Translate this page to:
In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (29)
- The Journal of Clinical Investigation
- Journal of the American Society of Nephrology : JASN
- Biochemical Pharmacology
- The Biochemical Journal
- American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
- Journal of Cellular Physiology
- Trends in Neurosciences
- Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
- American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
- American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
- American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
- American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
- Journal of Molecular Medicine (Berlin, Germany)
- Pflügers Archiv : European Journal of Physiology
- Journal of Molecular Medicine (Berlin, Germany)
- American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
- Nature Neuroscience
- Pflügers Archiv : European Journal of Physiology
- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
- Nature Neuroscience
- Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
- PloS One
- Frontiers in Neuroscience
- Nature Neuroscience
- European Journal of Pharmacology
- PloS One
- Current Opinion in Neurobiology
This translation into Hindi was automatically generated.
English Version | Other Languages
Articles by Peer Wulff in JoVE
उत्पादन और पुनः संयोजक एडिनो जुड़े वायरल वैक्टर Titering
Christina McClure*1, Katy L. H. Cole*1, Peer Wulff1, Matthias Klugmann2, Andrew J. Murray1,3
1School of Medical Sciences, College of Life Sciences and Medicine, University of Aberdeen, 2Translational Neuroscience Facility and Department of Physiology, School of Medical Sciences, University of New South Wales, 3Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics, Columbia University
पुनः संयोजक एडिनो - जुड़े वायरस वैक्टर (rAAVs) तेजी से मूल्यवान होते जा रहे हैं
Other articles by Peer Wulff on PubMed
The Journal of Clinical Investigation. Nov, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 12417564
The serum- and glucocorticoid-regulated kinase (sgk1) is induced by mineralocorticoids and, in turn, upregulates heterologously expressed renal epithelial Na(+) channel (ENaC) activity in Xenopus oocytes. Accordingly, Sgk1 is considered to mediate the mineralocorticoid stimulation of renal ENaC activity and antinatriuresis. Here we show that at standard NaCl intake, renal water and electrolyte excretion is indistinguishable in sgk1-knockout (sgk1(-/-)) mice and wild-type (sgk1(+/+)) mice. In contrast, dietary NaCl restriction reveals an impaired ability of sgk1(-/-) mice to adequately decrease Na(+) excretion despite increases in plasma aldosterone levels and proximal-tubular Na(+) and fluid reabsorption, as well as decreases in blood pressure and glomerular filtration rate.
Journal of the American Society of Nephrology : JASN. Apr, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15034090
Serum- and glucocorticoid-regulated kinase 1 (Sgk1) contributes to Na+ reabsorption in the aldosterone-sensitive distal nephron. Sgk1-knockout (sgk1-/-) and littermate wild-type mice (sgk1+/+) were used to test the importance of Sgk1 in renal elimination of K+ . Intravenous application of K+ load under anesthesia increased plasma K+ concentration by 1.3 to 1.4 mM in both sgk1-/- (n = 6) and sgkl+/+ (n = 7) mice. However, the increase of absolute and fractional renal K+ excretion observed in sgk1+/+ was significantly blunted in sgk1-/- animals. Both groups of mice decreased or increased renal K+ excretion to a similar extent after a low (<0.03%) or high (5%) K+ diet for 6 d, respectively. In sgk1+/+, plasma K+ concentration was not significantly modified by either high or low K+ diet. In sgk1-/-, however, high K+ diet enhanced plasma K+ concentration by about 1.6 mM, despite an excessive increase of plasma aldosterone concentration reaching values about sixfold higher than in sgk1+/+. Electrophysiological and immunohistochemical studies under high K+ diet indicated that reduced epithelial Na+ channel ENaC and/or Na+/K+-ATPase activity in the aldosterone-sensitive distal nephron accounted for the impaired response in sgk1-/- and that an enhanced apical abundance of renal outer medullary K+ channel ROMK partly compensated for the defect. The acute and chronic regulation of renal K+ elimination involves Sgk1.
Affinity of Various Benzodiazepine Site Ligands in Mice with a Point Mutation in the GABA(A) Receptor Gamma2 Subunit
Biochemical Pharmacology. Oct, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15451405
The benzodiazepine binding site of GABA(A) receptors is located at the interface of the alpha and gamma subunits. Certain point mutations in these subunits have been demonstrated to dramatically reduce the affinity of benzodiazepine binding site ligands for these receptors. Recently, mice were generated with a phenylalanine (F) to isoleucine (I) substitution at position 77 in the gamma2 subunit of GABA(A) receptors. Here we tested the potency of 24 benzodiazepine binding site ligands from 16 different structural classes for inhibition of [(3)H]flunitrazepam binding to brain membranes of these gamma2F77I mice. Results indicate that the potency of the classical 1,4-benzodiazepines, of the 1,4-thienodiazepine clotiazepam, the 1,5-benzodiazepine clobazam, or the pyrazoloquinoline CGS 9896 is only 2-7-fold reduced by this gamma2F77I point mutation. The potency of the imidazopyrimidines Ru 32698, Ru 33203, and Ru 33356, of the imidazoquinoline Ru 31719, or the pyrazolopyridine CGS 20625 is reduced 10-20-fold, whereas the potency of some imidazobenzodiazepines, beta-carbolines, cyclopyrrolones, imidazopyridines, triazolopyridazines, or quinolines is 100-1000-fold reduced. Interestingly, the extent of potency reduction induced by the gamma2F77I point mutation varied within the structural classes of compounds. Results support and significantly extend previous observations indicating that the residue gamma2F77 is important for high affinity binding of some, but not all benzodiazepine site ligands.
