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In JoVE (1)
- Recording Human Electrocorticographic (ECoG) Signals for Neuroscientific Research and Real-time Functional Cortical Mapping
Other Publications (9)
Articles by Peter Brunner in JoVE
Recording Human Electrocorticographic (ECoG) Signals for Neuroscientific Research and Real-time Functional Cortical Mapping
N. Jeremy Hill1, Disha Gupta1,2, Peter Brunner1,2, Aysegul Gunduz1,2, Matthew A. Adamo3, Anthony Ritaccio2, Gerwin Schalk1,2,4,5,6,7
1Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, 2Department of Neurology, Albany Medical College, 3Department of Neurosurgery, Albany Medical College, 4Department of Neurosurgery, Washington University, 5Department of Biomed. Eng., Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 6Department of Biomed. Sci., State University of New York at Albany, 7Department of Elec. and Comp. Eng., University of Texas at El Paso
We present a method for collecting electrocorticographic signals for research purposes from humans who are undergoing invasive epilepsy monitoring. We show how to use the BCI2000 software platform for data collection, signal processing and stimulus presentation. Specifically, we demonstrate SIGFRIED, a BCI2000-based tool for real-time functional brain mapping.
Other articles by Peter Brunner on PubMed
NeuroImage. Nov, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18718544
The complexity and inter-individual variation of brain signals impedes real-time detection of events in raw signals. To convert these complex signals into results that can be readily understood, current approaches usually apply statistical methods to data from known conditions after all data have been collected. The capability to provide meaningful visualization of complex brain signals without the requirement to initially collect data from all conditions would provide a new tool, essentially a new imaging technique, that would open up new avenues for the study of brain function. Here we show that a new analysis approach, called SIGFRIED, can overcome this serious limitation of current methods. SIGFRIED can visualize brain signal changes without requiring prior data collection from all conditions. This capacity is particularly well suited to applications in which comprehensive prior data collection is impossible or impractical, such as intraoperative localization of cortical function or detection of epileptic seizures.
A Practical Procedure for Real-time Functional Mapping of Eloquent Cortex Using Electrocorticographic Signals in Humans
Epilepsy & Behavior : E&B. Jul, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19366638
Functional mapping of eloquent cortex is often necessary prior to invasive brain surgery, but current techniques that derive this mapping have important limitations. In this article, we demonstrate the first comprehensive evaluation of a rapid, robust, and practical mapping system that uses passive recordings of electrocorticographic signals. This mapping procedure is based on the BCI2000 and SIGFRIED technologies that we have been developing over the past several years. In our study, we evaluated 10 patients with epilepsy from four different institutions and compared the results of our procedure with the results derived using electrical cortical stimulation (ECS) mapping. The results show that our procedure derives a functional motor cortical map in only a few minutes. They also show a substantial concurrence with the results derived using ECS mapping. Specifically, compared with ECS maps, a next-neighbor evaluation showed no false negatives, and only 0.46 and 1.10% false positives for hand and tongue maps, respectively. In summary, we demonstrate the first comprehensive evaluation of a practical and robust mapping procedure that could become a new tool for planning of invasive brain surgeries.
Epilepsy & Behavior : E&B. May, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20478745
Precise localization of eloquent cortex is a clinical necessity prior to surgical resections adjacent to speech or motor cortex. In the intraoperative setting, this traditionally requires inducing temporary lesions by direct electrocortical stimulation (DECS). In an attempt to increase efficiency and potentially reduce the amount of necessary stimulation, we used a passive mapping procedure in the setting of an awake craniotomy for tumor in two patients resection. We recorded electrocorticographic (ECoG) signals from exposed cortex while patients performed simple cue-directed motor and speech tasks. SIGFRIED, a procedure for real-time event detection, was used to identify areas of cortical activation by detecting task-related modulations in the ECoG high gamma band. SIGFRIED's real-time output quickly localized motor and speech areas of cortex similar to those identified by DECS. In conclusion, real-time passive identification of cortical function using SIGFRIED may serve as a useful adjunct to cortical stimulation mapping in the intraoperative setting.
Epilepsy & Behavior : E&B. Nov, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20889384
In October 2009, a group of neurologists, neurosurgeons, computational neuroscientists, and engineers congregated to present novel developments transforming human electrocorticography (ECoG) beyond its established relevance in clinical epileptology. The contents of the proceedings advanced the role of ECoG in seizure detection and prediction, neurobehavioral research, functional mapping, and brain-computer interface technology. The meeting established the foundation for future work on the methodology and application of surface brain recordings.
Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Electrocorticographic High Gamma Activity During Overt and Covert Word Repetition
NeuroImage. Feb, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21029784
Language is one of the defining abilities of humans. Many studies have characterized the neural correlates of different aspects of language processing. However, the imaging techniques typically used in these studies were limited in either their temporal or spatial resolution. Electrocorticographic (ECoG) recordings from the surface of the brain combine high spatial with high temporal resolution and thus could be a valuable tool for the study of neural correlates of language function. In this study, we defined the spatiotemporal dynamics of ECoG activity during a word repetition task in nine human subjects. ECoG was recorded while each subject overtly or covertly repeated words that were presented either visually or auditorily. ECoG amplitudes in the high gamma (HG) band confidently tracked neural changes associated with stimulus presentation and with the subject's verbal response. Overt word production was primarily associated with HG changes in the superior and middle parts of temporal lobe, Wernicke's area, the supramarginal gyrus, Broca's area, premotor cortex (PMC), primary motor cortex. Covert word production was primarily associated with HG changes in superior temporal lobe and the supramarginal gyrus. Acoustic processing from both auditory stimuli as well as the subject's own voice resulted in HG power changes in superior temporal lobe and Wernicke's area. In summary, this study represents a comprehensive characterization of overt and covert speech using electrophysiological imaging with high spatial and temporal resolution. It thereby complements the findings of previous neuroimaging studies of language and thus further adds to current understanding of word processing in humans.
Clinical Neurophysiology : Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Jun, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21183404
Frontiers in Neuroscience. 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21369351
A brain-computer interface (BCI) can provide a non-muscular communication channel to severely disabled people. One particular realization of a BCI is the P300 matrix speller that was originally described by Farwell and Donchin (1988). This speller uses event-related potentials (ERPs) that include the P300 ERP. All previous online studies of the P300 matrix speller used scalp-recorded electroencephalography (EEG) and were limited in their communication performance to only a few characters per minute. In our study, we investigated the feasibility of using electrocorticographic (ECoG) signals for online operation of the matrix speller, and determined associated spelling rates. We used the matrix speller that is implemented in the BCI2000 system. This speller used ECoG signals that were recorded from frontal, parietal, and occipital areas in one subject. This subject spelled a total of 444 characters in online experiments. The results showed that the subject sustained a rate of 17 characters/min (i.e., 69 bits/min), and achieved a peak rate of 22 characters/min (i.e., 113 bits/min). Detailed analysis of the results suggests that ERPs over visual areas (i.e., visual evoked potentials) contribute significantly to the performance of the matrix speller BCI system. Our results also point to potential reasons for the apparent advantages in spelling performance of ECoG compared to EEG. Thus, with additional verification in more subjects, these results may further extend the communication options for people with serious neuromuscular disabilities.
Epilepsy & Behavior : E&B. Dec, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 22036287
The Second International Workshop on Advances in Electrocorticography (ECoG) was convened in San Diego, CA, USA, on November 11-12, 2010. Between this meeting and the inaugural 2009 event, a much clearer picture has been emerging of cortical ECoG physiology and its relationship to local field potentials and single-cell recordings. Innovations in material engineering are advancing the goal of a stable long-term recording interface. Continued evolution of ECoG-driven brain-computer interface technology is determining innovation in neuroprosthetics. Improvements in instrumentation and statistical methodologies continue to elucidate ECoG correlates of normal human function as well as the ictal state. This proceedings document summarizes the current status of this rapidly evolving field.
Frontiers in Human Neuroscience. 2011 | Pubmed ID: 22046153
Attention is a cognitive selection mechanism that allocates the limited processing resources of the brain to the sensory streams most relevant to our immediate goals, thereby enhancing responsiveness and behavioral performance. The underlying neural mechanisms of orienting attention are distributed across a widespread cortical network. While aspects of this network have been extensively studied, details about the electrophysiological dynamics of this network are scarce. In this study, we investigated attentional networks using electrocorticographic (ECoG) recordings from the surface of the brain, which combine broad spatial coverage with high temporal resolution, in five human subjects. ECoG was recorded when subjects covertly attended to a spatial location and responded to contrast changes in the presence of distractors in a modified Posner cueing task. ECoG amplitudes in the alpha, beta, and gamma bands identified neural changes associated with covert attention and motor preparation/execution in the different stages of the task. The results show that attentional engagement was primarily associated with ECoG activity in the visual, prefrontal, premotor, and parietal cortices. Motor preparation/execution was associated with ECoG activity in premotor/sensorimotor cortices. In summary, our results illustrate rich and distributed cortical dynamics that are associated with orienting attention and the subsequent motor preparation and execution. These findings are largely consistent with and expand on primate studies using intracortical recordings and human functional neuroimaging studies.