Translate this page to:
In JoVE (1)
- नैदानिक और Amyotrophic पार्श्व स्केलेरोसिस के लिए एक माउस मॉडल (ए एल एस) में स्पाइनल कॉर्ड को हटाने परीक्षण
Other Publications (29)
- Lancet Neurology
- Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
- Acta Neuropathologica
- Neuro-degenerative Diseases
- Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
- Brain : a Journal of Neurology
- Journal of Neurochemistry
- RNA (New York, N.Y.)
- Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
- Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
- Journal of Neurochemistry
- Oncology Reports
- Molecular BioSystems
- Journal of Neurochemistry
- Brain : a Journal of Neurology
- Brain : a Journal of Neurology
- Annals of Neurology
- Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
- Neurobiology of Disease
- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
- Journal of Neurochemistry
- Journal of Molecular Neuroscience : MN
- The FEBS Journal
- Human Molecular Genetics
- Nature Protocols
- Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
- Cell and Tissue Research
This translation into Hindi was automatically generated.
English Version | Other Languages
Articles by Paul Lingor in JoVE
नैदानिक और Amyotrophic पार्श्व स्केलेरोसिस के लिए एक माउस मॉडल (ए एल एस) में स्पाइनल कॉर्ड को हटाने परीक्षण
René Günther1, Martin Suhr1, Jan C. Koch1, Mathias Bähr1,2, Paul Lingor1,2, Lars Tönges1
1Dept. of Neurology, University Medicine Göttingen, 2DFG Research Center for the Molecular Physiology of the Brain (CMPB), Göttingen, Germany
Amyotrophic पार्श्व काठिन्य (ए एल एस) के लिए एक माउस मॉडल चिकित्सकीय और behaviorally जांच की है. एक साथ immunohistological विश्लेषण के लिए एक शर्त के रूप में रीढ़ की हड्डी की तैयारी में विस्तार से दर्शाया जाता है.
Other articles by Paul Lingor on PubMed
Lancet Neurology. Jul, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12849123
Transfection of "naked" SiRNA Results in Endosomal Uptake and Metabolic Impairment in Cultured Neurons
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. Mar, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 14985130
RNA interference is rapidly becoming a powerful tool for gene silencing in mammalian cells. Introduction of siRNA into primary cells, however, remains one of the major difficulties of this novel technique. Using cationic lipid-based transfection reagents satisfactory transfection results are observed in cell lines, but low transfection efficiency and cytotoxicity limit applications in primary cells, especially primary neurons. The application of "naked" siRNA has been previously used successfully in nematodes and mammals in vivo. We therefore evaluated the effects of non-cationic-lipid-based siRNA application to primary hippocampal neuron cultures. "Naked" siRNA was bound to the cell surface and was taken up into endosomes. No significant silencing effect of endogenous or reporter genes was observed, rather application of "naked" siRNA was accompanied by a moderate downregulation of metabolic activity in culture. We postulate that endosomal degradation of "naked" siRNA in neurons prevents the induction of significant RNAi-mediated mRNA-downregulation and is accompanied by a global impairment of the cell metabolism. Transfection methods circumventing the endosomal pathway therefore might prove useful for siRNA transduction of primary neurons.
Rifampicin Inhibits Neurodegeneration in the Optic Nerve Transection Model in Vivo and After 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium Intoxication in Vitro
Acta Neuropathologica. Jul, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15138778
Rifampicin is an antibacterial drug which is highly effective in the treatment of tuberculosis and leprosy. It has been shown to exert antioxidative as well as anti-apoptotic effects. In this study, the neuroprotective effect of rifampicin was examined after 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+)-induced dopaminergic cell death in vitro, and on the survival of retinal ganglion cells after optic nerve transection in vivo. Rifampicin administration significantly increased the number of surviving dopaminergic neurons after MPP+ intoxication as compared to control cultures. No cytotoxic effects were noted even at final rifampicin concentrations of 100 microM. In the rifampicin-treated group, retinal ganglion cell survival was significantly increased after axotomy as compared with vehicle-treated and phosphate-buffered saline-treated control animals. These results suggest that rifampicin is able to prevent neuronal degeneration in cell death paradigms involving oxidative stress and activation of apoptotic pathways. It may thus play a role in the future treatments of neurodegenerative disorders.