Exploitation of KESTREL to Identify NDRG Family Members As Physiological Substrates for SGK1 and GSK3
The Biochemical Journal. Dec, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15461589
We detected a protein in rabbit skeletal muscle extracts that was phosphorylated rapidly by SGK1 (serum- and glucocorticoid-induced kinase 1), but not by protein kinase Ba, and identified it as NDRG2 (N-myc downstream-regulated gene 2). SGK1 phosphorylated NDRG2 at Thr330, Ser332 and Thr348 in vitro. All three residues were phosphorylated in skeletal muscle from wild-type mice, but not from mice that do not express SGK1. SGK1 also phosphorylated the related NDRG1 isoform at Thr328, Ser330 and Thr346 (equivalent to Thr330, Ser332 and Thr348 of NDRG2), as well as Thr356 and Thr366. Residues Thr346, Thr356 and Thr366 are located within identical decapeptide sequences GTRSRSHTSE, repeated three times in NDRG1. These threonines were phosphorylated in NDRG1 in the liver, lung, spleen and skeletal muscle of wild-type mice, but not in SGK1-/- mice. Knock-down of SGK1 in HeLa cells using small interfering RNA also suppressed phosphorylation of the threonine residues in the repeat region of NDRG1. The phosphorylation of NDRG1 by SGK1 transformed it into an excellent substrate for GSK3 (glycogen synthase kinase 3), which could then phosphorylate Ser342, Ser352 and Ser362 in the repeat region. Incubation of HeLa cells with the specific GSK3 inhibitor CT 99021 increased the electrophoretic mobility of NDRG1 in HeLa cells, demonstrating that this protein is phosphorylated by GSK3 in cells. Our results identify NDRG1 and NDRG2 as physiological substrates for SGK1, and demonstrate that phosphorylation of NDRG1 by SGK1 primes it for phosphorylation by GSK3.
American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology. Jan, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15590995
Aldosterone plays a pivotal role in NaCl and K(+) homeostasis by stimulation of Na(+) reabsorption and K(+) secretion in the aldosterone-sensitive distal nephron (ASDN). Recent studies demonstrated that the serum- and glucocorticoid-regulated kinase 1 (Sgk1) is induced by aldosterone in the ASDN and that polymorphisms of the kinase associate with arterial blood pressure in normotensive subjects. This review discusses the role of Sgk1 in NaCl and K(+) homeostasis as evidenced by in vivo studies, including those in Sgk1-deficient mice. The studies indicate that Sgk1 is not absolutely required for Na(+) reabsorption and K(+) secretion in the ASDN. On a standard NaCl and K(+) diet, modestly enhanced plasma aldosterone concentrations appear sufficient to establish a compensated phenotype in the absence of Sgk1. The kinase is necessary, however, for upregulation of transcellular Na(+) reabsorption in the ASDN. This may involve Sgk1-mediated stimulation of basolateral Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase as well as retention of epithelial Na(+) channel, ENaC, in the apical membrane. Such an upregulation is a prerequisite for adequate adaptation of 1) renal NaCl reabsorption during restricted dietary NaCl intake, as well as 2) K(+) secretion in response to enhanced K(+) intake. Thus gain-of-function mutations of Sgk1 are expected to result in renal NaCl retention and enhanced K(+) secretion. Further studies are required to elucidate renal and nonrenal aldosterone-induced effects of Sgk1, the role of other Sgk1 activators, as well as the link of Sgk1 polymorphisms to arterial hypertension in humans.
Deranged Kv Channel Regulation in Fibroblasts from Mice Lacking the Serum and Glucocorticoid Inducible Kinase SGK1
Journal of Cellular Physiology. Jul, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15605386
Coexpression of the serum and glucocorticoid inducible kinase 1 (SGK1) up-regulates Kv channel activity in Xenopus oocytes and human embryonic kidney cells. To investigate the physiological impact of SGK1 dependent Kv channel regulation, we recorded whole-cell currents in lung fibroblasts from SGK1 knockout mice (sgk1-/-) and wild-type littermates (sgk1+/+). Serum-grown mouse lung fibroblasts (MLF) from both genotypes exhibited voltage-gated outwardly rectifying K(+)-currents with time-dependent activation (tau(act) approximately 3 msec), slow inactivation (tau(inact) approximately 700 msec), use-dependent inactivation, and (partial) inhibition by K(+) channel blockers TEA, 4-AP, and margatoxin. In serum grown MLF peak Kv current density at +100 mV was significantly lower in sgk1-/- (14 +/- 2 pA/pF, n = 13) than in sgk1+/+ (31 +/- 4 pA/pF, n = 16). PCR amplification of different Kv1 and Kv3 subunits from mouse fibroblasts demonstrated the expression of Kv1.1-1.7, Kv3.1, and Kv3.3 mRNA in both sgk1+/+ and sgk1-/- cells. Upon serum deprivation Kv currents almost disappeared in sgk1+/+ (4 +/- 1 pA/pF, n = 11) but not in sgk1-/- (10 +/- 1 pA/pF, n = 6) MLF. Accordingly, following serum deprivation Kv current density was significantly lower in sgk1+/+ than in sgk1-/-. Stimulation of serum-depleted cells with dexamethasone (dex) (1 microM, 1 day), IGF-1 (6.7 microM, 4-6 h) or both, significantly activated Kv currents in sgk1+/+ but not in sgk1-/- MLF. In the presence of both, dex and IGF-1, the Kv current density was significantly larger in sgk1+/+ (27 +/- 3 pA/pF, n = 12) than in sgk1-/- (13 +/- 3 pA/pF, n = 10) cells. Similar to MLF, Kv currents were significantly higher in sgk1+/+ mouse tail fibroblasts (MTF). In sgk1+/+ but not sgk1-/- MTF the Kv currents were inhibited upon serum deprivation and reincreased after stimulation of serum deprived MTF with dex (1 microM, 1 day) and afterwards with IGF-1 (6.7 microM, 4-6 h). According to Fura-2-fluorescence capacitative Ca(2+) entry was lower in sgk1-/- MTF compared to sgk1+/+ MTF. Upon serum deprivation capacitative Ca(2+) entry decreased significantly in sgk1+/+ but not in sgk1-/- MTF. Stimulation of depleted cells with dex (1 microM, 1 day) and afterwards with IGF-1 (6.7 microM, 4-6 h) reincreased capacitative Ca(2+) entry in sgk1+/+ MTF, whereas in sgk1-/- cells it remained unchanged. In conclusion, lack of SGK1 does not abrogate Kv channel activity but abolishes regulation of those channels by serum, glucocorticoids and IGF-1, an effect influencing capacitative Ca(2+) entry.
