) exposures to asthma, and we have shown that the OPs chlorpyrifos, diazinon and parathion cause airway hyperreactivity in guinea pigs 24 hr after a single subcutaneous injection. OP-induced airway hyperreactivity involves M2 muscarinic receptor dysfunction on airway nerves independent of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition, but how OPs inhibit neuronal M2 receptors in airways is not known. In the central nervous system, OPs interact directly with neurons to alter muscarinic receptor function or expression; therefore, in this study we tested whether the OP parathion or its oxon metabolite, paraoxon, might decrease M2 receptor function on peripheral neurons via similar direct mechanisms.
Para- and Ortho-substitutions Are Key Determinants of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether Activity Toward Ryanodine Receptors and Neurotoxicity
Environmental Health Perspectives. Apr, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21106467
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are widely used flame retardants that bioaccumulate in human tissues. Their neurotoxicity involves dysregulation of calcium ion (Ca(2+))signaling; however, specific mechanisms have yet to be defined.
Epoxyeicosatrienoic Acids Enhance Axonal Growth in Primary Sensory and Cortical Neuronal Cell Cultures
Journal of Neurochemistry. May, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21155804
It has recently been reported that soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH), the major enzyme that metabolizes epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), is expressed in axons of cortical neurons; however, the functional relevance of axonal sEH localization is unknown. Immunocytochemical analyses demonstrate predominant axonal localization of sEH in primary cultures of not only cortical but also sympathetic and sensory neurons. Morphometric analyses of cultured sensory neurons indicate that exposure to a regioisomeric mixture of EETs (0.01-1.0 μM) causes a concentration-dependent increase in axon outgrowth. This axon promoting activity is not a generalized property of all regioisomers of EETs as axonal growth is enhanced in sensory neurons exposed to 14,15-EET but not 8,9- or 11,12-EET. 14,15-EET also promotes axon outgrowth in cultured cortical neurons. Co-exposure to EETs and either of two structurally diverse pharmacological inhibitors of sEH potentiates the axon-enhancing activity of EETs in sensory and cortical neurons. Mass spectrometry indicates that sEH inhibition significantly increases EETs and significantly decreases dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acid metabolites in neuronal cell cultures. These data indicate that EETs enhance axon outgrowth and suggest that axonal sEH activity regulates EETs-induced axon outgrowth. These findings suggest a novel therapeutic use of sEH inhibitors in promoting nerve regeneration.
Neurotoxicology. Mar, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21182866
There is compelling evidence that adverse neurobehavioral effects are associated with occupational organophosphorous pesticide (OP) exposure in humans. Behavioral studies of pesticide applicators, greenhouse workers, agricultural workers and farm residents exposed repeatedly over months or years to low levels of OPs reveal a relatively consistent pattern of neurobehavioral deficits. However, only two studies have demonstrated a link between neurobehavioral performance and current biomarkers of OP exposure including blood cholinesterase (ChE) activity and urinary levels of OP metabolites. A variety of reasons may explain why so few studies have reported such correlations, including differing individual and group exposure histories, differing methodologies for assessing behavior and exposure, and lack of a reliable index of exposure. Alternatively, these data may suggest that current biomarkers (ChE, urine metabolites) are neither predictive nor diagnostic of the neurobehavioral effects of chronic OP pesticide exposures. This review focuses on the evidence that neurobehavioral performance deficits are associated with occupational OP pesticide exposure and concludes that research needs to return to the basics and rigorously test the relationships between neurobehavioral performance and both current (ChE and urine metabolites) and novel (e.g., inflammation and oxidative stress) biomarkers using human and animal models. The results of such studies are critically important because OP pesticides are widely and extensively used throughout the world, including situations where exposure controls and personal protective equipment are not routinely used.
Environmental Health Perspectives. Jun, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21224175
Chlorpyrifos (CPF), a widely used organophosphorus pesticide (OP), is metabolized to CPF-oxon, a potent cholinesterase (ChE) inhibitor, and trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPy). Urinary TCPy is often used as a biomarker for CPF exposure, whereas blood ChE activity is considered an indicator of CPF toxicity. However, whether these biomarkers are dose related has not been studied extensively in populations with repeated daily OP exposures.
