Translate this page to:
In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (39)
- Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
- Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
- Journal of the American Society of Nephrology : JASN
- The Journal of Investigative Dermatology
- Methods in Molecular Medicine
- Mechanisms of Development
- The Journal of Biological Chemistry
- Physical Review Letters
- Endocrine Research
- Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
- The Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
- Physical Review Letters
- Experimental Lung Research
- The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
- Current Opinion in Hematology
- Human Molecular Genetics
- Best Practice & Research. Clinical Haematology
- Cancer Research
- Toxicology in Vitro : an International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
- PloS One
- Clinical Cancer Research : an Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
- Alternatives to Laboratory Animals : ATLA
- British Journal of Haematology
- Hematological Oncology
- European Journal of Oncology Nursing : the Official Journal of European Oncology Nursing Society
- Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
- Alternatives to Laboratory Animals : ATLA
- Toxicology in Vitro : an International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
- Leukemia & Lymphoma
- Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
- American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
- British Journal of Haematology
- Alternatives to Laboratory Animals : ATLA
- The FASEB Journal : Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
- British Journal of Haematology
Articles by Patrick Hayden in JoVE
An In Vitro Skin Irritation Test (SIT) using the EpiDerm Reconstructed Human Epidermal (RHE) Model
Helena Kandárová, Patrick Hayden, Mitchell Klausner, Joseph Kubilus, John Sheasgreen
In this video, we demonstrate the EpiDerm Skin Irritation test (EpiDerm SIT) developed and validated for in vitro skin irritation testing of chemicals, including cosmetic and pharmaceutical ingredients.
Other articles by Patrick Hayden on PubMed
Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension. Jan, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12496669
The two leading causes of end-stage renal disease in the United States are diabetes mellitus and hypertensive nephrosclerosis, accounting for over two-thirds of all cases. In many patients both diseases are associated with small- and large-vessel disease, commonly attributed to hypertension or accelerated atherosclerosis. Recent investigations, however, have suggested that renal large-vessel and microvascular disease may be independent contributors to progressive kidney failure.
Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension. Jul, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12815337
Expression profiling using serial analysis of gene expression and microarray technologies allows global description of expressed genes present in biological systems. Although relatively new technologies, each having been developed in the mid-1990s, both have become established and widely used tools for identification of gene networks and gene function.
Journal of the American Society of Nephrology : JASN. Jul, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12819328
Diabetic nephropathy (DN), a major cause of ESRD, is undoubtedly multifactorial and is caused by environmental and genetic factors. To identify a genetic basis for DN susceptibility, we are collecting multiplex DN families in the Caucasian (CA) and African-American (AA) populations for whole genome scanning and candidate gene analysis. A candidate gene search of diabetic sibs discordantly affected, concordantly affected and concordantly unaffected for DN was performed with microsatellite markers in genomic regions suspected to harbor nephropathy susceptibility loci. Regions examined were at human chromosome 10p,10q (orthologous to the rat renal susceptibility Rf-1 locus), and at NPHS1 (nephrin), CD2AP, Wilms tumor (WT1), and NPHS2 (podocin) loci. Linkage analyses were conducted using model-free methods (SIBPAL, S.A.G.E.) for AA, CA, and the combined sample. Allele frequencies and the identity by descent sharing were estimated separately for AA and CA, and race was included as a covariate in the final linkage analysis. To date, we have collected 212 sib pairs from 46 CA and 50 AA families. The average age of diabetes onset was 46.8 yr versus 36.2 yr for CA and 39.5 yr versus 40.2 yr for AA, in males versus females respectively. Genotyping data were available for 106 sib pairs (43 CA, 63 AA) from 27 CA (44% male probands) and 38 AA families (43% male probands). Average AA and CA sibship size was 2.73. Singlepoint and multipoint linkage analyses indicate that marker D10S1654 on chromosome 10p is potentially linked to DN (CA only multipoint P = 4 x 10(-3)). Interestingly, the majority of the linkage evidence derives from the CA sib pairs. We are now adding sib pairs and increasing marker density on chromosome 10. We have excluded linkage with candidate regions for nephrin, CD2AP, WT1, and podocin in this sample. In conjunction with previous reports, our data support evidence for a DN susceptibility locus on chromosome 10.
The Journal of Investigative Dermatology. Aug, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12880430
The main function of the skin is to protect the body from infection, dehydration, and other environmental insults by creating an impermeable barrier of cornified cell layers, the stratum corneum. In contrast to cells in culture, tissue-engineered skin equivalents contain well-developed basal, spinous, granular, and cornified cell layers providing an excellent model to study the tissue response to barrier disruption. After 7 d of culture at the air-liquid interface the barrier of the tissues was disrupted by short exposure to acetone and the global gene expression profile of the tissues was evaluated using DNA microarrays. We found that tissue-engineered skin responds to barrier disruption by a two-wave dynamic response. Early on, the cells upregulate signal transducing, stress, proliferation, and inflammation genes to protect the tissue and possibly to communicate the damage to the immune system and neighboring tissues. At later times, pro-inflammatory cytokines and some growth-related genes are significantly reduced but enzymes that participate in lipid synthesis increase, suggesting that the epidermal cells attempt to restore the lost barrier. Quantitative immunostaining for the proliferation antigen Ki67 revealed that barrier disruption by acetone increased proliferation by 4-fold in agreement with the microarray data and previous in vivo studies. Our work suggests that functional genomics may be used in tissue engineering to understand tissue development, wound regeneration, and response to environmental stimuli. A better understanding of engineered tissues at the molecular level may facilitate their application in the clinic and as biosensors for toxicologic testing.
Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia, Kidney Agenesis and Cardiac Defects Associated with Slit3-deficiency in Mice
Mechanisms of Development. Sep, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 14550534
Slit3 along with Slit1 and Slit2 comprise the Slit family of proteins. The latter two proteins are known to be involved in axon guidance and cell migration during animal development. However, little is know about the functions of Slit3. We created a Slit3-deficient mouse model from an OmniBank ES cell line with a Slit3 allele trapped by insertional mutagenesis to analyze the in vivo functions of this protein. In this model, congenital diaphragmatic hernia is the most obvious phenotype. Herniation was found to be caused by a defective central tendon (CT) of the diaphragm that remained fused with the liver. Electron microscopic analyses of the defective CT revealed disorganized collagen fibrils that failed to form tight collagen bundles. The hearts of Slit3-deficient mice have an enlarged right ventricle. In addition, 20% of homozygous mice also showed a range of kidney defects that include unilateral or bilateral agenesis of the kidney and ureter, or varying degrees of renal hypoplasia. Thus, we concluded that Slit3 is involved in the development of multiple organ systems that include the diaphragm and the kidney. Slit3-deficient mice represent a genetic animal model for physiological and pathological studies of congenital diaphragmatic hernia.
The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Apr, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 14736876
Glomerular podocyte differentiation state is critical for filtration barrier function and is regulated by WT1, a zinc finger transcription factor. A yeast two-hybrid assay identified a novel, WT1-interacting protein (WTIP) that maps to human chromosome 19q13.1, a region with genes linked to familial focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. The domain structure of WTIP is similar to the zyxin subfamily of cytosolic LIM domain-containing proteins, which contain three carboxyl-terminal LIM protein-protein interaction domains and a proline-rich, pre-LIM region with a nuclear export signal. Other LIM domain-containing proteins (zyxin and mouse muscle LIM protein) did not interact with WT1 in two-hybrid assays, and WTIP did not interact with an unrelated transcription factor, LMX1B. WTIP mRNA was detected in cultured podocytes and was developmentally regulated, with expression peaking in mouse kidney at embryonic day 15-16 (E15-E16) in kidney but persisting into adulthood. In situ hybridization demonstrated WTIP expression in developing E15 glomeruli and in cultured podocytes. The partial WTIP clone, which interacted with WTIP in the two-hybrid assay, co-localized with WT1 in nuclei, co-precipitated with WT1, and inhibited WT1-dependent transcriptional activation of the amphiregulin promoter. In contrast, full-length WTIP was excluded from cell nuclei, but after the addition of leptomycin B, an inhibitor of Crm1-mediated nuclear export, it accumulated in the nucleus and co-precipitated with WT1 in whole cell lysates. Epitope-tagged WTIP co-localized with the adaptor protein CD2AP (CMS) in podocyte actin spots and with Mena at cell-cell junctions. We propose that WTIP monitors slit diaphragm protein assembly as part of a multiple protein complex, linking this specialized adhesion junction to the actin cytoskeleton, and shuttles into the nucleus after podocyte injury, providing a mechanism whereby changes in slit diaphragm structure modulate gene expression.
Physical Review Letters. May, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15169533
We describe a method for nonobliviously communicating a 2l-qubit quantum state by physically transmitting l+o(l) qubits, and by consuming l ebits of entanglement plus some shared random bits. In the nonoblivious scenario, the sender has a classical description of the state to be communicated. Our method can be used to communicate states that are pure or entangled with the sender's system; l+o(l) and 3l+o(l) shared random bits are sufficient, respectively.
Endocrine Research. Aug, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15554361
The aim of this study was to explore the nasal route as an alternative to daily subcutaneous injections of hPTH (1-34). Anesthetized rats were surgically prepared and nasally dosed with aqueous solutions of hPTH (1-34). Plasma samples were assayed by radioimmunoassay and data generated fit to two-(intravenous) and one-(intranasal) compartment pharmacokinetic models using WinNonlin. The toxicity of hPTH (1-34) solution administered to the rats was assessed by screening its effect on transepithelial electrical resistance, potential difference, paracellular marker permeation, tissue viability, and protein leakage using the EpiAirway tissue model. The intranasal absorption of hPTH (1-34) was rapid; the absorption rate constants (alpha) were 33.2+/-24 h(-1) [without bovine serum albumin (BSA)] and 9.8+/-5.1 h(-1) (with 1% BSA). The maximum plasma concentrations (Cmax): 151+/-24 pg/mL (without BSA) and 176+/-37 (with 1% BSA) were attained within approximately 15 min. The intranasal bioavailabilities (Fabs) were 12.1+/-3.4% (without BSA) and 17.6+/-1.5% (with 1% BSA). The hPTH (1-34) formulation administered to the rats had no detrimental effect on the EpiAirway tissue epithelial electrical parameters and functional integrity. Based on the results of this study, the nasal route appears to be a prospective alternative to subcutaneous injections of hPTH (1-34).