Trends in Neurosciences. Jan, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15626496
In systems neuroscience, advances often come from lesioning and reversible inhibition of brain regions. Dissecting the circuitry of regions involves conceptually the same approach - stop a class of cell from firing action potentials, or make the cells fire more, then deduce how these components influence the performance of the circuit and animal behaviour. To perform such cell-type-specific and reversible fine-scale analysis of circuitry, and to do so on the fast signalling timescale of the brain (milliseconds to seconds), is challenging in mammals. Ingenious and diverse methods are being developed towards this goal. These new tools will encourage further synergy between molecular biologists, systems neuroscientists and electrophysiologists.
Regulation of the Excitatory Amino Acid Transporter EAAT5 by the Serum and Glucocorticoid Dependent Kinases SGK1 and SGK3
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. Apr, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15737648
In the mammalian retina, glutamate re-uptake is mediated by the sodium dependent cotransport systems EAAT1-5 thus terminating neuronal excitation and preventing neuroexcitotoxicity. In retinal amacrine and ganglion cells, EAAT5 is colocalized with the serum and glucocorticoid inducible kinase SGK1, a serine/threonine kinase known to regulate transport. The study explored the possible regulation of EAAT5 by SGK1, its isoform SGK3, and the closely related protein kinase B. EAAT5 was coexpressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes with or without the respective kinases. Transport activity was quantified by electrophysiology and cell surface expression was determined by chemiluminescence. Both EAAT5 mediated currents and EAAT5 protein abundance at the cell surface were increased by a factor of 1.5-2 upon coexpression of SGK1 or SGK3 but not following coexpression of PKB. In conclusion, the kinases SGK1 and SGK3 increase EAAT5 activity by increasing cell surface abundance of the carrier.
Serum- and Glucocorticoid-inducible Kinase 1 (SGK1) Mediates Glucocorticoid-induced Inhibition of Insulin Secretion
Diabetes. Apr, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15793248
Glucocorticoid excess predisposes to the development of diabetes, at least in part through impairment of insulin secretion. The underlying mechanism has remained elusive. We show here that dexamethasone upregulates transcription and expression of the serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase 1 (SGK1) in insulin-secreting cells, an effect reversed by mifepristone (RU486), an antagonist of the nuclear glucocorticoid receptor. When coexpressed in Xenopus oocytes, SGK1 increases the activity of voltage-gated K(+) channel K(v)1.5. In INS-1 cells, dexamethasone stimulates the transcription of K(v)1.5, increases the repolarizing outward current, reduces peak values of [Ca(2+)](i) oscillations, and decreases glucose-induced insulin release. The latter effect is reversed by K(+) channel blockers 4-aminopyridine and tetraethylammonium and by a more selective K(v)1.5 channel inhibitor MSD-D. Dexamethasone also increases expression of K(v)1.5 in mouse islets and reduces glucose-induced insulin secretion, an effect reversed by MSD-D. In islets isolated from wild-type but not SGK1 knockout mice, dexamethasone significantly blunted glucose-, forskolin-, and phorbol myristic acid-induced insulin release. In conclusion, dexamethasone stimulates the transcription of SGK1, which in turn upregulates the activity of voltage-gated K(+) channels. Increased K(+) channel activity reduces Ca(2+) entry through voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels and insulin release.
American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology. Aug, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16014448
Mineralocorticoids modify salt balance by both stimulating salt intake and inhibiting salt loss. Renal salt retention is accomplished by upregulation of reabsorption, an effect partially mediated by serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase 1 (SGK1). The present study explored the contribution of SGK1 to the regulation of renal function, salt intake, and blood pressure during mineralocorticoid excess. DOCA/1% NaCl treatment increased blood pressure and creatinine clearance to a similar extent in SGK1-deficient sgk1(-/-) and wild-type sgk1(+/+) mice but led to more pronounced increase of proteinuria in sgk1(+/+) mice (by 474 +/- 89%) than in sgk1(-/-) mice (by 154 +/- 31%). DOCA/1% NaCl treatment led to significant increase of kidney weight (by 24%) and to hypokalemia (from 3.9 +/- 0.1 to 2.7 +/- 0.1 mmol/l) only in sgk1(+/+) mice. The treatment enhanced renal Na(+) excretion significantly more in sgk1(+/+) mice (from 3 +/- 1 to 134 +/- 32 micromol.24 h(-1).g body wt(-1)) than in sgk1(-/-) mice (from 4 +/- 1 to 49 +/- 8 micromol.24 h(-1).g body wt(-1)), pointing to SGK1-dependent stimulation of salt intake. With access to two drinking bottles containing 1% NaCl or water, DOCA treatment did not significantly affect water intake in either genotype but increased 1% NaCl intake in sgk1(+/+) mice (within 9 days from 3.5 +/- 0.9 to 16.5 +/- 2.4 ml/day) consistent with DOCA-induced salt appetite. This response was significantly attenuated in sgk1(-/-) mice (from 2.6 +/- 0.6 to 5.9 +/- 0.9 ml/day). Thus SGK1 contributes to the stimulation of salt intake, kidney growth, proteinuria, and renal K(+) excretion during mineralocorticoid excess.