The Long Processes of Short Interfering RNAs--RNA Interference and Its Implications in Neuronal Cells
Neuro-degenerative Diseases. 2004 | Pubmed ID: 16908968
Reverse genetics has been greatly advanced by the discovery of RNA interference (RNAi). This intracellular RNA-mediated gene silencing pathway is partially conserved from plants to mammals and offers a new powerful tool for the analysis of gene function. We give a brief overview of the discovery of RNAi, the underlying mechanisms and probable intrinsic roles of the pathway. Recent reports utilizing RNAi for gene silencing approaches in neuronal cells are reviewed and possible delivery techniques for small interfering RNA/double-stranded RNA are discussed.
Functional Applications of Novel Semliki Forest Virus Vectors Are Limited by Vector Toxicity in Cultures of Primary Neurons in Vitro and in the Substantia Nigra in Vivo
Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale. Mar, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15502982
The Semliki Forest virus (SFV) system has been shown to be highly efficient in transduction of cell lines and primary cells. We employed a novel "noncytotoxic" SFV(PD) vector for transduction of primary ventral midbrain floor cultures in vitro and rat substantia nigra in vivo. Rapid protein expression was noted with preferential transduction of neuronal cells including the dopaminergic subpopulation. To examine the suitability of the SFV vector system for functional gene expression, SFV(PD) vectors encoding for antiapoptotic proteins Bcl-X(L) and XIAP were designed. Despite effective transgene expression, SFV(PD) vectors were unable to rescue dopaminergic neurons from MPP+-induced apoptosis. In vivo, virus injection into substantia nigra resulted in fast onset of transgene expression, but elicited an activation of microglia and an inflammation response. We conclude that the use of novel SFV(PD) vectors is currently limited by persistent neurotoxicity of the vector system. Although SFV(PD) vectors may be useful for protein localization studies in dopaminergic neurons, functional applications will require the development of even less cytopathic vector systems.
Down-regulation of Apoptosis Mediators by RNAi Inhibits Axotomy-induced Retinal Ganglion Cell Death in Vivo
Brain : a Journal of Neurology. Mar, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15659426
Transection of the optic nerve induces an apoptotic degeneration of retinal ganglion cells (RGC) in the rat retina. The immediate early gene c-Jun, the proapoptotic Bcl-2 family member Bax and the apoptosome constituent Apaf-1 have been shown previously to play major roles in the induction or execution of the apoptosis cascade. In this study we have designed and generated short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) against c-Jun, Bax and Apaf-1, which were injected into the optic nerve stump in order to inhibit axotomy-induced apoptosis. siRNAs were first tested in vitro to ensure silencing efficiency. In vivo, a clear neuronal localization of Cy3-labelled siRNA could be visualized in retinal flat mounts. Retinas that were injected with anti-Apaf-1- and anti-c-Jun-siRNA showed significantly more surviving RGC than non-injected or anti-EGFP-injected controls (approximately 2- to 3-fold, respectively). Anti-Bax-siRNA-injected retinas showed a trend towards an increased RGC number (not significant). Regulation of target proteins in situ could be visualized by immunohistochemical stainings. We conclude that (i) c-Jun and Apaf-1 play major roles in the apoptotic cascade of RGC and may represent useful targets for antiapoptotic strategies in RGC in vivo, and (ii) injection of siRNAs into the optic nerve stump is a new method to down-regulate target genes specifically in RGC.
Journal of Neurochemistry. May, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16573658
We have recently shown that the hematopoietic Granulocyte-Colony Stimulating Factor (G-CSF) is neuroprotective in rodent stroke models, and that this action appears to be mediated via a neuronal G-CSF receptor. Here, we report that the G-CSF receptor is expressed in rodent dopaminergic substantia nigra neurons, suggesting that G-CSF might be neuroprotective for dopaminergic neurons and a candidate molecule for the treatment of Parkinson's disease. Thus, we investigated protective effects of G-CSF in 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+)-challenged PC12 cells and primary neuronal midbrain cultures, as well as in the mouse 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) model of Parkinson's disease. Substantial protection was found against MPP+-induced dopaminergic cell death in vitro. Moreover, subcutaneous application of G-CSF at a dose of 40 microg/Kg body weight daily over 13 days rescued dopaminergic substantia nigra neurons from MPTP-induced death in aged mice, as shown by quantification of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive substantia nigra cells. Using HPLC, a corresponding reduction in striatal dopamine depletion after MPTP application was observed in G-CSF-treated mice. Thus our data suggest that G-CSF is a novel therapeutic opportunity for the treatment of Parkinson's disease, because it is well-tolerated and already approved for the treatment of neutropenic conditions in humans.