Comparison of Human Tracheal/bronchial Epithelial Cell Culture and Bovine Nasal Respiratory Explants for Nasal Drug Transport Studies
Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. Sep, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16052562
Ten drug compounds with varying physicochemical properties and transporter substrate specificities were investigated to compare their in vitro permeabilities across bovine nasal respiratory explants and the EpiAirway system, both established models for the assessment of nasal drug absorption. Permeability across the bovine explants and EpiAirway correlated well with the partitioning behavior of compounds whose clogDC values were greater than 0. The permeabilities of all ten compounds were well-correlated between the two tissue models, with the permeability values through the EpiAirway tissues being approximately 10-fold higher than through the bovine explants due to the thickness differences between the models. For more lipophilic compounds, the in vitro permeabilities measured with both tissue systems were also predictive of the reported in vivo nasal bioavailabilities. Deviations from these correlations were observed for compounds reported to be substrates of p-glycoprotein or OCT transporters, and differences were also seen between the permeabilities measured in the tissue models for these compounds. Both models can be used to estimate the systemic bioavailability of moderately lipophilic compounds administered intranasally, while each may have particular advantages or disadvantages in estimating the bioavailability of drug compounds that are subject to local mucosal metabolism or to carrier-mediated uptake or efflux.
Nature. Aug, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16079826
Haematologica. Mar, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16531269
Autofluorescence is an immunophenotypic characteristic of leukemic blasts in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). We examined the fluorescent intensity of isotype controls in 25 cases of APML and 25 controls with acute myeloid leukemia. The fluorescence of the FITC- and PE-conjugated controls was consistently higher in APML. Autofluorescence may therefore represent a helpful diagnostic marker in APML.
Permeation of WIN 55,212-2, a Potent Cannabinoid Receptor Agonist, Across Human Tracheo-bronchial Tissue in Vitro and Rat Nasal Epithelium in Vivo
The Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology. Nov, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 17132208
The aim of this study was to investigate the intranasal absorption of R-(+)-WIN 55,212-2 mesylate in vivo and in vitro. Permeation experiments of R-(+)-WIN 55,212-2 formulations with 2% dimethyl-beta-cyclodextrin (DMbetaCD), 2% trimethyl-beta-cyclodextrin (TMbetaCD) or 2% randomly methylated-beta-cyclodextrin (RAMbetaCD) in 1:1 propylene glycol/saline and 1.5% propylene glycol +3% Tween 80 in saline were conducted using EpiAirway tissue and an anesthetized rat nasal absorption model, respectively. Samples were analysed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Mucosal tolerance was screened using paracellular marker permeation and tissue viability as indices. Nasal absorption of WIN 55,212-2 was rapid, with a t(max) (time of peak concentration) of 0.17 to 0.35 h in vivo. Relative to 1.5% propylene glycol +3% Tween 80 (control), 1:1 propylene glycol/saline, RAMbetaCD, DMbetaCD and TMbetaCD resulted in 24-, 20-, 17- and 10-fold WIN 55,212-2 permeation increases in vitro, respectively. The in vivo absolute bioavailabilities were also increased with 1:1 propylene glycol/saline, RAMbetaCD, DMbetaCD and TMbetaCD compared to 1.5% propylene glycol +3% Tween 80 (0.15 vs. 0.66-0.77). The viability of the EpiAirway tissues was significantly reduced by DMbetaCD and TMbetaCD formulations. This study showed that WIN 55,212-2 mesylate can be delivered via the nasal route. Absorption of R-(+)-WIN 55,212-2 was rapid and bioavailability was significantly improved using methylated cyclodextrins and propylene glycol-based cosolvent.
Physical Review Letters. Dec, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 17280334
Unconditionally secure nonrelativistic bit commitment is known to be impossible in both the classical and the quantum world. However, when committing to a string of n bits at once, how far can we stretch the quantum limits? In this Letter, we introduce a framework of quantum schemes where Alice commits a string of n bits to Bob, in such a way that she can only cheat on a bits and Bob can learn at most b bits of information before the reveal phase. Our results are twofold: we show by an explicit construction that in the traditional approach, where the reveal and guess probabilities form the security criteria, no good schemes can exist: a + b is at least n. If, however, we use a more liberal criterion of security, the accessible information, we construct schemes where a = 4log2(n) + O(1) and b = 4, which is impossible classically. Our findings significantly extend known no-go results for quantum bit commitment.
Responses of Differentiated Primary Human Lung Epithelial Cells to Exposure to Diesel Exhaust at an Air-liquid Interface
Experimental Lung Research. Jan-Feb, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17364910
In vitro responses of potential target cell types to air pollutants under physiological conditions may be useful in understanding the health effects of air pollution exposure. The study evaluated responses of human primary airway epithelial cells to diesel exhaust (DE). Cultures of cells from 3 donors, differentiated by culture on membranes with the apical surfaces exposed to the atmosphere, were exposed to filtered air or DE. Some exposure-related effects were similar among donors, whereas others were affected by the donor, consistent with human population heterogeneity. This model may be useful for mechanistic and comparative toxicology studies.
Bcl-2 Overexpression in Thyroid Carcinoma Cells Increases Sensitivity to Bcl-2 Homology 3 Domain Inhibition
The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. Dec, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17848408
The Bcl-2 family of proteins regulates apoptosis in various models and may represent a promising therapeutic target in human malignancies.
Current Opinion in Hematology. Nov, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17898564
Several novel therapies have been licensed for the treatment of myeloma in recent years. We summarize some of the trials leading to their approval and the current evidence for their clinical use. A number of promising agents undergoing phase I/II trial evaluation are also discussed.
