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In JoVE (1)
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Articles by Philipp Rosenbaum in JoVE
Estudando a base neural do Comportamento Locomotor Adaptive em Insetos
Matthias Gruhn, Philipp Rosenbaum, Hans-Peter Bollhagen, Ansgar Bueschges
Zoological Institute, University of Cologne
Nós descrevemos um método de registro da atividade motora, programado para o sinal de contato tarsal eletricamente gravado em um inseto amarrado, andando sobre uma superfície escorregadia. Isto é usado para estudar as bases neurais do comportamento adaptativo sob a influência reduzida de interação mecânica entre as pernas através do substrato.
Other articles by Philipp Rosenbaum on PubMed
Neural Control of Unloaded Leg Posture and of Leg Swing in Stick Insect, Cockroach, and Mouse Differs from That in Larger Animals
The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience. Apr, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19339606
Stick insect (Carausius morosus) leg muscles contract and relax slowly. Control of stick insect leg posture and movement could therefore differ from that in animals with faster muscles. Consistent with this possibility, stick insect legs maintained constant posture without leg motor nerve activity when the animals were rotated in air. That unloaded leg posture was an intrinsic property of the legs was confirmed by showing that isolated legs had constant, gravity-independent postures. Muscle ablation experiments, experiments showing that leg muscle passive forces were large compared with gravitational forces, and experiments showing that, at the rest postures, agonist and antagonist muscles generated equal forces indicated that these postures depended in part on leg muscles. Leg muscle recordings showed that stick insect swing motor neurons fired throughout the entirety of swing. To test whether these results were specific to stick insect, we repeated some of these experiments in cockroach (Periplaneta americana) and mouse. Isolated cockroach legs also had gravity-independent rest positions and mouse swing motor neurons also fired throughout the entirety of swing. These data differ from those in human and horse but not cat. These size-dependent variations in whether legs have constant, gravity-independent postures, in whether swing motor neurons fire throughout the entirety of swing, and calculations of how quickly passive muscle force would slow limb movement as limb size varies suggest that these differences may be caused by scaling. Limb size may thus be as great a determinant as phylogenetic position of unloaded limb motor control strategy.
Activity Patterns and Timing of Muscle Activity in the Forward Walking and Backward Walking Stick Insect Carausius Morosus
Journal of Neurophysiology. Sep, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20668273
Understanding how animals control locomotion in different behaviors requires understanding both the kinematics of leg movements and the neural activity underlying these movements. Stick insect leg kinematics differ in forward and backward walking. Describing leg muscle activity in these behaviors is a first step toward understanding the neuronal basis for these differences. We report here the phasing of EMG activities and latencies of first spikes relative to precise electrical measurements of middle leg tarsus touchdown and liftoff of three pairs (protractor/retractor coxae, levator/depressor trochanteris, extensor/flexor tibiae) of stick insect middle leg antagonistic muscles that play central roles in generating leg movements during forward and backward straight walking. Forward walking stance phase muscle (depressor, flexor, and retractor) activities were tightly coupled to touchdown, beginning on average 93 ms prior to and 9 and 35 ms after touchdown, respectively. Forward walking swing phase muscle (levator, extensor, and protractor) activities were less tightly coupled to liftoff, beginning on average 100, 67, and 37 ms before liftoff, respectively. In backward walking the protractor/retractor muscles reversed their phasing compared with forward walking, with the retractor being active during swing and the protractor during stance. Comparison of intact animal and reduced two- and one-middle-leg preparations during forward straight walking showed only small alterations in overall EMG activity but changes in first spike latencies in most muscles. Changing body height, most likely due to changes in leg joint loading, altered the intensity, but not the timing, of depressor muscle activity.