Stearylated Octaarginine and Artificial Virus-like Particles for Transfection of SiRNA into Primary Rat Neurons
RNA (New York, N.Y.). Jul, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16699166
RNA interference (RNAi) provides a powerful experimental tool for sequence-specific gene silencing, allowing efficient analysis of gene function in a multitude of cell types. However, application of RNAi in primary mammalian neurons has been limited by low-transfection efficiency and considerable toxicity of conventional transfection methods. In this study, we evaluated a peptide-mediated and a polymer/lipid-based cellular delivery method for siRNA into rat primary neurons and compared the results with a commonly used liposomal transfection reagent. Stearylated octaarginine (Stearyl-R8) was used as polypeptide and artificial virus-like particles (AVPs) were used as a combined liposomal-polymeric vector, since both reagents have been previously shown to successfully transfect DNA into cell lines. Stearyl-R8 and AVPs both promoted siRNA transfection into primary hippocampal neurons via the endosomal pathway. SiRNA-mediated gene silencing could be effectively induced in primary neuron cultures. In comparison with the commonly used cationic liposome transfection agent, both novel reagents were less detrimental to cell metabolic activity. We conclude that these novel transfection methods yield performances comparable to cationic liposome-mediated transfection for siRNA, while being less cytotoxic in primary neurons. Stearyl-R8 and AVPs may therefore represent novel and more cost-efficient alternatives to conventional siRNA-transfection reagents.
Imino-tetrahydro-benzothiazole Derivatives As P53 Inhibitors: Discovery of a Highly Potent in Vivo Inhibitor and Its Action Mechanism
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. Jun, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16759106
Several neurological disorders manifest symptoms that result from the degeneration and death of specific neurons. p53 is an important modulator of cell death, and its inhibition could be a therapeutic approach to several neuropathologies. Here, we report the design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of novel p53 inhibitors based on the imino-tetrahydrobenzothiazole scaffold. By performing studies on their mechanism of action, we find that cyclic analogue 4b and its open precursor 2b are more potent than pifithrin-alpha (PFT-alpha), which is known to block p53 pro-apoptotic activity in vitro and in vivo without acting on other pro-apoptotic pathways. Using spectroscopic methods, we also demonstrate that open form 2b is more stable than 4b in biological media. Compound 2b is converted into its corresponding active cyclic form through an intramolecular dehydration process and was found two log values more active in vivo than PFT-alpha. Thus, 2b can be considered as a new prodrug prototype that prevents in vivo p53-triggered cell death in several neuropathologies and possibly reduces cancer therapy side effects.
Brain Repair: Experimental Treatment Strategies, Neuroprotective and Repair Strategies in the Lesioned Adult CNS
Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16955709
Inhibition of Rho Kinase (ROCK) Increases Neurite Outgrowth on Chondroitin Sulphate Proteoglycan in Vitro and Axonal Regeneration in the Adult Optic Nerve in Vivo
Journal of Neurochemistry. Oct, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17608642
Inhibitory molecules derived from CNS myelin and glial scar tissue are major causes for insufficient functional regeneration in the mammalian CNS. A multitude of these molecules signal through the Rho/Rho kinase (ROCK) pathway. We evaluated three inhibitors of ROCK, Y- 27632, Fasudil (HA-1077), and Dimethylfasudil (H-1152), in models of neurite outgrowth in vitro. We show, that all three ROCK inhibitors partially restore neurite outgrowth of Ntera-2 neurons on the inhibitory chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan substrate. In the rat optic nerve crush model Y-27632 dose-dependently increased regeneration of retinal ganglion cell axons in vivo. Application of Dimethylfasudil showed a trend towards increased axonal regeneration in an intermediate concentration. We demonstrate that inhibition of ROCK can be an effective therapeutic approach to increase regeneration of CNS neurons. The selection of a suitable inhibitor with a broad therapeutic window, however, is crucial in order to minimize unwanted side effects and to avoid deleterious effects on nerve fiber growth.