Blunted Hypertensive Effect of Combined Fructose and High-salt Diet in Gene-targeted Mice Lacking Functional Serum- and Glucocorticoid-inducible Kinase SGK1
American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology. Apr, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16284089
Serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase (SGK1) is transcriptionally upregulated by mineralocorticoids and activated by insulin. The kinase stimulates the renal epithelial Na(+) channel and may thus participate in blood pressure regulation. Hyperinsulinemia is triggered by dietary fructose, which sensitizes blood pressure for salt intake. The role of SGK1 in hypertensive effects of combined fructose and high-salt intake was thus explored in SGK1 knockout mice (sgk1(-/-)) and their wild-type littermates (sgk1(+/+)). Renal SGK1 transcript levels of sgk1(+/+) mice were significantly elevated after fructose diet. Under control diet, fluid intake, urinary flow rate, urinary Na(+), K(+), and Cl(-) excretion, and blood pressure were similar in sgk1(-/-) and sgk1(+/+) mice. Addition of 10% fructose to drinking water increased fluid intake and urinary flow rate in both genotypes, and did not significantly alter urinary Na(+), K(+), and Cl(-) output in either genotype. Additional high NaCl diet (4% NaCl) did not significantly alter fluid intake and urine volume but markedly increased urinary output of Na(+) and Cl(-), approaching values significantly (P < 0.05) larger in sgk1(-/-) than in sgk1(+/+) mice (Na(+): 2,572 +/- 462 vs. 1,428 +/- 236; Cl(-): 2,364 +/- 388 vs. 1,379 +/- 225 micromol/24 h). Blood pressure was similar in sgk1(+/+) and sgk1(-/-) mice at control diet or fructose alone but increased only in sgk1(+/+) mice (115 +/- 1 vs. 103 +/- 0.7 mmHg, P < 0.05) after combined fructose and high-salt intake. Acute intravenous insulin infusion (during glucose clamp) caused antinatriuresis in sgk1(+/+) mice, an effect significantly blunted in sgk1(-/-) mice. The observations reveal a pivotal role of SGK1 in insulin-mediated sodium retention and the salt-sensitizing hypertensive effect of high fructose intake.
American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology. Jun, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16410368
In vitro experiments have revealed the ability of serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase 1 (SGK1) to stimulate intestinal Na(+)-coupled glucose cotransporter 1 (SGLT1) and intestinal Na(+)/H(+) exchanger 3 (NHE3). The present study explored the contribution of SGK1 to the regulation of intestinal transport in vivo. SGK1 transcript levels were determined by real-time PCR and glucose-induced currents (I(g)) reflecting SGLT1 activity by Ussing chamber experiments. BCECF fluorescence was utilized for the determination of Na(+)-dependent pH recovery from an ammonium pulse (DeltapH(NHE)) reflecting NHE activity. As a result, intestinal SGK1 transcript levels were significantly enhanced by a 4-day treatment with 10 microg.mg body wt(-1).day(-1) dexamethasone (Dex). I(g) was, under control conditions, virtually identical in sgk1 knockout mice (sgk1(-/-)) and their wild type littermates (sgk1(+/+)). A 4-day treatment with Dex, however, increased I(g) approximately threefold in sgk1(+/+) mice but not in sgk1(-/-) mice. DeltapH(NHE) was similar in sgk1(-/-) and sgk1(+/+) mice before treatment. Dex increased DeltapH(NHE) approximately threefold in sgk1(+/+) mice and approximately twofold in sgk1(-/-)mice, an effect significantly blunted in the presence of the specific NHE3 blocker S-3226 (10 microM). According to Western blot analysis, Dex significantly enhanced SGLT1 and NHE3 protein abundance in brush-border membranes of sgk1(+/+) mice but not of sgk1(-/-)mice. In conclusion, basic functions of SGLT1 and NHE3 in the intestine do not require stimulation by SGK1. However, the effects of glucocorticoids on SGLT1 are fully, and on NHE3 partially, dependent on SGK1.
American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology. Apr, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16537821
Serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase (SGK) 1 and SGK3 share the ability to upregulate several ion channels, including the epithelial Na(+) channel. Whereas SGK1 is under genomic control of mineralocorticoids and glucocorticoids, SGK3 is constitutively expressed. The SKG1-knockout (sgk1(-/-)) mouse is seemingly normal when it is fed a standard diet, but its ability to retain NaCl is impaired when it is fed a salt-deficient diet. In the SGK3-knockout (sgk3(-/-)) mouse fed standard and salt-deficient diets, hair growth is strikingly delayed but NaCl excretion is normal. Thus the possibility was considered that SGK1 and SGK3 could mutually replace each other, thus preventing severe NaCl loss in sgk1(-/-) and sgk3(-/-) mice. We crossed SGK1- and SGK3-knockout mice and compared renal electrolyte excretion of the double mutants (sgk1(-/-)/sgk3(-/-)) with that of their wild-type littermates (sgk1(+/+)/sgk3(+/+)). Similar to sgk3(-/-) mice, the sgk1(-/-)/sgk3(-/-) mice display delayed hair growth. Blood pressure was slightly, but significantly (P < 0.03), lower in sgk1(-/-)/sgk3(-/-) (102 +/- 4 mmHg) than in sgk1(+/+)/sgk3(+/+) (114 +/- 3 mmHg) mice, a difference that was maintained in mice fed low- and high-salt diets. Plasma aldosterone concentrations were significantly (P < 0.01) higher in sgk1(-/-)/sgk3(-/-) than in sgk1(+/+)sgk3(+/+) mice fed control (511 +/- 143 vs. 143 +/- 32 pg/ml) and low-salt (1,325 +/- 199 vs. 362 +/- 145 pg/ml) diets. During salt depletion, absolute and fractional excretions of Na(+) were significantly (P < 0.01) higher in sgk1(-/-)/sgk3(-/-) (1.2 +/- 0.2 micromol/24 h g body wt, 0.12 +/- 0.03%) than in sgk1(+/+)/sgk3(+/+) (0.4 +/- 0.1 micromol/24 h g body wt, 0.04 +/- 0.01%) mice. The sgk1(-/-)/sgk3(-/-) mice share the delayed hair growth with sgk3(-/-) mice and the modestly impaired renal salt retention with sgk1(-/-) mice. Additional lack of the isoform kinase does not substantially compound the phenotype for either property.
