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In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (17)
- Methods in Enzymology
- Annual Review of Nutrition
- The Journal of Biological Chemistry
- Genome Biology
- Nucleic Acids Research
- Cell Research
- Molecular and Cellular Biology
- The Journal of Biological Chemistry
- Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
- The Journal of Biological Chemistry
- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
- Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education : a Bimonthly Publication of the International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
- BMC Evolutionary Biology
- Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
- Journal of Molecular Biology
- The Journal of Biological Chemistry
Articles by Paul R. Copeland in JoVE
Eukaryotic Polyribosome Profile Analysis
Anthony M. Esposito, Maria Mateyak, Dongming He, Marcus Lewis, Arjun N. Sasikumar, Jenna Hutton, Paul R. Copeland, Terri G. Kinzy
Department of Molecular Genetics, Microbiology, and Immunology, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School
This article describes a protocol for the extraction of translating ribosomes from eukaryotic cells. Once extracted, ribosomes are separated into monosomes and polyribosomes by sucrose gradient fractionation to allow different ribosomal populations to be analyzed. As such, this method is the gold standard for examining the regulation of translation.
Other articles by Paul R. Copeland on PubMed
Methods in Enzymology. 2002 | Pubmed ID: 11898431
Annual Review of Nutrition. 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12524431
Selenium is an essential trace element that is incorporated into proteins as selenocysteine (Sec), the twenty-first amino acid. Sec is encoded by a UGA codon in the selenoprotein mRNA. The decoding of UGA as Sec requires the reprogramming of translation because UGA is normally read as a stop codon. The translation of selenoprotein mRNAs requires cis-acting sequences in the mRNA and novel trans-acting factors dedicated to Sec incorporation. Selenoprotein synthesis in vivo is highly selenium-dependent, and there is a hierarchy of selenoprotein expression in mammals when selenium is limiting. This review describes emerging themes from studies on the mechanism, kinetics, and efficiency of Sec insertion in prokaryotes. Recent developments that provide mechanistic insight into how the eukaryotic ribosome distinguishes between UGA/Sec and UGA/stop codons are discussed. The efficiency and regulation of mammalian selenoprotein synthesis are considered in the context of current models for Sec insertion.
Gene. Jul, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12909337
The regulation of gene expression at the translational level not only allows for rapid changes in specific protein levels but also provides an opportunity to alter codon specificity. For the incorporation of selenocysteine (Sec) into protein, the UGA codon is transformed from one that signals translation termination to one specific for Sec. This review provides a look at Sec incorporation from the perspective of the individual steps involved in protein synthesis: initiation, elongation and termination. The roles of the factors known to be required for Sec incorporation are considered in the context of each step in translation including structural modeling of the differences between the standard elongation factor eEF1A and the Sec-specific counterpart, eEFSec.
The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Sep, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15229221
Five components have thus far been identified that are necessary for the incorporation of selenocysteine (Sec) into approximately 25 mammalian proteins. Two of these are cis sequences, a SECIS element in the 3'-untranslated region and a Sec codon (UGA) in the coding region. The three known trans-acting factors are a Sec-specific translation elongation factor (eEFSec), the Sec-tRNA(Sec), and a SECIS-binding protein, SBP2. Here we describe a system in which the efficiency of Sec incorporation was determined quantitatively both in vitro and in transfected cells, and in which the contribution of each of the known factors is examined. The efficiency of Sec incorporation into a luciferase reporter system in vitro is maximally 5-8%, which is 6-10 times higher than that in transfected rat hepatoma cells, McArdle 7777. In contrast, the efficiency of Sec incorporation into selenoprotein P in vitro is approximately 40%, suggesting that as yet unidentified cis-elements may regulate differential selenoprotein expression. In addition, we have found that SBP2 is the only limiting factor in rabbit reticulocyte lysate but not in transfected rat hepatoma cells where SBP2 is found to be mostly if not entirely cytoplasmic despite having a strong putative nuclear localization signal. The significance of these findings with regard to the function of known Sec incorporation factors is discussed.
Genome Biology. 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15960811
A recent analysis of sequences derived from organisms in the Sargasso Sea has revealed a surprisingly different set of selenium-containing proteins than that previously found in sequenced genomes and suggests that selenocysteine utilization has been lost by many groups of organisms during evolution.