Galectin-1 Expression in Human Glioma Cells: Modulation by Ionizing Radiation and Effects on Tumor Cell Proliferation and Migration
Oncology Reports. Aug, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17611674
Galectins are evolutionarily conserved beta-galactoside-binding lectins which recognize specific glycoconjugates on the cell surface and the extracellular matrix. Accumulating evidence indicates that these proteins are involved in a variety of physiological and pathological processes including tumor growth and metastasis. Up-regulated expression of galectin-1 is a hallmark of a variety of malignant tumors. Here, we examined the expression of galectin-1 in glioma cell lines, the influence of ionizing irradiation and the intracellular and extracellular effects of this protein on tumor cell proliferation and migration. Galectin-1 was detected in both A172 and U118 glioma cells by immunoblot analysis. Ionizing irradiation induced a statistically significant up-regulation in glioma cell lines. RNA-interference-mediated silencing resulted in a significant suppression of the proliferation of the A172 cells, while the addition of recombinant galectin-1 had no effect. On the other hand, the migratory capacity of both cell lines was reduced after galectin-1 down-regulation, and up-regulated by the addition of exogenous galectin-1. Our results provide evidence of a role for galectin-1 in the regulation of glioma cell proliferation and migration. While an intracellular mechanism seemed to prevail in galectin-1-mediated regulation of tumor cell proliferation, the control of cell migration was exerted by both intracellular and extracellular mechanisms. In addition, this protein was up-regulated by ionizing radiation, indicating that the blockade of this protein should be performed before radiotherapy to avoid any undesired stimulating effects. Given the multifactorial role of galectin-1 in the regulation of tumor escape and metastasis, we conclude that targeting galectin-1 may have therapeutic benefits in the treatment of malignant glioma.
Molecular BioSystems. Nov, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17940660
The neuroscientific community rapidly adopted RNA interference techniques as an experimental tool for the dissection of gene function in vitro and in animal models of neurological disease in vivo. Here, we discuss recent advances in the biotechnical implementation of siRNA/shRNA-mediated gene silencing focusing on issues of design, delivery and putative detrimental effects. We then summarize the current use of RNAi in targeting neurological disease models and give an outlook on the implementation of this technique in clinical therapy.
Journal of Neurochemistry. Feb, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 17995935
The anti-apoptotic Bcl-xL is a promising agent to prevent neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease, which is characterized by a demise of dopaminergic neurons. We linked Bcl-xL to a peptide that allows its delivery across biological membranes and the blood-brain barrier. We tested the fusion protein in two models of Parkinson's Disease. Cell-permeable Bcl-xL protected neuroblastoma cells from the selective neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium. Furthermore, its systemic application in aged mice protected dopaminergic neurons following administration of MPTP as revealed by counting of tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta. Hence, we present that a cell-permeable form of an anti-apoptotic protein can be delivered to CNS neurons through its systemic application, and we provide the proof that the delivery of this protein to the CNS neurons effectively prevents neuronal cell death in models of chronic neurodegenerative diseases.