Journal of Molecular Medicine (Berlin, Germany). May, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16604333
The mineralocorticoids aldosterone and deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA) stimulate renal tubular salt reabsorption, increase salt appetite, induce extracellular volume expansion, and elevate blood pressure. Cardiac effects of mineralocorticoids include stimulation of matrix protein deposition leading to cardiac fibrosis, which is at least partially due to the direct action of the hormones on cardiac cells. The signaling mechanisms mediating mineralocorticoid-induced cardiac fibrosis have so far remained elusive. Mineralocorticoids have been shown to upregulate the serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase 1 (SGK1), which participates in the effects of mineralocorticoids on renal tubular Na+ reabsorption and salt appetite. To explore the involvement of SGK1 in the pathogenesis of mineralocorticoid-induced cardiac fibrosis, SGK1 knockout mice (sgk1-/-) and wild-type littermates (sgk1+/+) were implanted a 21-day-release 50-mg DOCA pellet and supplied with 1% NaCl in drinking water for 18 days. This DOCA/high-salt treatment increased blood pressure in both genotypes but led to significant cardiac fibrosis only in sgk1+/+ but not in sgk1-/- mice. According to real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting, DOCA/high-salt treatment enhanced transcript levels and protein expression of cardiac connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) only in sgk1+/+ but not in sgk1-/- mice. Furthermore, DOCA (10 microM) upregulated CTGF expression and enhanced CTGF promoter activity in lung fibroblasts isolated from sgk1+/+ but not from sgk1-/- mice, an effect involving spironolactone-sensitive mineralocorticoid receptors and activation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NFkappaB). Our results suggest that SGK1 plays a decisive role in mineralocorticoid-induced CTGF expression and cardiac fibrosis.
Pflügers Archiv : European Journal of Physiology. Jul, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16685564
Coexpression studies in Xenopus oocytes revealed the ability of the serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase 1 (SGK1) to stimulate the renal epithelial Ca(2+) channel TRPV5. SGK1 increases the abundance of the channel protein in the plasma membrane, an effect requiring the participation of the Na(+)/H(+) exchanger regulating factor 2 (NHERF2). The present study was performed to explore the role of SGK1 in the regulation of renal Ca(2+) handling in vivo. To this end, TRPV5, calbindin D-28K abundance, and renal Ca(2+) excretion were analyzed in gene-targeted mice lacking functional SGK1 (sgk1( -/- )) and their age- and sex-matched littermates (sgk1( +/+ )). Immunohistochemistry revealed lower abundance of TRPV5 and calbindin D-28K protein in sgk1( -/- ) mice than in sgk1( +/+ ) mice, both fed with control diet. Feeding the mice a Ca(2+)-deficient diet marked ly increased TRPV5 protein abundance in both genotypes. Renal Ca(2+) excretion under control diet was significantly lower in sgk1 ( -/- ) than in sgk1( +/+ ) mice. The Ca(2+)-deficient diet decreased renal excretion of Ca(2+) to the same levels in both phenotypes. Furosemide increased fractional Ca(2+) excretion and dissipated the difference between phenotypes. We conclude that lack of SGK1 may lead to decrease in TRPV5 abundance in connecting tubules but does not abrogate TRPV5 regulation. The decrease in abundance of TRPV5 in connecting tubules of sgk1( -/- ) mice is presumably compensated for by enhanced Ca(2+) reabsorption in upstream nephron segments such as the loop of Henle, which may indirectly result from impaired SGK1-dependent Na(+) reabsorption in the aldosterone-sensitive distal part of the nephron, salt loss, and enhanced Na(+) (and Ca(2+)) reabsorption in those upstream nephron segments.
Diabetes. Jul, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16804076
Excess salt intake decreases peripheral glucose uptake, thus impairing glucose tolerance. Stimulation of cellular glucose uptake involves phosphatidylinositide-3-kinase (PI-3K)-dependent activation of protein kinase B/Akt. A further kinase downstream of PI-3K is serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase (SGK)1, which is upregulated by mineralocorticoids and, thus, downregulated by salt intake. To explore the role of SGK1 in salt-dependent glucose uptake, SGK1 knockout mice (sgk1(-/-)) and their wild-type littermates (sgk1(+/+)) were allowed free access to either tap water (control) or 1% saline (high salt). According to Western blotting, high salt decreased and deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA; 35 mg/kg body wt) increased SGK1 protein abundance in skeletal muscle and fat tissue of sgk1(+/+) mice. Intraperitoneal injection of glucose (3 g/kg body wt) into sgk1(+/+) mice transiently increased plasma glucose concentration approaching significantly higher values ([glucose]p,max) in high salt (281 +/- 39 mg/dl) than in control (164 +/- 23 mg/dl) animals. DOCA did not significantly modify [glucose]p,max in control sgk1(+/+) mice but significantly decreased [glucose]p,max in high-salt sgk1(+/+) mice, an effect reversed by spironolactone (50 mg/kg body wt). [Glucose]p,max was in sgk1(-/-) mice insensitive to high salt and significantly higher than in control sgk1(+/+) mice. Uptake of 2-deoxy-d-[1,2-(3)H]glucose into skeletal muscle and fat tissue was significantly smaller in sgk1(-/-) mice than in sgk1(+/+) mice and decreased by high salt in sgk1(+/+) mice. Transfection of HEK-293 cells with active (S422D)SGK1, but not inactive (K127N)SGK, stimulated phloretin-sensitive glucose uptake. In conclusion, high salt decreases SGK1-dependent cellular glucose uptake. SGK1 thus participates in the link between salt intake and glucose tolerance.