Human Molecular Genetics. Dec, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17901044
Cytogenetic analysis in myeloma reveals marked chromosomal instability. Both widespread genomic alterations and evidence of aberrant class switch recombination, the physiological process that regulates maturation of the antibody response, implicate the DNA repair pathway in disease pathogenesis. We therefore assessed 27 SNPs in three genes (XRCC3, XRCC4 and XRCC5) central to DNA repair in patients with myeloma and controls from the EpiLymph study and from an Irish hospital registry (n = 306 cases, 263 controls). For the haplotype-tagging SNP (htSNP) rs963248 in XRCC4, Allele A was significantly more frequent in cases than in controls (86.4 versus 80.8%; odds ratio 1.51; 95% confidence interval 1.10-2.08; P = 0.0133), as was the AA genotype (74 versus 65%) (P = 0.026). Haplotype analysis was performed using Unphased for rs963248 in combination with additional SNPs in XRCC4. The strongest evidence of association came from the A-T haplotype from rs963248-rs2891980 (P = 0.008). For XRCC5, the genotype GG from rs1051685 was detected in 10 cases from different national populations but in only one control (P = 0.015). This SNP is located in the 3'-UTR of XRCC5. Overall, these data provide support for the hypothesis that common variation in the genes encoding DNA repair proteins contributes to susceptibility to myeloma.
Best Practice & Research. Clinical Haematology. Dec, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 18070720
Within the last decade, several novel classes of anti-myeloma therapeutics have become available. The clinical successes achieved by thalidomide, lenalidomide, and the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib, and in particular the ability of these agents to lead to major clinical responses in patients resistant to conventional or high-dose chemotherapy, have highlighted the importance of expanding further the spectrum of classes of agents utilized for the treatment of myeloma. Herein, we review the current status for the development of novel anti-myeloma agents, with emphasis on classes of therapeutics which have already translated into clinical trials or those in advanced stages of preclinical development. These include second-generation proteasome inhibitors (NPI-0052 and PR-171), heat shock protein 90 (hsp90) inhibitors, 2-methoxyestradiol, histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors (e.g. SAHA and LBH589), fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGF-R3) inhibitors, insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) inhibitors, mTOR inhibitors, monoclonal antibodies, and agents specifically targeting the tumor microenvironment, such as defibrotide.
Blood. Feb, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19018094
Targeting protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms by the small molecule inhibitor enzastaurin has shown promising preclinical activity in a wide range of tumor cells. We further delineated its mechanism of action in multiple myeloma (MM) cells and found a novel role of beta-catenin in regulating growth and survival of tumor cells. Specifically, inhibition of PKC leads to rapid accumulation of beta-catenin by preventing the phosphorylation required for its proteasomal degradation. Microarray analysis and small-interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated gene silencing in MM cells revealed that accumulated beta-catenin activates early endoplasmic reticulum stress signaling via eIF2alpha, C/EBP-homologous protein (CHOP), and p21, leading to immediate growth inhibition. Furthermore, accumulated beta-catenin contributes to enzastaurin-induced cell death. Sequential knockdown of beta-catenin, c-Jun, and p73, as well as overexpression of beta-catenin or p73 confirmed that accumulated beta-catenin triggers c-Jun-dependent induction of p73, thereby conferring MM cell apoptosis. Our data reveal a novel role of beta-catenin in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-mediated growth inhibition and a new proapoptotic mechanism triggered by beta-catenin on inhibition of PKC isoforms. Moreover, we identify p73 as a potential novel therapeutic target in MM. Based on these and previous data, enzastaurin is currently under clinical investigation in a variety of hematologic malignancies, including MM.
Antimyeloma Activity of the Orally Bioavailable Dual Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/mammalian Target of Rapamycin Inhibitor NVP-BEZ235
Cancer Research. Jul, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19584292
The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt-mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway mediates proliferation, survival, and drug resistance in multiple myeloma (MM) cells. Here, we tested the anti-MM activity of NVP-BEZ235 (BEZ235), which inhibits PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling at the levels of PI3K and mTOR. 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide colorimetric survival assays showed that MM cell lines exhibited dose- and time-dependent decreased viability after exposure to BEZ235 (IC(50), 25-800 nmol/L for 48 hours). MM cells highly sensitive (IC(50), <25 nmol/L) to BEZ235 (e.g., MM.1S, MM.1R, Dox40, and KMS-12-PE) included both lines sensitive and resistant to conventional (dexamethasone, cytotoxic chemotherapeutics) agents. Pharmacologically relevant BEZ235 concentrations (25-400 nmol/L) induced rapid commitment to and induction of MM.1S and OPM-2 cell death. Furthermore, normal donor peripheral blood mononuclear cells were less sensitive (IC(50), >800 nmol/L) than the majority of MM cell lines tested, suggesting a favorable therapeutic index. In addition, BEZ235 was able to target MM cells in the presence of exogenous interleukin-6, insulin-like growth factor-1, stromal cells, or osteoclasts, which are known to protect against various anti-MM agents. Molecular profiling revealed that BEZ235 treatment decreased the amplitude of transcriptional signatures previously associated with myc, ribosome, and proteasome function, as well as high-risk MM and undifferentiated human embryonic stem cells. In vivo xenograft studies revealed significant reduction in tumor burden (P = 0.011) and survival (P = 0.028) in BEZ235-treated human MM tumor-bearing mice. Combinations of BEZ235 with conventional (e.g., dexamethasone and doxorubicin) or novel (e.g., bortezomib) anti-MM agents showed lack of antagonism. These results indicate that BEZ235 merits clinical testing, alone and in combination with other agents, in MM.