Characterization of the SECIS Binding Protein 2 Complex Required for the Co-translational Insertion of Selenocysteine in Mammals
Nucleic Acids Research. 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16155186
Selenocysteine is incorporated into at least 25 human proteins by a complex mechanism that is a unique modification of canonical translation elongation. Selenocysteine incorporation requires the concerted action of a kink-turn structural RNA (SECIS) element in the 3' untranslated region of each selenoprotein mRNA, a selenocysteine-specific translation elongation factor (eEFSec) and a SECIS binding protein (SBP2). Here, we analyze the molecular context in which SBP2 functions. Contrary to previous findings, a combination of gel filtration chromatography and co-purification studies demonstrates that SBP2 does not self-associate. However, SBP2 is found to be quantitatively associated with ribosomes. Interestingly, a wild-type but not mutant SECIS element is able to effectively compete with the SBP2 ribosome interaction, indicating that SBP2 cannot simultaneously interact with the ribosome and the SECIS element. This data also supports the hypothesis that SBP2 interacts with one or more kink turns on 28S rRNA. Based on these results, we propose a revised model for selenocysteine incorporation where SBP2 remains ribosome bound except during selenocysteine delivery to the ribosomal A-site.
Cell Research. Dec, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 17160069
Selenium supplementation in a population with low basal blood selenium levels has been reported to decrease the incidence of several cancers including prostate cancer. Based on the clinical findings, it is likely that the antioxidant function of one or more selenoproteins is responsible for the chemopreventive effect, although low molecular weight seleno-compounds have also been posited to selectively induce apoptosis in transformed cells. To address the effects of selenium supplementation on selenoprotein expression in prostate cells, we have undertaken an analysis of antioxidant selenoprotein expression as well as selenium toxicity in non-tumorigenic prostate epithelial cells (RWPE-1) and prostate cancer cells (LNCaP and PC-3). Our results show that two of the glutathione peroxidase family members (GPX1 and GPX4) are highly induced by supplemental selenium in prostate cancer cells but only slightly induced in RWPE-1 cells. In addition, GPX1 levels are dramatically lower in PC-3 cells as compared to RWPE-1 or LNCaP cells. GPX2 protein and mRNA, however, are only detectable in RWPE-1 cells. Of the three selenium compounds tested (sodium selenite, sodium selenate and selenomethionine), only sodium selenite shows toxicity in a physiological range of selenium concentrations. Notably and in contrast to previous studies, RWPE-1 cells were significantly more sensitive to selenite than either of the prostate cancer cell lines. These results demonstrate that selenoproteins and selenium metabolism are regulated at multiple levels in prostate cells.
The L7Ae RNA Binding Motif is a Multifunctional Domain Required for the Ribosome-dependent Sec Incorporation Activity of Sec Insertion Sequence Binding Protein 2
Molecular and Cellular Biology. Sep, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17636016
The decoding of specific UGA codons as selenocysteine is specified by the Sec insertion sequence (SECIS) element. Additionally, Sec-tRNA([Ser]Sec) and the dedicated Sec-specific elongation factor eEFSec are required but not sufficient for nonsense suppression. SECIS binding protein 2 (SBP2) is also essential for Sec incorporation, but its precise role is unknown. In addition to binding the SECIS element, SBP2 binds stably and quantitatively to ribosomes. To determine the function of the SBP2-ribosome interaction, conserved amino acids throughout the SBP2 L7Ae RNA binding motif were mutated to alanine in clusters of five. Mutant proteins were analyzed for ribosome binding, SECIS element binding, and Sec incorporation activity, allowing us to identify two distinct but interdependent sites within the L7Ae motif: (i) a core L7Ae motif required for SECIS binding and ribosome binding and (ii) an auxiliary motif involved in physical and functional interactions with the ribosome. Structural modeling of SBP2 based on the 15.5-kDa protein-U4 snRNA complex strongly supports a two-site model for L7Ae domain function within SBP2. These results provide evidence that the SBP2-ribosome interaction is essential for Sec incorporation.
Functional Analysis of the Interplay Between Translation Termination, Selenocysteine Codon Context, and Selenocysteine Insertion Sequence-binding Protein 2
The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Dec, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17954931
A selenocysteine insertion sequence (SECIS) element in the 3'-untranslated region and an in-frame UGA codon are the requisite cis-acting elements for the incorporation of selenocysteine into selenoproteins. Equally important are the trans-acting factors SBP2, Sec-tRNA[Ser]Sec, and eEFSec. Multiple in-frame UGAs and two SECIS elements make the mRNA encoding selenoprotein P (Sel P) unique. To study the role of codon context in determining the efficiency of UGA readthrough at each of the 10 rat Sel P Sec codons, we individually cloned 27-nucleotide-long fragments representing each UGA codon context into a luciferase reporter construct harboring both Sel P SECIS elements. Significant differences, spanning an 8-fold range of UGA readthrough efficiency, were observed, but these differences were dramatically reduced in the presence of excess SBP2. Mutational analysis of the "fourth base" of contexts 1 and 5 revealed that only the latter followed the established rules for hierarchy of translation termination. In addition, mutations in either or both of the Sel P SECIS elements resulted in differential effects on UGA readthrough. Interestingly, even when both SECIS elements harbored a mutation of the core region required for Sec incorporation, context 5 retained a significantly higher level of readthrough than context 1. We also show that SBP2-dependent Sec incorporation is able to repress G418-induced UGA readthrough as well as eRF1-induced stimulation of termination. We conclude that a large codon context forms a cis-element that works together with Sec incorporation factors to determine readthrough efficiency.