Blunted DOCA/high Salt Induced Albuminuria and Renal Tubulointerstitial Damage in Gene-targeted Mice Lacking SGK1
Journal of Molecular Medicine (Berlin, Germany). Sep, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16924469
Mineralocorticoids stimulate renal tubular Na(+) reabsorption, enhance salt appetite, increase blood pressure, and favor the development of renal fibrosis. The effects of mineralocorticoids on renal tubular Na(+) reabsorption and salt appetite involve the serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase 1 (SGK1). The kinase is highly expressed in fibrosing tissue. The present experiments thus explored the involvement of SGK1 in renal fibrosis. To this end, SGK1-knockout mice (sgk1 (-/-)) and their wild-type littermates (sgk1 (+/+)) were implanted with desoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-release pellets and offered 1% saline as drinking water for 12 weeks. The treatment led to significant increases in fluid and Na(+) intake and urinary output of fluid and Na(+) in sgk1 (+/+) mice, effects blunted in sgk1 (-/-) mice. Blood pressure increased within the first 7 weeks to a similar extent in both genotypes, but within the next 5 weeks, it increased further only in sgk1 (+/+) mice. Creatinine clearance did not change significantly but albuminuria increased dramatically in sgk1 (+/+) mice, an effect significantly blunted in sgk1 (-/-) mice. Histology after 12 weeks treatment revealed marked glomerular sclerosis and tubulointerstitial damage with interstitial fibrosis and inflammation in kidneys from sgk1 (+/+) mice, but not from sgk1 (-/-) mice. In conclusion, a lack of SGK1 protects against DOCA/high-salt-induced albuminuria and renal fibrosis.
Resistance of Mice Lacking the Serum- and Glucocorticoid-inducible Kinase SGK1 Against Salt-sensitive Hypertension Induced by a High-fat Diet
American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology. Dec, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 17003223
Mineralocorticoids enhance expression and insulin stimulates activity of the serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase SGK1, which activates the renal epithelial Na+)channel (ENaC). Under a salt-deficient diet, SGK1 knockout mice (sgk1-/-) excrete significantly more NaCl than their wild-type littermates (sgk1+/+) and become hypotensive. The present experiments explored whether SGK1 participates in the hypertensive effects of a high-fat diet and high-salt intake. Renal SGK1 protein abundance of sgk1+/+ mice was significantly elevated after a high-fat diet. Under a control diet, fluid intake, blood pressure, urinary flow rate, and urinary Na+, K+, and Cl- excretion were similar in sgk1-/- and sgk1+/+ mice. Under a standard diet, high salt (1% NaCl in the drinking water for 25 days) increased fluid intake, urinary flow rate, and urinary Na+, K+, and Cl- excretion similarly in sgk1-/- and sgk1+/+ mice without significantly altering blood pressure. A high-fat diet alone (17 wk) did not significantly alter fluid intake, urinary flow rate, urinary Na+, K+, or Cl- excretion, or plasma aldosterone levels but increased plasma insulin, total cholesterol, triglyceride concentrations, and systolic blood pressure to the same extent in both genotypes. Additional salt intake (1% NaCl in the drinking water for 25 days) on top of a high-fat diet did not affect hyperinsulinemia or hyperlipidemia but increased fluid intake, urinary flow rate, and urinary NaCl excretion significantly more in sgk1-/- than in sgk1+/+ mice. Furthermore, in animals receiving a high-fat diet, additional salt intake increased blood pressure only in sgk1+/+ mice (to 132 +/- 3 mmHg) but not in sgk1-/- mice (120 +/- 4 mmHg). Thus lack of SGK1 protects against the hypertensive effects of a combined high-fat/high-salt diet.
From Synapse to Behavior: Rapid Modulation of Defined Neuronal Types with Engineered GABAA Receptors
Nature Neuroscience. Jul, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17572671
In mammals, identifying the contribution of specific neurons or networks to behavior is a key challenge. Here we describe an approach that facilitates this process by enabling the rapid modulation of synaptic inhibition in defined cell populations. Binding of zolpidem, a systemically active allosteric modulator that enhances the function of the GABAA receptor, requires a phenylalanine residue (Phe77) in the gamma2 subunit. Mice in which this residue is changed to isoleucine are insensitive to zolpidem. By Cre recombinase-induced swapping of the gamma2 subunit (that is, exchanging Ile77 for Phe77), zolpidem sensitivity can be restored to GABAA receptors in chosen cell types. We demonstrate the power of this method in the cerebellum, where zolpidem rapidly induces significant motor deficits when Purkinje cells are made uniquely sensitive to its action. This combined molecular and pharmacological technique has demonstrable advantages over targeted cell ablation and will be invaluable for investigating many neuronal circuits.
Role of the Serum and Glucocorticoid Inducible Kinase SGK1 in Glucocorticoid Stimulation of Gastric Acid Secretion
Pflügers Archiv : European Journal of Physiology. Dec, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17618452
Glucocorticoids stimulate gastric acid secretion, an effect favoring the development of peptic ulcers. Putative mechanisms involved include the serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase (SGK1), which stimulates a variety of epithelial channels and transporters. The present study explored the contribution of SGK1 to effects of glucocorticoids on gastric acid secretion. In isolated gastric glands from gene-targeted mice lacking functional SGK1 (sgk1 (-/-)) and their wild-type littermates (sgk1 (+/+)), H(+)-secretion (DeltapH/min) was determined utilizing 2',7'-bis(carboxyethyl)-5(6)-carboxyfluorescein (BCECF)-fluorescence, SGK1 transcript levels by in situ hybdridization, and expression of KCNQ1 channels by immunohistochemistry and real-time polymerase chain reaction. SGK1 transcript levels were enhanced by a 4-day treatment with 10 mug/g body weight (BW)/day dexamethasone (DEX). Before treatment, DeltapH/min was similar in sgk1 (-/-) and sgk1 (+/+)mice. DEX increased DeltapH/min approximately fourfold in sgk1 (+/+)mice and approximately twofold in sgk1 (-/-)mice, effects abolished in the presence of K(+)/H(+)ATPase-inhibitor omeprazole (50 microM). Increase in local K(+) concentrations to 35 mM (replacing Na(+)) enhanced DeltapH/min, which could not be further stimulated by DEX and was not significantly different between sgk1 (-/-) and sgk1 (+/+)mice. Carbachol (100 microM) and forskolin (5 microM) stimulated gastric acid secretion to a similar extent in sgk1 (-/-) and sgk1 (+/+)mice. In conclusion, SGK1 is not required for basal and cyclic AMP-stimulated gastric H(+) secretion but participates in the stimulation of gastric H(+) secretion by glucocorticoids. The effects of glucocorticoids and SGK1 are not additive to an increase in extracellular K(+) concentration and may thus involve stimulation of K(+) channels.