Toxicology in Vitro : an International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA. Oct, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19619636
Bis-(beta-chloroethyl) sulfide (SM) is a potent skin vesicant previously used for chemical warfare. Progress in determination of the mechanistic basis of SM pathology, and development of prophylactic and/or therapeutic countermeasures to SM exposure has been hampered by lack of physiologically relevant models of human skin. The current work evaluated a newly developed tissue engineered full-thickness human skin model in a completely in vitro approach to investigation of SM-induced dermal pathology. The model was first characterized with regard to overall morphology, lipid composition, basement membrane (BM) composition and ultrastructural features that are important targets of SM pathologic activity. Well-developed BM ultrastructural features were observed at the dermal-epidermal junction (DEJ), thus demonstrating successful resolution of a primary deficiency of models previously evaluated for SM studies. Studies were then conducted to evaluate histopathological effects of SM on the model. Good replication of in vivo effects was observed, including apoptosis of basal keratinocytes (KC) and microblister formation at the DEJ. Tissue engineered skin models with well-developed basement membrane structures thus appear to be useful tools for in vitro mechanistic studies of SM vesicant activity and development of preventive/therapeutic approaches for SM pathology.
Dynamic and Physical Clustering of Gene Expression During Epidermal Barrier Formation in Differentiating Keratinocytes
PloS One. 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19888454
The mammalian epidermis is a continually renewing structure that provides the interface between the organism and an innately hostile environment. The keratinocyte is its principal cell. Keratinocyte proteins form a physical epithelial barrier, protect against microbial damage, and prepare immune responses to danger. Epithelial immunity is disordered in many common diseases and disordered epithelial differentiation underlies many cancers. In order to identify the genes that mediate epithelial development we used a tissue model of the skin derived from primary human keratinocytes. We measured global gene expression in triplicate at five times over the ten days that the keratinocytes took to fully differentiate. We identified 1282 gene transcripts that significantly changed during differentiation (false discovery rate <0.01%). We robustly grouped these transcripts by K-means clustering into modules with distinct temporal expression patterns, shared regulatory motifs, and biological functions. We found a striking cluster of late expressed genes that form the structural and innate immune defences of the epithelial barrier. Gene Ontology analyses showed that undifferentiated keratinocytes were characterised by genes for motility and the adaptive immune response. We systematically identified calcium-binding genes, which may operate with the epidermal calcium gradient to control keratinocyte division during skin repair. The results provide multiple novel insights into keratinocyte biology, in particular providing a comprehensive list of known and previously unrecognised major components of the epidermal barrier. The findings provide a reference for subsequent understanding of how the barrier functions in health and disease.
Interactions of the Hdm2/p53 and Proteasome Pathways May Enhance the Antitumor Activity of Bortezomib
Clinical Cancer Research : an Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research. Dec, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19934289
p53 is inactivated in many human malignancies through missense mutations or overexpression of the human homologue of Mdm2 (Hdm2), an E3 ubiquitin ligase that ubiquitinates p53, thereby promoting its proteasomal degradation. The cis-imidazoline nutlin-3 can disrupt the p53-Hdm2 interaction and activate p53, inducing apoptosis in vitro in many malignancies, including multiple myeloma (MM).
In Vitro Skin Irritation Testing: Improving the Sensitivity of the EpiDerm Skin Irritation Test Protocol
Alternatives to Laboratory Animals : ATLA. Dec, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 20105002
A skin irritation test (SIT) utilising a common protocol for two in vitro reconstructed human epidermal (RhE) models, EPISKIN and EpiDerm, was developed, optimised and evaluated as a replacement for the in vivo rabbit skin irritation test in an ECVAM-sponsored validation study. In 2007, both RhE models were recognised by an independent peer-review panel and the ECVAM Scientific Advisory Committee (ESAC) as validated for use with the common SIT protocol. The EPISKIN SIT was endorsed as a full replacement of the in vivo rabbit test. Since the EpiDerm SIT proved to be less sensitive than the in vivo test and the EPISKIN SIT, the test was recognised as a validated component of a tiered testing strategy, in which positive results are accepted and negative results require further confirmation. The ESAC, in its April 2007 statement, also recommended increasing the sensitivity of the EpiDerm SIT, in order to gain the full acceptance. Analysis of the EpiDerm and EPISKIN data from the ECVAM validation study indicated that the lower sensitivity of the EpiDerm SIT might be linked to the more robust barrier properties of the EpiDerm model. This hypothesis was also in line with results published previously. To overcome the relatively low sensitivity of the EpiDerm protocol as a hindrance to full regulatory acceptance, a modification of exposure conditions was introduced into the protocol to achieve better agreement with the in vivo rabbit data. In the Modified EpiDerm SIT protocol, the test chemical exposure time was increased from 15 minutes to 60 minutes. In addition, part of the exposure was performed at 37 degrees C. When the 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) viability assay endpoint was used for classification, a significant increase of sensitivity was obtained (86.1%), whilst maintaining the high specificity of the method (76.3%). With the change to the EU classification system, which now uses higher cut-off for the classification of irritants, the sensitivity of the Modified EpiDerm SIT increased to above 90%. The measurement of interleukin (IL)-1alpha release did not further contribute to improvement of the method. The results demonstrate that the modified EpiDerm SIT protocol has the required sensitivity and specificity to be accepted as a stand alone method for complete replacement of the in vivo rabbit test.