Analysis of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Null Allele Strains Identifies a Larger Role for DNA Damage Versus Oxidative Stress Pathways in Growth Inhibition by Selenium
Molecular Nutrition & Food Research. Nov, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18496816
Selenium toxicity is a growing environmental concern due to widespread availability of high-dose selenium supplements and the development of high-selenium agricultural drainage basins. To begin to analyze the effects of selenium toxicity at the genetic level, we have systematically determined which genes are involved in responding to high environmental selenium using a collection of viable haploid null allele strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae representing three major stress pathways: the RAD9-dependent DNA repair pathway, the RAD6/RAD18 DNA damage tolerance pathway, and the oxidative stress pathway. A total of 53 null allele strains were tested for growth defects in the presence of a range of sodium selenite and selenomethionine (SeMet) concentrations. Our results show that approximately 64-72% of the strains lacking RAD9-dependent DNA repair or RAD6/RAD18 DNA damage tolerance pathway genes show reduced growth in sodium selenite versus approximately 28-36% in SeMet. Interestingly both compounds reduced growth in approximately 21-25% of the strains lacking oxidative stress genes. These data suggest that both selenite and SeMet are likely inducing DNA damage by generating reactive species. The anticipated effects of loss of components of the oxidative stress pathway were not observed, likely due to apparent redundancies in these gene products that may keep the damaging effects in check.
A Novel Protein Domain Induces High Affinity Selenocysteine Insertion Sequence Binding and Elongation Factor Recruitment
The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Dec, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18948268
Selenocysteine (Sec) is incorporated at UGA codons in mRNAs possessing a Sec insertion sequence (SECIS) element in their 3'-untranslated region. At least three additional factors are necessary for Sec incorporation: SECIS-binding protein 2 (SBP2), Sec-tRNA(Sec), and a Sec-specific translation elongation factor (eEFSec). The C-terminal half of SBP2 is sufficient to promote Sec incorporation in vitro, which is carried out by the concerted action of a novel Sec incorporation domain and an L7Ae RNA-binding domain. Using alanine scanning mutagenesis, we show that two distinct regions of the Sec incorporation domain are required for Sec incorporation. Physical separation of the Sec incorporation and RNA-binding domains revealed that they are able to function in trans and established a novel role of the Sec incorporation domain in promoting SECIS and eEFSec binding to the SBP2 RNA-binding domain. We propose a model in which SECIS binding induces a conformational change in SBP2 that recruits eEFSec, which in concert with the Sec incorporation domain gains access to the ribosomal A site.
Genome-wide Screen of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Null Allele Strains Identifies Genes Involved in Selenomethionine Resistance
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Nov, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 19004804
Selenomethionine (SeMet) is a potentially toxic amino acid, and yet it is a valuable tool in the preparation of labeled proteins for multiwavelength anomalous dispersion or single-wavelength anomalous dispersion phasing in X-ray crystallography. The mechanism by which high levels of SeMet exhibits its toxic effects in eukaryotic cells is not fully understood. Attempts to use Saccharomyces cerevisiae for the preparation of fully substituted SeMet proteins for X-ray crystallography have been limited. A screen of the viable S. cerevisiae haploid null allele strain collection for resistance to SeMet was performed. Deletion of the CYS3 gene encoding cystathionine gamma-lyase resulted in the highest resistance to SeMet. In addition, deletion of SSN2 resulted in both increased resistance to SeMet as well as reduced levels of Cys3p. A methionine auxotrophic strain lacking CYS3 was able to grow in media with SeMet as the only source of Met, achieving essentially 100% occupancy in total proteins. The CYS3 deletion strain provides advantages for an easy and cost-effective method to prepare SeMet-substituted protein in yeast and perhaps other eukaryotic systems.