Hippocampal Theta Rhythm and Its Coupling with Gamma Oscillations Require Fast Inhibition Onto Parvalbumin-positive Interneurons
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Mar, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19204281
Hippocampal theta (5-10 Hz) and gamma (35-85 Hz) oscillations depend on an inhibitory network of GABAergic interneurons. However, the lack of methods for direct and cell-type-specific interference with inhibition has prevented better insights that help link synaptic and cellular properties with network function. Here, we generated genetically modified mice (PV-Deltagamma(2)) in which synaptic inhibition was ablated in parvalbumin-positive (PV+) interneurons. Hippocampal local field potential and unit recordings in the CA1 area of freely behaving mice revealed that theta rhythm was strongly reduced in these mice. The characteristic coupling of theta and gamma oscillations was strongly altered in PV-Deltagamma(2) mice more than could be accounted for by the reduction in theta rhythm only. Surprisingly, gamma oscillations were not altered. These data indicate that synaptic inhibition onto PV+ interneurons is indispensable for theta- and its coupling to gamma oscillations but not for rhythmic gamma-activity in the hippocampus. Similar alterations in rhythmic activity were obtained in a computational hippocampal network model mimicking the genetic modification, suggesting that intrahippocampal networks might contribute to these effects.
Nature Neuroscience. Aug, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19578381
Although feedforward inhibition onto Purkinje cells was first documented 40 years ago, we understand little of how inhibitory interneurons contribute to cerebellar function in behaving animals. Using a mouse line (PC-Deltagamma2) in which GABA(A) receptor-mediated synaptic inhibition is selectively removed from Purkinje cells, we examined how feedforward inhibition from molecular layer interneurons regulates adaptation of the vestibulo-ocular reflex. Although impairment of baseline motor performance was relatively mild, the ability to adapt the phase of the vestibulo-ocular reflex and to consolidate gain adaptations was strongly compromised. Purkinje cells showed abnormal patterns of simple spikes, both during and in the absence of evoked compensatory eye movements. On the basis of modeling our experimental data, we propose that feedforward inhibition, by controlling the fine-scale patterns of Purkinje cell activity, enables the induction of plasticity in neurons of the cerebellar and vestibular nuclei.
Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience. 2009 | Pubmed ID: 20076763
Although GABA(A) receptor-mediated inhibition of cerebellar Purkinje cells by molecular layer interneurons (MLIs) has been studied intensely at the cellular level, it has remained unclear how this inhibition regulates cerebellum-dependent behaviour. We have implemented two complementary approaches to investigate the function of the MLI-Purkinje cell synapse on the behavioural level. In the first approach we permanently disrupted inhibitory fast synaptic transmission at the synapse by genetically removing the postsynaptic GABA(A) receptors from Purkinje cells (PC-Deltagamma2 mice). We found that chronic disruption of the MLI-Purkinje cell synapse strongly impaired cerebellar learning of the vestibular occular reflex (VOR), presumably by disrupting the temporal patterns of Purkinje cell activity. However, in PC-Deltagamma2 mice the baseline VOR reflex was only mildly affected; indeed PC-Deltagamma2 mice show no ataxia or gait abnormalities, suggesting that MLI control of Purkinje cell activity is either not involved in ongoing motor tasks or that the system compensates for its loss. To investigate the latter possibility we developed an alternative genetic technique; we made the MLI-Purkinje cell synapse selectively sensitive to rapid manipulation with the GABA(A) receptor modulator zolpidem (PC-gamma2-swap mice). Minutes after intraperitoneal zolpidem injection, these PC-gamma2-swap mice developed severe motor abnormalities, revealing a substantial contribution of the MLI-Purkinje cell synapses to real time motor control. The cell-type selective permanent knockout of synaptic GABAergic input and the fast reversible modulation of GABAergic input at the same synapse illustrate how pursuing both strategies gives a fuller view.
Quantitative Organization of GABAergic Synapses in the Molecular Layer of the Mouse Cerebellar Cortex
PloS One. 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20711348
In the cerebellar cortex, interneurons of the molecular layer (stellate and basket cells) provide GABAergic input to Purkinje cells, as well as to each other and possibly to other interneurons. GABAergic inhibition in the molecular layer has mainly been investigated at the interneuron to Purkinje cell synapse. In this study, we used complementary subtractive strategies to quantitatively assess the ratio of GABAergic synapses on Purkinje cell dendrites versus those on interneurons. We generated a mouse model in which the GABAA receptor alpha1 subunit (GABAARalpha1) was selectively removed from Purkinje cells using the Cre/loxP system. Deletion of the alpha1 subunit resulted in a complete loss of GABAAR aggregates from Purkinje cells, allowing us to determine the density of GABAAR clusters in interneurons. In a complementary approach, we determined the density of GABA synapses impinging on Purkinje cells using alpha-dystroglycan as a specific marker of inhibitory postsynaptic sites. Combining these inverse approaches, we found that synapses received by interneurons represent approximately 40% of all GABAergic synapses in the molecular layer. Notably, this proportion was stable during postnatal development, indicating synchronized synaptogenesis. Based on the pure quantity of GABAergic synapses onto interneurons, we propose that mutual inhibition must play an important, yet largely neglected, computational role in the cerebellar cortex.