ROCK Inhibition and CNTF Interact on Intrinsic Signalling Pathways and Differentially Regulate Survival and Regeneration in Retinal Ganglion Cells
Brain : a Journal of Neurology. Jan, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18063589
Functional regeneration in the CNS is limited by lesion-induced neuronal apoptosis and an environment inhibiting axonal elongation. A principal, yet unresolved question is the interaction between these two major factors. We thus evaluated the role of pharmacological inhibition of rho kinase (ROCK), a key mediator of myelin-derived axonal growth inhibition and CNTF, a potent neurotrophic factor for retinal ganglion cells (RGC), in models of retinal ganglion cell apoptosis and neurite outgrowth/regeneration in vitro and in vivo. Here, we show for the first time that the ROCK inhibitor Y-27632 significantly enhanced survival of RGC in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, the co-application of CNTF and Y-27632 potentiated the effect of either substance alone. ROCK inhibition resulted in the activation of the intrinsic MAPK pathway, and the combination of CNTF and Y-27632 resulted in even more pronounced MAPK activation. While CNTF also induced STAT3 phosphorylation, the additional application of ROCK inhibitor surprisingly diminished the effects of CNTF on STAT3 phosphorylation. ROCK activity was also decreased in an additive manner by both substances. In vivo, both CNTF and Y-27632 enhanced regeneration of RGC into the non-permissive optic nerve crush model and additive effects were observed after combination treatment. Further evaluation using specific inhibitors delineate STAT3 as a negative regulator of neurite growth and positive regulator of cell survival, while MAPK and Akt support neurite growth. These results show that next to neurotrophic factors ROCK inhibition by Y-27632 potently supports survival of lesioned adult CNS neurons. Co-administration of CNTF and Y-27632 results in additive effects on neurite outgrowth and regeneration. The interaction of intracellular signalling pathways may, however, attenuate more pronounced synergy and has to be taken into account for future treatment strategies.
Angiographic CT with Intravenous Administration of Contrast Medium is a Noninvasive Option for Follow-up After Intracranial Stenting
Neuroradiology. Apr, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18246336
Intracranial angioplasty and stenting (ICAS) is a therapeutic option in symptomatic intracranial atherosclerotic disease. Adequate follow-up examination is necessary to exclude in-stent restenosis. Conventional intraarterial digital subtraction angiography (ia-DSA) is the current gold standard, but it is an invasive technique and carries the risk of neurological complications. Angiographic CT (ACT) is a new technique that provides a volume dataset of the highest spatial resolution and high contrast resolution derived from a rotational acquisition of a c-arm-mounted flat-panel detector. The feasibility of ACT with intravenous administration of contrast medium (iv-ACT) for follow-up after ICAS is demonstrated. In two patients iv-ACT was performed as a follow-up examination 12 months after ICAS. High-resolution volume data from the rotational acquisitions were processed to provide delineation of the stent lumen as well as imaging of the brain parenchyma and vessels. In both patients the patency of the stent lumen was assessed successfully. In addition, all other brain vessels were displayed in a manner similar to their appearance on CT angiograms. The brain parenchyma was also adequately imaged in a manner similar to its appearance on CT images. We demonstrated the feasibility and diagnostic value of iv-ACT for follow-up imaging after ICAS. This new application has the potential to become the imaging method of choice after ICAS since it not only enables visualization of the patency of the stent lumen but also is minimally invasive and provides additional information about all brain arteries and the brain parenchyma.
Brain : a Journal of Neurology. Oct, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18757464
Improved survival of injured neurons and the inhibition of repulsive environmental signalling are prerequisites for functional regeneration. BAG1 (Bcl-2-associated athanogene-1) is an Hsp70/Hsc70-binding protein, which has been shown to suppress apoptosis and enhance neuronal differentiation. We investigated BAG1 as a therapeutic molecule in the lesioned visual system in vivo. Using an adeno-associated viral vector, BAG1 (AAV.BAG1) was expressed in retinal ganglion cells (RGC) and then tested in models of optic nerve axotomy and optic nerve crush. BAG1 significantly increased RGC survival as compared to adeno-associated viral vector enhanced green fluorescent protein (AAV.EGFP) treated controls and this was independently confirmed in transgenic mice over-expressing BAG1 in neurons. The numbers and lengths of regenerating axons after optic nerve crush were also significantly increased in the AAV.BAG1 group. In pRGC cultures, BAG1-over-expression resulted in a approximately 3-fold increase in neurite length and growth cone surface. Interestingly, BAG1 induced an intracellular translocation of Raf-1 and ROCK2 and ROCK activity was decreased in a Raf-1-dependent manner by BAG1-over-expression. In summary, we show that BAG1 acts in a dual role by inhibition of lesion-induced apoptosis and interaction with the inhibitory ROCK signalling cascade. BAG1 is therefore a promising molecule to be further examined as a putative therapeutic tool in neurorestorative strategies.
Annals of Neurology. Jul, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19670438
The aim of this study was to investigate the role of voltage-dependent calcium channels (VDCCs) in axon degeneration during autoimmune optic neuritis.