British Journal of Haematology. Dec, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19751238
This study characterized the preclinical anti-myeloma activity of VE465, a low molecular weight pan-Aurora kinase inhibitor. After 96-h drug exposure, several multiple myeloma (MM) cell lines were more sensitive to VE465 compared to non-malignant cells. The anti-MM activity of VE465 was maintained in the presence of interleukin-6 and, interestingly, enhanced by co-culture with stromal cells. However, primary MM cells were less responsive than cell lines. Combinations with dexamethasone (Dex), doxorubicin (Doxo) and bortezomib showed no antagonism. Our study highlights the potential role of the tumour microenvironment in modulating the activity of this drug class.
Hematological Oncology. Sep, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 19768694
Clofarabine is a second generation nucleoside analogue. It inhibits DNA repair and activates the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway leading to cell death. In vitro clofarabine has demonstrated synergy with daunorubicin and Ara-C and in phase II clinical trials has shown promising activity in poor risk Acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) patients. In our institution over a 24 month period 22 AML patients (11 M, 11 F) with poor risk features, deemed unsuitable for standard therapy, were treated with clofarabine, alone (eight patients) or in combination (14 patients) for up to three cycles of treatment. The median age was 67.5 years (24-76) with 16 patients > 60 years. At the time of treatment 18 patients had active AML. Four patients intolerant of standard induction received clofarabine as consolidation. The overall response rate (ORR) for the 18 patients with active AML was 61%, nine patients (50%) achieving a complete response (CR). Induction and consolidation were well tolerated with no unexpected toxicities. Predictably, all patients developed grade 4 neutropenia but the median duration was only 20 days (17-120). Induction mortality was acceptable at 17%. In conclusion, clofarabine (alone or in combination) is active in poor risk AML with an acceptable safety profile and should be considered a potential option in poor risk AML patients.
European Journal of Oncology Nursing : the Official Journal of European Oncology Nursing Society. Apr, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 19818684
Expression of Proliferative and Inflammatory Markers in a Full-thickness Human Skin Equivalent Following Exposure to the Model Sulfur Mustard Vesicant, 2-chloroethyl Ethyl Sulfide
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. Dec, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20840853
Sulfur mustard is a potent vesicant that induces inflammation, edema and blistering following dermal exposure. To assess molecular mechanisms mediating these responses, we analyzed the effects of the model sulfur mustard vesicant, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide, on EpiDerm-FT™, a commercially available full-thickness human skin equivalent. CEES (100-1000 μM) caused a concentration-dependent increase in pyknotic nuclei and vacuolization in basal keratinocytes; at high concentrations (300-1000 μM), CEES also disrupted keratin filament architecture in the stratum corneum. This was associated with time-dependent increases in expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen, a marker of cell proliferation, and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and phosphorylated histone H2AX, markers of DNA damage. Concentration- and time-dependent increases in mRNA and protein expression of eicosanoid biosynthetic enzymes including COX-2, 5-lipoxygenase, microsomal PGE₂ synthases, leukotriene (LT) A₄ hydrolase and LTC₄ synthase were observed in CEES-treated skin equivalents, as well as in antioxidant enzymes, glutathione S-transferases A1-2 (GSTA1-2), GSTA3 and GSTA4. These data demonstrate that CEES induces rapid cellular damage, cytotoxicity and inflammation in full-thickness skin equivalents. These effects are similar to human responses to vesicants in vivo and suggest that the full thickness skin equivalent is a useful in vitro model to characterize the biological effects of mustards and to develop potential therapeutics.
Filter-well Technology for Advanced Three-dimensional Cell Culture: Perspectives for Respiratory Research
Alternatives to Laboratory Animals : ATLA. Dec, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 21275484
Cell culture has long been a valuable tool for studying cell behaviour. Classical plastic substrates are two-dimensional, and usually promote cellular proliferation and inhibit differentiation. Understanding cell behaviour within complex multicellular tissues requires the systematic study of cells within the context of specific model microenvironments. A model system must mimic, to a certain degree, the in vivo situation, but, at the same time, can significantly reduce its complexity. There is increasing agreement that moving up to the third dimension provides a more physiologically-relevant and predictive model system. Moreover, many cellular processes (morphogenesis, organogenesis and pathogenesis) have been confirmed to occur exclusively when cells are ordered in a three-dimensional (3-D) manner. In order to achieve the desired in vivo phenotype, researchers can use microporous membranes for improved in vitro cell culture experiments. In the present review, we discuss the applications of filter-well technology for the advanced 3-D cell culture of human pulmonary cells.