Frontiers in Neuroscience. 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21270945
Ethyl alcohol (ethanol) has many molecular targets in the nervous system, its potency at these sites being low compared to those of sedative drugs. This has made it difficult to discover ethanol's binding site(s). There are two putative binding sites at γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) type A receptor subtypes for the proposed ethanol antagonist Ro 15-4513, the established γ2 subunit-dependent benzodiazepine site and the recently reported δ subunit-dependent Ro 15-4513/ethanol binding site. Here, we aimed at clarifying the in vivo role of Ro 15-4513 at these two sites. We found that the antagonism of ethanol actions by Ro 15-4513 in wildtype mice was dependent on the test: an open field test showed that light sedation induced by 1.5-1.8 g/kg ethanol was sensitive to Ro 15-4513, whereas several tests for ethanol-induced anxiolytic effects showed that the ethanol-induced effects were insensitive to Ro 15-4513. Antagonism of ethanol-induced sedation by Ro 15-4513 was unaffected in GABA(A) receptor δ subunit knockout mice. By contrast, when testing the GABA(A) receptor γ2 subunit F77I knock-in mouse line (γ2I77 mice) with its strongly reduced affinity of the benzodiazepine sites for Ro 15-4513, we found that the ethanol-induced sedation was no longer antagonized by Ro 15-4513. Indeed, γ2I77 mice had only a small proportion of high-affinity binding of [(3)H]Ro 15-4513 left as compared to wildtype mice, especially in the caudate-putamen and septal areas, but these residual sites are apparently not involved in ethanol antagonism. In conclusion, we found that Ro 15-4513 abolished the sedative effect of ethanol by an action on γ2 subunit-dependent benzodiazepine sites.
Nature Neuroscience. Mar, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21278730
Parvalbumin-positive GABAergic interneurons in cortical circuits are hypothesized to control cognitive function. To test this idea directly, we functionally removed parvalbumin-positive interneurons selectively from hippocampal CA1 in mice. We found that parvalbumin-positive interneurons are dispensable for spatial reference, but are essential for spatial working memory.
Actions of Two GABAA Receptor Benzodiazepine-site Ligands That Are Mediated Via Non-γ2-dependent Modulation
European Journal of Pharmacology. Sep, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21616065
The potent sedative-hypnotic zolpidem and the convulsant methyl-6,7-dimethoxy-4-ethyl-β-carboline-3-carboxylate (DMCM) act primarily by binding to the benzodiazepine site of the main inhibitory neurotransmitter receptor, the pentameric γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptor (GABA(A)). This binding depends critically on the wild-type F77 residue of the GABA(A) receptor γ2 subunit. Mice with γ2 subunit F77I point mutation (γ2I77 mouse line) lose the high-affinity nanomolar binding of these ligands as well as their most robust behavioral actions at low doses. Interestingly, the γ2I77 mice offer a tool to study the actions of these substances mediated via other possible binding sites of the GABA(A) receptor. In ligand autoradiographic experiments, we discovered in γ2I77 mouse brain sections a significant amount of residual non-γ2 subunit-dependent benzodiazepine site binding enriched to the striatum and septum. Zolpidem only weakly affected this residual binding at micromolar concentrations, and only a high zolpidem dose (≥ 40 mg/kg) caused sedation and deficits in motor coordination in γ2I77 mice. DMCM had an agonistic action through a secondary, low-affinity non-benzodiazepine binding site of the GABA(A) receptor in the forebrain of γ2I77 mice, and this drug also fully displaced the residual benzodiazepine-site labeling. In behavioral tests, a high dose (20mg/kg) of DMCM was sedative and modulated fear learning. DMCM, but not zolpidem, acted as an agonist in recombinant GABA(A) α1/6β3 receptors studied using ligand binding and electrophysiological assays. Our results highlight the less well-known actions of high doses of DMCM and zolpidem that are not mediated via the γ2 subunit-containing benzodiazepine site of the GABA(A) receptor.
Removal of GABA(A) Receptor γ2 Subunits from Parvalbumin Neurons Causes Wide-ranging Behavioral Alterations
PloS One. 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21912668
We investigated the behavioral significance of fast synaptic inhibition by αβγ2-type GABA(A) receptors on parvalbumin (Pv) cells. The GABA(A) receptor γ2 subunit gene was selectively inactivated in Pv-positive neurons by Cre/loxP recombination. The resulting Pv-Δγ2 mice were relatively healthy in the first postnatal weeks; but then as Cre started to be expressed, the mice progressively developed wide-ranging phenotypic alterations including low body weight, motor deficits and tremor, decreased anxiety levels, decreased pain sensitivity and deficient prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle reflex and impaired spatial learning. Nevertheless, the deletion was not lethal, and mice did not show increased mortality even after one year. Autoradiography with t-butylbicyclophosphoro[(35)S]thionate suggested an increased amount of GABA(A) receptors with only α and β subunits in central nervous system regions that contained high levels of parvalbumin neurons. Using BAC-transgenesis, we reduced some of the Pv-Δγ2 phenotype by selectively re-expressing the wild-type γ2 subunit back into some Pv cells (reticular thalamic neurons and cerebellar Pv-positive neurons). This produced less severe impairments of motor skills and spatial learning compared with Pv-Δγ2 mice, but all other deficits remained. Our results reveal the widespread significance of fast GABAergic inhibition onto Pv-positive neurons for diverse behavioral modalities, such as motor coordination, sensorimotor integration, emotional behavior and nociception.
Current Opinion in Neurobiology. Nov, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 22119143
Toward the functional dissection of neuronal circuits, a number of new genetic tools have been developed that enable rapid and reversible manipulation of genetically defined neuronal subtypes in intact mammalian brain circuits. Alongside the breakthrough technology of optogenetics, receptor-ligand pairs provide complementary approaches to modulate neuronal activity using chemical genetics.