Developmental Neurotoxicity Testing: Recommendations for Developing Alternative Methods for the Screening and Prioritization of Chemicals
ALTEX. 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21311847
Developmental neurotoxicity testing (DNT) is perceived by many stakeholders to be an area in critical need of alternative methods to current animal testing protocols and guidelines. An immediate goal is to develop test methods that are capable of screening large numbers of chemicals. This document provides recommendations for developing alternative DNT approaches that will generate the type of data required for evaluating and comparing predictive capacity and efficiency across test methods and laboratories. These recommendations were originally drafted to stimulate and focus discussions of alternative testing methods and models for DNT at the TestSmart DNT II meeting (http://caat.jhsph.edu/programs/workshops/dnt2.html) and this document reflects critical feedback from all stakeholders that participated in this meeting. The intent of this document is to serve as a catalyst for engaging the research community in the development of DNT alternatives and it is expected that these recommendations will continue to evolve with the science.
Toxicological Sciences : an Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology. May, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21346248
Axonal morphology is a critical determinant of neuronal connectivity, and perturbation of the rate or extent of axonal growth during development has been linked to neurobehavioral deficits in animal models and humans. We previously demonstrated that the organophosphorus pesticide (OP) chlorpyrifos (CPF) inhibits axonal growth in cultured neurons. In this study, we used a zebrafish model to determine whether CPF, its oxon metabolite (CPFO), or the excreted metabolite trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPy) alter spatiotemporal patterns of axonal growth in vivo. Static waterborne exposure to CPFO, but not CPF or TCPy, at concentrations ≥ 0.03 μM from 24- to 72-h post fertilization significantly inhibited acetylcholinesterase, and high-performance liquid chromatography detected significantly more TCPy in zebrafish exposed to 0.1 μM CPFO versus 1.0 μM CPF. These data suggest that zebrafish lack the metabolic enzymes to activate CPF during these early developmental stages. Consistent with this, CPFO, but not CPF, significantly inhibited axonal growth of sensory neurons, primary motoneurons, and secondary motoneurons at concentrations ≥ 0.1 μM. Secondary motoneurons were the most sensitive to axonal growth inhibition by CPFO, which was observed at concentrations that did not cause mortality, gross developmental defects, or aberrant somatic muscle differentiation. CPFO effects on axonal growth correlated with adverse effects on touch-induced swimming behavior, suggesting the functional relevance of these structural changes. These data suggest that altered patterns of neuronal connectivity contribute to the developmental neurotoxicity of CPF and demonstrate the relevance of zebrafish as a model for studying OP developmental neurotoxicity.
Spatiotemporal Pattern of Neuronal Injury Induced by DFP in Rats: a Model for Delayed Neuronal Cell Death Following Acute OP Intoxication
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. Jun, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21513723
Organophosphate (OP) neurotoxins cause acute cholinergic toxicity and seizures resulting in delayed brain damage and persistent neurological symptoms. Testing novel strategies for protecting against delayed effects of acute OP intoxication has been hampered by the lack of appropriate animal models. In this study, we characterize the spatiotemporal pattern of cellular injury after acute intoxication with the OP diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP). Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats received pyridostigmine (0.1 mg/kg, im) and atropine methylnitrate (20mg/kg, im) prior to DFP (9 mg/kg, ip) administration. All DFP-treated animals exhibited moderate to severe seizures within minutes after DFP injection but survived up to 72 h. AChE activity was significantly depressed in the cortex, hippocampus, subcortical brain tissue and cerebellum at 1h post-DFP injection and this inhibition persisted for up to 72 h. Analysis of neuronal injury by Fluoro-Jade B (FJB) labeling revealed delayed neuronal cell death in the hippocampus, cortex, amygdala and thalamus, but not the cerebellum, starting at 4h and persisting until 72 h after DFP treatment, although temporal profiles varied between brain regions. At 24h post-DFP injection, the pattern of FJB labeling corresponded to TUNEL staining in most brain regions, and FJB-positive cells displayed reduced NeuN immunoreactivity but were not immunopositive for astrocytic (GFAP), oligodendroglial (O4) or macrophage/microglial (ED1) markers, demonstrating that DFP causes a region-specific delayed neuronal injury mediated in part by apoptosis. These findings indicate the feasibility of this model for testing neuroprotective strategies, and provide insight regarding therapeutic windows for effective pharmacological intervention following acute OP intoxication.
Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Chlorpyrifos in Adult Male Long-Evans Rats Following Repeated Subcutaneous Exposure to Chlorpyrifos
Toxicology. Sep, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21708215
Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is a commonly used organophosphorus pesticide. Several pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies have been conducted in rats in which CPF was administered as a single bolus dose. However, there is limited data regarding the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics following daily exposure. Since occupational exposures often consist of repeated, daily exposures, there is a need to evaluate the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of CPF under exposure conditions which more accurately reflect real world human exposures. In this study, the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of CPF were assessed in male Long-Evans rats exposed daily to CPF (0, 3 or 10mg/kg/day, s.c. in peanut oil) over a 10 day study period. Throughout the study, multiple pharmacokinetic (urinary TCPy levels and tissue CPF and metabolite levels) and pharmacodynamic (blood and brain AChE activity) determinants were measured. Average blood AChE activity on day 10 was 54% and 33% of baseline among animals in the 3 and 10mg/kg/day CPF treatment groups, respectively, while average brain AChE activity was 67% and 28% of baseline. Comparable dose-response relationships between brain AChE inhibition and blood AChE inhibition, suggests that blood AChE activity is a valid biomarker of brain AChE activity. The pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic measures collected in this study were also used to optimize a rat physiologically based pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PBPK/PD) model for multiple s.c. exposures to CPF based on a previously published rat PBPK/PD model for CPF following a single bolus injection. This optimized model will be useful for determining pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic responses over a wide range of doses and durations of exposure, which will improve extrapolation of results between rats and humans.
PloS One. 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21765909
Dendrites are the primary site of synapse formation in the vertebrate nervous system; however, relatively little is known about the molecular mechanisms that regulate the initial formation of primary dendrites. Embryonic rat sympathetic neurons cultured under defined conditions extend a single functional axon, but fail to form dendrites. Addition of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) triggers these neurons to extend multiple dendrites without altering axonal growth or cell survival. We used this culture system to examine differential gene expression patterns in naïve vs. BMP-treated sympathetic neurons in order to identify candidate genes involved in regulation of primary dendritogenesis.
Methods in Molecular Biology (Clifton, N.J.). 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21815062
A major advantage of hippocampal slice preparations is that the cytoarchitecture and synaptic circuits of the hippocampus are largely retained. In neurotoxicology research, organotypic hippocampal slices have mostly been used as acute ex vivo preparations for investigating the effects of neurotoxic chemicals on synaptic function. More recently, hippocampal slice cultures, which can be maintained for several weeks to several months in vitro, have been employed to study how neurotoxic chemicals influence the structural and functional plasticity in hippocampal neurons. This chapter provides protocols for preparing hippocampal slices to be used acutely for electrophysiological measurements using glass microelectrodes or microelectrode arrays or to be cultured for morphometric assessments of individual neurons labeled using biolistics.
Translating Neurobehavioural Endpoints of Developmental Neurotoxicity Tests into in Vitro Assays and Readouts
Neurotoxicology. Oct, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 22008243
The developing nervous system is particularly vulnerable to chemical insults. Exposure to chemicals can result in neurobehavioural alterations, and these have been used as sensitive readouts to assess neurotoxicity in animals and man. Deconstructing neurobehaviour into relevant cellular and molecular components may allow for detection of specific neurotoxic effects in cell-based systems, which in turn may allow an easier examination of neurotoxic pathways and modes of actions and eventually inform the regulatory assessment of chemicals with potential developmental neurotoxicity. Here, current developments towards these goals are reviewed. Imaging genetics (CB) provides new insights into the neurobiological correlates of cognitive function that are being used to delineate neurotoxic mechanisms. The gaps between in vivo neurobehaviour and real-time in vitro measurements of neuronal function are being bridged by ex vivo measurements of synaptic plasticity (RW). An example of solvent neurotoxicity demonstrates how an in vivo neurological defect can be linked via the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA)-glutamate receptor as a common target to in vitro readouts (AB). Axonal and dendritic morphology in vitro proved to be good correlates of neuronal connectivity and neurobehaviour in animals exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls and organophosphorus pesticides (PJL). Similarly, chemically induced changes in neuronal morphology affected the formation of neuronal networks on structured surfaces. Such network formation may become an important readout for developmental neurotoxicity in vitro (CvT), especially when combined with human neurons derived from embryonic stem cells (ML). We envision that future in vitro test systems for developmental neurotoxicity will combine the above approaches with exposure information, and we suggest a strategy for test system development and cell-based risk assessment.
Experimental Strategy for Translational Studies of Organophosphorus Pesticide Neurotoxicity Based on Real-world Occupational Exposures to Chlorpyrifos
Neurotoxicology. Jan, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22240005
Translational research is needed to understand and predict the neurotoxic consequences associated with repeated occupational exposures to organophosphorus pesticides (OPs). In this report, we describe a research strategy for identifying biomarkers of OP neurotoxicity, and we characterize pesticide application workers in Egypt's Menoufia Governorate who serve as our anchor human population for developing a parallel animal model with similar exposures and behavioral deficits and for examining the influence of human polymorphisms in cytochrome P450 (CYP) and paraoxonase 1 (PON1) enzymes on OP metabolism and toxicity. This population has previously been shown to have high occupational exposures and to exhibit a broad range of neurobehavioral deficits. In addition to observational studies of work practices in the field, questionnaires on demographics, lifestyle and work practices were administered to 146 Egyptian pesticide application workers applying pesticides to the cotton crop. Survey results indicated that the application workforce uses standard operating procedures and standardized equipment provided by Egypt's Ministry of Agriculture, which provides a workforce with a stable work history. We also found that few workers report using personal protective equipment (PPE), which likely contributes to the relatively high exposures reported in these application workers. In summary, this population provides a unique opportunity for identifying biomarkers of OP-induced neurotoxicity associated with occupational exposure.