Combined Inhibition of Cdk5 and ROCK Additively Increase Cell Survival, but Not the Regenerative Response in Regenerating Retinal Ganglion Cells
Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences. Dec, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19782753
CNS regeneration is limited by lesion-induced neuronal apoptosis and an environment inhibiting axonal elongation. Inhibition of ROCK has been previously shown to promote regeneration in retinal ganglion cells (RGC) whereas Cdk5 inhibition mainly promoted survival. Therefore, we have evaluated the effects of combined treatment with inhibitors of ROCK and Cdk5. We show that in vitro, the co-application of the Cdk5 inhibitor, Indolinone A, and the ROCK inhibitor, Y-27632, potentiated the survival-promoting effect of either substance alone. However, neurite outgrowth in vitro was promoted only by the presence of Y-27632, not by Indolinone A alone. In the ex vivo explant and the in vivo optic nerve crush model the combination of both inhibitors significantly increased neurite outgrowth at small distances, but this effect leveled off for longer neurites. In summary, the combined treatment with the Cdk5 inhibitor Indolinone A and the ROCK inhibitor Y-27632 results in a strong additive effect on neuronal survival, but is not able to increase the regenerative response beyond the effect of the ROCK inhibitor.
Neurobiology of Disease. Jun, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20211260
Malfunction of the ubiquitin-proteasome system has been implicated as a causal factor in the pathogenesis of aggregation-related disorders, e.g. Parkinson's disease. We show here that Transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta), a multifunctional cytokine and trophic factor for dopaminergic (DAergic) neurons modulates proteasome function in primary midbrain neurons. TGF-beta differentially inhibited proteasomal subactivities with a most pronounced time-dependent inhibition of the peptidyl-glutamyl peptide hydrolyzing-like and chymotrypsin-like subactivity. Regulation of proteasomal activity could be specifically quantified in the DAergic subpopulation. Protein blot analysis revealed an accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins after TGF-beta treatment. The identity of these enriched proteins was further analyzed by 2D-gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. We found epidermal fatty acid binding protein (EFABP) to be strongly increased and ubiquitinated after TGF-beta treatment and confirmed this finding by co-immunoprecipitation. While application of TGF-beta increased neurite regeneration in a scratch lesion model, downregulation of EFABP by siRNA significantly decreased this effect. We thus postulate that a differential regulation of proteasomal function, as demonstrated for TGF-beta, can result in an enrichment of proteins, such as EFABP, that mediate physiological functions, such as neurite regeneration.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Mar, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20231460
Axonal degeneration is an initial key step in traumatic and neurodegenerative CNS disorders. We established a unique in vivo epifluorescence imaging paradigm to characterize very early events in axonal degeneration in the rat optic nerve. Single retinal ganglion cell axons were visualized by AAV-mediated expression of dsRed and this allowed the quantification of postlesional acute axonal degeneration (AAD). EM analysis revealed severe structural alterations of the cytoskeleton, cytoplasmatic vacuolization, and the appearance of autophagosomes within the first hours after lesion. Inhibition of autophagy resulted in an attenuation of acute axonal degeneration. Furthermore, a rapid increase of intraaxonal calcium levels following crush lesion could be visualized using a calcium-sensitive dye. Application of calcium channel inhibitors prevented crush-induced calcium increase and markedly attenuated axonal degeneration, whereas application of a calcium ionophore aggravated the degenerative phenotype. We finally demonstrate that increased postlesional autophagy is calcium dependent and thus mechanistically link autophagy and intraaxonal calcium levels. Both processes are proposed to be major targets for the manipulation of axonal degeneration in future therapeutic settings.
Acute Axonal Degeneration in Vivo is Attenuated by Inhibition of Autophagy in a Calcium-dependent Manner
Autophagy. Jul, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20458173
Axonal degeneration is a pathological hallmark of many traumatic and neurodegenerative neurological disorders. Although the underlying mechanisms remain largely unclear, increased autophagy and the influx of extracellular calcium have been implicated in the pathogenesis of axonal degeneration based on in vitro data. Using in vivo imaging of the rat optic nerve after crush lesion we could now show that both mechanisms are linked and play an important role in acute axonal degeneration in vivo. Our data suggest that crush lesion of the optic nerve induces a rapid calcium influx through calcium channels, which results in a secondary induction of autophagy that participates actively in axonal degradation. Therapeutic manipulation of both events could significantly alter the time course of acute axonal degeneration in vivo and may thus represent promising therapeutic targets for the future.