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education : a Bimonthly Publication of the International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. Jan, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 21591152
RNA binding proteins are a large and varied group of factors that are the driving force behind post-transcriptional gene regulation. By analogy with transcription factors, RNA binding proteins bind to various regions of the mRNAs that they regulate, usually upstream or downstream from the coding region, and modulate one of the five major processes in mRNA metabolism: splicing, polyadenylation, export, translation and decay. The most abundant RNA binding protein domain is called the RNA Recognition Motif (RRM)1. It is probably safe to say that an RRM-containing protein is making some contact with an mRNA throughout its existence. The transcriptional counterpart would likely be the histones, yet the multitude of specific functions that are results of RRM based interactions belies the universality of the motif. This complex and diverse application of a single protein motif was used as the basis to develop an advanced graduate level seminar course in RNA:protein interactions. The course, utilizing a learner-centered empowerment model, was developed to dissect each step in RNA metabolism from the perspective of an RRM containing protein. This provided a framework to discuss the development of specificity for the RRM for each required process.
BMC Evolutionary Biology. 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19744324
The co-translational incorporation of selenocysteine into nascent polypeptides by recoding the UGA stop codon occurs in all domains of life. In eukaryotes, this event requires at least three specific factors: SECIS binding protein 2 (SBP2), a specific translation elongation factor (eEFSec), selenocysteinyl tRNA, and a cis-acting selenocysteine insertion sequence (SECIS) element in selenoprotein mRNAs. While the phylogenetic relationships of selenoprotein families and the evolution of selenocysteine usage are well documented, the evolutionary history of SECIS binding proteins has not been explored.
Antioxidants & Redox Signaling. Apr, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 19747061
The co-translational incorporation of selenocysteine (Sec) requires that UGA be recognized as a sense rather than a nonsense codon. This is accomplished by the concerted action of a Sec insertion sequence (SECIS) element, SECIS binding protein 2, and a ternary complex of the Sec specific elongation factor, Sec-tRNA(Sec), and GTP. The mechanism by which they alter the canonical protein synthesis reaction has been elusive. Here we present an overview of the mechanistic perspective on Sec incorporation, highlighting recent advances in the field.
Journal of Molecular Biology. Jul, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20488192
Selenocysteine (Sec) incorporation is an essential process required for the production of at least 25 human selenoproteins. This unique amino acid is co-translationally incorporated at specific UGA codons that normally serve as termination signals. Recoding from stop to Sec involves a cis-acting Sec insertion sequence element in the 3' untranslated region of selenoprotein mRNAs as well as Sec insertion sequence binding protein 2, Sec-tRNA(Sec), and the Sec-specific elongation factor, eEFSec. The interplay between recoding and termination at Sec codons has served as a focal point in researching the mechanism of Sec insertion, but the role of translation initiation has not been addressed. In this report, we show that the cricket paralysis virus intergenic internal ribosome entry site is able to support Sec incorporation, thus providing evidence that the canonical functions of translation initiation factors are not required. Additionally, we show that neither a 5' cap nor a 3' poly(A) tail enhances Sec incorporation. Interestingly, however, the presence of the internal ribosome entry site significantly decreases Sec incorporation efficiency, suggesting a role for translation initiation in regulating the efficiency of UGA recoding.
SECIS Binding Protein 2 Alters the Conformational Dynamics of Residues Involved in TRNA Accommodation in 80S Ribosomes
The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Feb, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22308032
Sec-tRNASec is site-specifically delivered at defined UGA codons in selenoprotein mRNAs. This recoding event is specified by the selenocysteine insertion sequence (SECIS) element, and requires the Sec-specific elongation factor, eEFSec, and the SECIS binding protein, SBP2. Sec-tRNASec is delivered to the ribosome by eEFSec-GTP, but this ternary complex is not sufficient for Sec incorporation, indicating that its access to the ribosomal A-site is regulated. SBP2 stably associates with ribosomes and mutagenic analysis indicates that this interaction is essential for Sec incorporation. However, the ribosomal function of SBP2 has not been elucidated. To shed light on the functional relevance of the SBP2/ribosome interaction, we screened the functional centers of the 28S rRNA in translationally competent 80S ribosomes using selective 2' hydroxyl acylation analyzed by primer extension (SHAPE). We demonstrate that SBP2 specifically alters the reactivity of specific residues in Helix 89 (H89), and expansion segment 31 (ES31). These results are indicative of a conformational change in response to SBP2 binding. Based on the known functions of H89 during translation, we propose that SBP2 allows Sec incorporation by either promoting Sec-tRNASec accommodation into the peptidyl transferase center, and/or by stimulating the ribosome-dependent GTPase activity of eEFSec.