Characterization of Seizures Induced by Acute and Repeated Exposure to Tetramethylenedisulfotetramine
The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. Feb, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22328574
Tetramethylenedisulfotetramine (tetramine; TETS) is a potent convulsant poison that is considered to be a chemical threat agent. To provide a basis for the investigation of antidotes for TETS-induced seizures, we characterized the convulsant activity of TETS in mice and rats when administered by the intraperitoneal, intravenous, oral and intraventricular routes as a single acute dose and with repeated sublethal doses. In mice, parenteral and oral TETS caused immobility, myoclonic body jerks, clonic seizures of the forelimbs and/or hindlimbs, tonic seizures and death. The CD(50) values for clonic and tonic seizures following oral administration were 0.11 and 0.22 mg/kg, respectively. Intraventricular administration of TETS (5-100 μg) in rats also caused clonic-tonic seizures and death. In mice, repeated sublethal doses of TETS at intervals of 2, 24, and 48 h failed to result in the development of persistent enhanced seizure responsivity ("kindling") as was observed with repeated pentylenetetrazol treatment. In mice, sublethal doses of TETS that produced clonic seizures did not cause observable structural brain damage as assessed with routine histology and Fluoro-Jade B staining 7 days after treatment. However, 1 to 3 days following a single convulsant dose of TETS the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein, an astrocyte marker, and ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule 1, a microglia marker, were markedly increased in cortex and hippocampus. Although TETS doses that are compatible with survival are not associated with overt evidence of cellular injury or neurodegeneration, there is transient reactive astrocytosis and microglial activation, indicating that brain inflammatory responses are provoked.
Neurotoxicology. Feb, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22342984
Organophosphorus (OP) nerve agents and pesticides inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE), and this is thought to be a primary mechanism mediating the neurotoxicity of these compounds. However, a number of observations suggest that mechanisms other than or in addition to AChE inhibition contribute to OP neurotoxicity. There is significant experimental evidence that acute OP intoxication elicits a robust inflammatory response, and emerging evidence suggests that chronic repeated low-level OP exposure also upregulates inflammatory mediators. A critical question that is just beginning to be addressed experimentally is the pathophysiologic relevance of inflammation in either acute or chronic OP intoxication. The goal of this article is to provide a brief review of the current status of our knowledge linking inflammation to OP intoxication, and to discuss the implications of these findings in the context of therapeutic and diagnostic approaches to OP neurotoxicity.
Allele and Genotype Frequencies of CYP2B6 and CYP2C19 Polymorphisms in Egyptian Agricultural Workers
Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A. Feb, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22352331
Genetic variability in cytochrome P-450 (CYP) has the potential to modify pharmacological and toxicological responses to many chemicals. Both CYP2B6 and CYP2C19 are pharmacologically and toxicologically relevant due to their ability to metabolize multiple drugs and environmental contaminants, including the organophosphorus (OP) pesticide chlorpyrifos. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of CYP2B6 and CYP2C19 variants in an indigenous Egyptian population (n = 120) that was shown to be occupationally exposed to chlorpyrifos. Further, the genotyping data was compared for Egyptians with previously studied populations to determine between population differences. Allelic frequencies were CYP2B6 1459C > T (3.8%), CYP2B6 785A > G (30.4%), CYP2B6 516G > T (28.8%), CYP2C19 681G > A (3.8%), and CYP2C19 431G > A (0%). The most prevalent CYP2B6 genotype combinations were CYP2B6 *1/*1 (44%), *1/*6 (38%), *6/*6 (8%), and *1/*5 (6%). The frequency of the CYP2C19 genotype combinations were CYP2C19 *1/*1 (93%), *1/*2 (6%), and *2/*2 (1%). The frequency of the CYP2B6 516G > T and CYP2B6 785A > G polymorphisms in this Egyptian cohort is similar to that found North American and European populations but significantly different from that reported for West African populations, while that of CYP2B6 1459C > T is similar to that found in Africans and African Americans. The observed frequency of CYP2C19 681G > A in Egyptians is similar to that of African pygmies but significantly different from other world populations, while CYP2C19 431 G > A was significantly different from that of African pygmies but similar to other world populations.