Evaluation of EpiDerm Full Thickness-300 (EFT-300) As an in Vitro Model for Skin Irritation: Studies on Aliphatic Hydrocarbons
Toxicology in Vitro : an International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA. Mar, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 19720135
The aim of this study was to understand the skin irritation effects of saturated aliphatic hydrocarbons (HCs), C9-C16, found jet fuels using in vitro 3-dimensional EpiDerm full thickness-300 (EFT-300) skin cultures. The EFT-300 cultures were treated with 2.5microl of HCs and the culture medium and skin samples were collected at 24 and 48h to measure the release of various inflammatory biomarkers (IL-1alpha, IL-6 and IL-8). To validate the in vitro results, in vivo skin irritation studies were carried out in hairless rats by measuring trans epidermal water loss (TEWL) and erythema following un-occlusive dermal exposure of HCs for 72h. The MTT tissue viability assay results with the EFT-300 tissue show that 2.5microl/tissue ( approximately 4.1microl/cm(2)) of the HCs did not induce any significant changes in the tissue viability for exposure times up to 48h of exposure. Microscopic observation of the EFT-300 cross-sections indicated that there were no obvious changes in the tissue morphology of the samples at 24h, but after 48h of exposure, tridecane, tetradecane and hexadecane produced a slight thickening and disruption of stratum corneum. Dermal exposures of C12-C16 HCs for 24h significantly increased the expression of IL-1alpha in the skin as well as in the culture medium. Similarly, dermal exposure of all HCs for 24h significantly increased the expression of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-8 in the skin as well as in the culture medium in proportion to the HC chain length. As the exposure time increased to 48h, IL-6 concentrations increased 2-fold compared to the IL-6 values at 24h. The in vivo skin irritation data also showed that both TEWL and erythema scores increased with increased HCs chain length (C9-C16). In conclusion, the EFT-300 showed that the skin irritation profile of HCs was in the order of C9C10C11C12
A Novel E8a2 BCR-ABL1 Fusion with Insertion of RALGPS1 Exon 8 in a Patient with Relapsed Philadelphia Chromosome-positive Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
Leukemia & Lymphoma. May, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21338279
Regulation of Hsp27 and Hsp70 Expression in Human and Mouse Skin Construct Models by Caveolae Following Exposure to the Model Sulfur Mustard Vesicant, 2-chloroethyl Ethyl Sulfide
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. Jun, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21457723
Dermal exposure to the vesicant sulfur mustard causes marked inflammation and tissue damage. Basal keratinocytes appear to be a major target of sulfur mustard. In the present studies, mechanisms mediating skin toxicity were examined using a mouse skin construct model and a full-thickness human skin equivalent (EpiDerm-FT™). In both systems, administration of the model sulfur mustard vesicant, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES, 100-1000μM) at the air surface induced mRNA and protein expression of heat shock proteins 27 and 70 (Hsp27 and Hsp70). CEES treatment also resulted in increased expression of caveolin-1, the major structural component of caveolae. Immunohistochemistry revealed that Hsp27, Hsp70 and caveolin-1 were localized in basal and suprabasal layers of the epidermis. Caveolin-1 was also detected in fibroblasts in the dermal component of the full thickness human skin equivalent. Western blot analysis of caveolar membrane fractions isolated by sucrose density centrifugation demonstrated that Hsp27 and Hsp70 were localized in caveolae. Treatment of mouse keratinocytes with filipin III or methyl-β-cyclodextrin, which disrupt caveolar structure, markedly suppressed CEES-induced Hsp27 and Hsp70 mRNA and protein expression. CEES treatment is known to activate JNK and p38 MAP kinases; in mouse keratinocytes, inhibition of these enzymes suppressed CEES-induced expression of Hsp27 and Hsp70. These data suggest that MAP kinases regulate Hsp 27 and Hsp70; moreover, caveolae-mediated regulation of heat shock protein expression may be important in the pathophysiology of vesicant-induced skin toxicity.
Intrinsic Phenotypic Differences of Asthmatic Epithelium and Its Inflammatory Responses to Respiratory Syncytial Virus and Air Pollution
American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology. Nov, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21642587
A substantial proportion of healthcare cost associated with asthma is attributable to exacerbations of the disease. Within the airway, the epithelium forms the mucosal immune barrier, the first structural cell defense against common environmental insults such as respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and particulate matter. We sought to characterize the phenotype of differentiated asthmatic-derived airway epithelial cultures and their intrinsic inflammatory responses to environmental challenges. Air-liquid interface (ALI) cultures were generated from asthmatic (n = 6) and nonasthmatic (n = 6) airway epithelial cells. Airway tissue and ALI cultures were analyzed by immunohistochemistry for cytokeratin-5, E-cadherin, Ki67, Muc5AC, NF-κB, the activation of p38, and apoptosis. ALI cultures were exposed to RSV (4 × 10(6) plaque forming unit/ml), particulate matter collected by Environmental Health Canada (EHC-93, 100 μg/ml), or mechanically wounded for 24, 48, and 96 hours and basolateral supernatants analyzed for inflammatory cytokines, using Luminex and ELISA. The airway epithelium in airway sections of patients with asthma as well as in vitro ALI cultures demonstrated a less differentiated epithelium, characterized by elevated numbers of basal cells marked by the expression of cytokeratin-5, increased phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, and less adherens junction protein E-cadherin. Transepithelial resistance was not different between asthmatic and nonasthmatic cultures. In response to infection with RSV, exposure to EHC-93, or mechanical wounding, asthmatic ALI cultures released greater concentrations of IL-6, IL-8, and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor, compared with nonasthmatic cultures (P < 0.05). This parallel ex vivo and in vitro study of the asthmatic epithelium demonstrates an intrinsically altered phenotype and aberrant inflammatory response to common environmental challenges, compared with nonasthmatic epithelium.