Hepatocyte Growth Factor Protects Retinal Ganglion Cells by Increasing Neuronal Survival and Axonal Regeneration in Vitro and in Vivo
Journal of Neurochemistry. Jun, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21443522
Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is known to promote the survival and foster neuritic outgrowth of different subpopulations of CNS neurons during development. Together with its corresponding receptor c-mesenchymal-epithelial transition factor (Met), it is expressed in the developing and the adult murine, rat and human CNS. We have studied the role of HGF in paradigms of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) regeneration and cell death in vitro and in vivo. After application of recombinant HGF in vitro, survival of serum-deprived RGC-5 cells and of growth factor-deprived primary RGC was significantly increased. This was shown to be correlated to the phosphorylation of c-Met and subsequent activation of serine/threonine protein kinase Akt and MAPK downstream signalling pathways involved in neuronal survival. Furthermore, neurite outgrowth of primary RGC was stimulated by HGF. In vivo, c-Met expression in RGC was up-regulated after optic nerve axotomy lesion. Here, treatment with HGF significantly improved survival of axotomized RGC and enhanced axonal regeneration after optic nerve crush. Our data demonstrates that exogenously applied HGF has a neuroprotective and regeneration-promoting function for lesioned CNS neurons. We provide strong evidence that HGF may represent a trophic factor for adult CNS neurons, which may play a role as therapeutic target in the treatment of neurotraumatic and neurodegenerative CNS disorders.
JNK Isoforms Differentially Regulate Neurite Growth and Regeneration in Dopaminergic Neurons in Vitro
Journal of Molecular Neuroscience : MN. Oct, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21468718
Parkinson's disease is characterized by selective and progressive loss of midbrain DAergic neurons (MDN) in the substantia nigra and degeneration of its nigrostriatal projections. Whereas the cellular pathophysiology has been closely linked to an activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs) and c-Jun, the involvement of JNKs in regenerative processes of the nigrostriatal pathway is controversially discussed. In our study, we utilized a mechanical scratch lesion paradigm of midbrain DAergic neurons in vitro and studied regenerative neuritic outgrowth. After a siRNA-mediated knockdown of each of the three JNK isoforms, we found that JNKs differentially regulate neurite regeneration. Knockdown of JNK3 resulted in the most prominent neurite outgrowth impairment. This effect was attenuated again by plasmid overexpression of JNK3. We also evaluated cell survival of the affected neurons at the scratch border. JNK3 was found to be also relevant for survival of MDN which were lesioned by the scratch. Our data suggest that JNK isoforms are involved in differential regulation of cell death and regeneration in MDN depending on their neurite integrity. JNK3 appears to be required for regeneration and survival in the case of an environment permissive for regeneration. Future therapeutic approaches for the DAergic system may thus require isoform specific targeting of these kinases.
Plasmids Containing NRSE/RE1 Sites Enhance Neurite Outgrowth of Retinal Ganglion Cells Via Sequestration of REST Independent of NRSE DsRNA Expression
The FEBS Journal. Sep, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21790997
Repressor element-1 silencing transcription factor (REST) is a transcriptional repressor of neuron-specific genes that binds to a conserved DNA element, the neuron restrictive silencer element (NRSE/RE1). Interestingly, increased REST activity is found in several neurological diseases like Huntington's disease and cerebral ischemia. Recently, it was shown that NRSE dsRNA, a double-stranded non-coding RNA can bind to REST during a defined period of neuronal differentiation, and thereby changes REST from a transcriptional repressor to an activator of neuron-specific genes. Here, we analyzed the effects of NRSE dsRNA expression in primary retinal ganglion cells. We found that NRSE dsRNA expression vectors significantly enhance neurite outgrowth even when axonal degeneration is induced by neurotrophin deprivation. Transfection of HEK cells with NRSE dsRNA-expressing vectors altered their morphology leading to the formation of thin processes and induced the expression of neurofilament-68. Surprisingly, control vectors containing REST-binding sites, but not expressing NRSE dsRNA, resulted in the same effects, also in the retinal ganglion cell model. Reporter assays and retention of REST in the cytoplasm with a labeled NRSE/RE1-containing plasmid incapable of entering the nucleus suggest that sequestration of REST in the cytoplasm is the reason for the observed effects. No evidence for a biological function of NRSE dsRNA could be found in these models. We conclude that sequestration of REST leads to enhanced neurite outgrowth in retinal ganglion cells and that an increased activity of REST, as it is found in several neurodegenerative diseases, can be effectively modulated by sequestration of REST with plasmids containing NRSE/RE1 sites.