Molecular and Cellular Effects of Multi-targeted Cyclin-dependent Kinase Inhibition in Myeloma: Biological and Clinical Implications
British Journal of Haematology. Feb, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21223249
Cell cycle regulators, such as cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), are appealing targets for multiple myeloma (MM) therapy given the increased proliferative rates of tumour cells in advanced versus early stages of MM. We hypothesized that a multi-targeted CDK inhibitor with a different spectrum of activity compared to existing CDK inhibitors could trigger distinct molecular sequelae with therapeutic implications for MM. We therefore studied the small molecule heterocyclic compound NVP-LCQ195/AT9311 (LCQ195), which inhibits CDK1, CDK2 and CDK5, as well as CDK3 and CDK9. LCQ195 induced cell cycle arrest and eventual apoptotic cell death of MM cells, even at sub-μmol/l concentrations, spared non-malignant cells, and overcame the protection conferred to MM cells by stroma or cytokines of the bone marrow milieu. In MM cells, LCQ195 triggered decreased amplitude of transcriptional signatures associated with oncogenesis, drug resistance and stem cell renewal, including signatures of activation of key transcription factors for MM cells e.g. myc, HIF-1α, IRF4. Bortezomib-treated MM patients whose tumours had high baseline expression of genes suppressed by LCQ195 had significantly shorter progression-free and overall survival than those with low levels of these transcripts in their MM cells. These observations provide insight into the biological relevance of multi-targeted CDK inhibition in MM.
Development of the EpiOcular(TM) Eye Irritation Test for Hazard Identification and Labelling of Eye Irritating Chemicals in Response to the Requirements of the EU Cosmetics Directive and REACH Legislation
Alternatives to Laboratory Animals : ATLA. Sep, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21942547
The recently implemented 7th Amendment to the EU Cosmetics Directive and the EU REACH legislation have heightened the need for in vitro ocular test methods. To address this need, the EpiOcular(TM) eye irritation test (EpiOcular-EIT), which utilises the normal (non-transformed) human cell-based EpiOcular tissue model, has been developed. The EpiOcular-EIT prediction model is based on an initial training set of 39 liquid and 21 solid test substances and uses a single exposure period and a single cut-off in tissue viability, as determined by the MTT assay. A chemical is classified as an irritant (GHS Category 1 or 2), if the tissue viability is ≤ 60%, and as a non-irritant (GHS unclassified), if the viability is > 60%. EpiOcular-EIT results for the training set, along with results for an additional 52 substances, which included a range of alcohols, hydrocarbons, amines, esters, and ketones, discriminated between ocular irritants and non-irritants with 98.1% sensitivity, 72.9% specificity, and 84.8% accuracy. To ensure the long-term commercial viability of the assay, EpiOcular tissues produced by using three alternative cell culture inserts were evaluated in the EpiOcular-EIT with 94 chemicals. The assay results obtained with the initial insert and the three alternative inserts were very similar, as judged by correlation coefficients (r²) that ranged from 0.82 to 0.96. The EpiOcular-EIT was pre-validated in 2007/2008, and is currently involved in a formal, multi-laboratory validation study sponsored by the European Cosmetics Association (COLIPA) under the auspices of the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM). The EpiOcular-EIT, together with EpiOcular's long history of reproducibility and proven utility for ultra-mildness testing, make EpiOcular a useful model for addressing current legislation related to animal use in the testing of potential ocular irritants.
Histamine May Induce Airway Remodeling Through Release of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Ligands from Bronchial Epithelial Cells
The FASEB Journal : Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology. Feb, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22247333
Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease that is associated with airway remodeling, including hyperplasia of airway epithelial cells and airway smooth muscle cells, and goblet cell differentiation. We wished to address the potential role of histamine, a key biogenic amine involved in allergic reactions, in airway remodeling through the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) pathway. Here, we demonstrate that histamine releases 2 EGFR ligands, amphiregulin and heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF), from airway epithelial cells. Amphiregulin and HB-EGF were expressed in airway epithelium of patients with asthma. Histamine up-regulated their mRNA expression (amphiregulin 3.2-fold, P<0.001; HB-EGF 2.3-fold, P<0.05) and triggered their release (amphiregulin EC(50) 0.50 μM, 31.2±2.7 pg/ml with 10 μM histamine, P<0.01; HB-EGF EC(50) 0.54 μM, 78.5±1.8 pg/ml with 10 μM histamine, P<0.001) compared to vehicle control (amphiregulin 19.3±0.9 pg/ml; HB-EGF 60.2±1.0 pg/ml), in airway epithelial cells. Histamine increased EGFR phosphorylation (2.1-fold by Western blot analysis) and induced goblet cell differentiation (CLCA1 up-regulation by real-time qPCR) in normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells. Moreover, amphiregulin and HB-EGF caused proliferation and migration of both NHBE cells and human airway smooth muscle cells. These results suggest that histamine may induce airway remodeling via the epithelial-derived EGFR ligands amphiregulin and HB-EGF.-Hirota, N., Risse, P.-A., Novali, M., McGovern, T., Al-Alwan, L., McCuaig, S., Proud, D., Hayden, P., Hamid, Q., Martin, J. G. Histamine may induce airway remodeling through release of epidermal growth factor receptor ligands from bronchial epithelial cells.
British Journal of Haematology. Jan, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 21770920