Human Molecular Genetics. Dec, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21920940
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), a frequent neurodegenerative disease, is caused by reduced levels of functional survival of motoneuron (SMN) protein. SMN is involved in multiple pathways, including RNA metabolism and splicing as well as motoneuron development and function. Here we provide evidence for a major contribution of the Rho-kinase (ROCK) pathway in SMA pathogenesis. Using an in vivo protein interaction system based on SUMOylation of proteins, we found that SMN is directly interacting with profilin2a. Profilin2a binds to a stretch of proline residues in SMN, which is heavily impaired by a novel SMN2 missense mutation (S230L) derived from a SMA patient. In different SMA models, we identified differential phosphorylation of the ROCK-downstream targets cofilin, myosin-light chain phosphatase and profilin2a. We suggest that hyper-phosphorylation of profilin2a is the molecular link between SMN and the ROCK pathway repressing neurite outgrowth in neuronal cells. Finally, we found a neuron-specific increase in the F-/G-actin ratio that further support the role of actin dynamics in SMA pathogenesis.
Nature Protocols. Dec, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 22051801
In this protocol, we describe the imaging of single axons in the rat optic nerve in vivo. Axons are labeled through the intravitreal injection of adeno-associated viral vectors (AAVs) expressing a fluorophore (duration of the procedure ∼1 h). Two weeks after intravitreal injection, the optic nerve is surgically exposed (duration ∼1 h) and labeled axons are imaged with an epifluorescence microscope either for up to 8 h or repetitively on the following days. Additionally, intravitreal injection of calcium-sensitive dyes allows for imaging of intra-axonal calcium kinetics. This procedure enables the analysis of the morphological changes of degenerating axons in the optic nerve in different lesion paradigms, such as optic nerve crush, axotomy or pin lesion. Furthermore, the effects of pharmacological manipulations on axonal stability and axonal calcium kinetics in axons of the central nervous system can be studied in vivo.
Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience. 2011 | Pubmed ID: 22065949
Regenerative failure in the CNS largely depends on pronounced growth inhibitory signaling and reduced cellular survival after a lesion stimulus. One key mediator of growth inhibitory signaling is Rho-associated kinase (ROCK), which has been shown to modulate growth cone stability by regulation of actin dynamics. Recently, there is accumulating evidence the ROCK also plays a deleterious role for cellular survival. In this manuscript we illustrate that ROCK is involved in a variety of intracellular signaling pathways that comprise far more than those involved in neurite growth inhibition alone. Although ROCK function is currently studied in many different disease contexts, our review focuses on neurorestorative approaches in the CNS, especially in models of neurotrauma. Promising strategies to target ROCK by pharmacological small molecule inhibitors and RNAi approaches are evaluated for their outcome on regenerative growth and cellular protection both in preclinical and in clinical studies.
Cell and Tissue Research. Mar, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22392734
Degeneration of the axon is an important step in the pathomechanism of traumatic, inflammatory and degenerative neurological diseases. Increasing evidence suggests that axonal degeneration occurs early in the course of these diseases and therefore represents a promising target for future therapeutic strategies. We review the evidence for axonal destruction from pathological findings and animal models with particular emphasis on neurodegenerative and neurotraumatic disorders. We discuss the basic morphological and temporal modalities of axonal degeneration (acute, chronic and focal axonal degeneration and Wallerian degeneration). Based on the mechanistic concepts, we then delineate in detail the major molecular mechanisms that underlie the degenerative cascade, such as calcium influx, axonal transport, protein aggregation and autophagy. We finally concentrate on putative therapeutic targets based on the mechanistic prerequisites.