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In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (66)
- Otology & Neurotology : Official Publication of the American Otological Society, American Neurotology Society [and] European Academy of Otology and Neurotology
- Critical Care Medicine
- Experimental Lung Research
- Pediatric Research
- The Journal of Pediatrics
- Annals of Surgery
- Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism : Official Journal of the International Society of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
- Shock (Augusta, Ga.)
- The Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
- Acta Paediatrica (Oslo, Norway : 1992)
- Pediatric Research
- Shock (Augusta, Ga.)
- European Journal of Pharmacology
- European Journal of Pharmacology
- Shock (Augusta, Ga.)
- Shock (Augusta, Ga.)
- Shock (Augusta, Ga.)
- Shock (Augusta, Ga.)
- Shock (Augusta, Ga.)
- Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
- Proceedings of the Western Pharmacology Society
- Proceedings of the Western Pharmacology Society
- Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
- Intensive Care Medicine
- European Journal of Pharmacology
- Intensive Care Medicine
- Shock (Augusta, Ga.)
- Intensive Care Medicine
- Shock (Augusta, Ga.)
- Pediatric Research
- Pediatric Pulmonology
- Basic Research in Cardiology
- Intensive Care Medicine
- Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine : CCLM / FESCC
- American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
- The Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
- Brain Research
- The Journal of Pediatrics
- Shock (Augusta, Ga.)
- Heart International
- PloS One
- The Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology = Journal Canadien Des Maladies Infectieuses Et De La Microbiologie Médicale / AMMI Canada
- Shock (Augusta, Ga.)
- Intensive Care Medicine
- Shock (Augusta, Ga.)
- European Journal of Pharmacology
- Journal of Neurotrauma
- Shock (Augusta, Ga.)
- European Journal of Pharmacology
- Journal of Ethnopharmacology
- The Journal of Pediatrics
- Intensive Care Medicine
- Intensive Care Medicine
- Clinical Transplantation
- Shock (Augusta, Ga.)
- Pediatric Research
Articles by Po-Yin Cheung in JoVE
A Swine Model of Neonatal Asphyxia
Po-Yin Cheung1, Richdeep S. Gill2, David L. Bigam2
1Departments of Pediatrics, Pharmacology and Surgery, University of Alberta, 2Department of Surgery, University of Alberta
Large animal models have good translational values in the examination of physiology and pharmacology of neonatal asphyxia. Using newborn piglets, we develop an experimental protocol to simulate neonatal asphyxia which has advantages of studying the systemic and regional hemodynamics, oxygen transport with biochemical and pathologic pathways and correlations.
Other articles by Po-Yin Cheung on PubMed
Otology & Neurotology : Official Publication of the American Otological Society, American Neurotology Society [and] European Academy of Otology and Neurotology. May, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 11981395
To determine the prevalence of sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) at the age of 4 years among survivors of severe neonatal respiratory failure with and without congenital diaphragmatic hernia and to document the occurrence of late-onset or progressive SNHL among the survivors.
Use of Plasma Lactate to Predict Early Mortality and Adverse Outcome After Neonatal Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation: a Prospective Cohort in Early Childhood
Critical Care Medicine. Sep, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 12352053
To examine the use of plasma lactate levels to predict mortality and neurodevelopmental outcome of neonates treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.
Expression and Activity of Matrix Metallo Proteinases 2 and 9 and Their Inhibitors in Rat Lungs During the Perinatal Period and in Diaphragmatic Hernia
Experimental Lung Research. Jun, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12746050
During lung development, the extracellular matrix undergoes dynamic remodeling. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), and tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMPs), are important enzymes that participate in regulating tissue remodeling. There is an abnormal balance of the synthesis and degradation of collagen and elastin in perinatal lung associated with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). This study was designed to (1) determine the expression and gelatinolytic activity patterns of MMPs 2 and 9 and TIMPs 1 and 2 in rat lungs during the perinatal period, and (2) to test the hypothesis that they are abnormal in nitrofen-induced CDH. Measurements were made using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Western blotting, and zymography. The mRNA expression and activity of MMP 2 did not change significantly from embryonic day 16 to postnatal day 14. The most striking feature found was the rapid increase in the expression of MMP 9 soon after birth. Measurements were repeated on lung tissue isolated from embryonic rats with nitrofen-induced CDH. The expression and activity of MMPs and TIMPs were similar to control values and thus we conclude that these proteins appear not to be responsible for the altered extracellular matrix and morphological abnormalities noted in CDH lungs at birth.
Pediatric Research. May, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 14973177
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) and their tissue inhibitors (TIMP) are involved in a variety of physiologic growth and development and pathophysiologic inflammatory conditions. We hypothesized that 1) MMP-2 and -9 plasma activities and TIMP-1 and -2 plasma concentrations in preterm and term neonates were dependent on the gestational and postnatal age; and 2) the respective MMP and their inhibitors were deranged in the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) in preterm neonates. From 1998 to 1999, blood samples were collected from preterm neonates (25-36 wk gestation) with or without BPD and/or IVH as well as from healthy term (37-40 wk gestation) neonates during the first 28 d of life. MMP-2 and MMP-9 plasma activities were measured by zymography; TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 plasma concentrations were determined by ELISA. In neonates without BPD or IVH (n = 50), MMP-2 and MMP-9 plasma activities both appeared to be gestational age dependent, with the highest levels observed in neonates of 33-36 wk gestation. TIMP-1 plasma concentration was highest in term neonates but no gestational difference was found in TIMP-2. Only MMP-9 showed a 50% decrease after d 1 in the first postnatal month. Twelve preterm infants with BPD and/or IVH had significantly lower MMP-2 but higher MMP-9 activity and higher TIMP-1 concentration than those of corresponding neonates without BPD or IVH. These findings show the gestational age-dependent expression of plasma MMP activities and their inhibitors. MMP and TIMP may be involved in the feto-neonatal development and may contribute to the pathogenesis of BPD and/or IVH in critically ill preterm neonates.
The Journal of Pediatrics. Apr, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15069410
Lancet. Jun, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15194270
Resuscitation with 100% Oxygen Causes Intestinal Glutathione Oxidation and Reoxygenation Injury in Asphyxiated Newborn Piglets
Annals of Surgery. Aug, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15273563
To compare mesenteric blood flow, oxidative stress, and mucosal injury in piglet small intestine during hypoxemia and reoxygenation with 21%, 50%, or 100% oxygen.
Doxycycline Reduces Cleaved Caspase-3 and Microglial Activation in an Animal Model of Neonatal Hypoxia-ischemia
Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism : Official Journal of the International Society of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism. Mar, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15647741
Neonatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI) is a major contributor to many perinatal neurologic disorders and, thus, the search for therapies and effective treatments for the associated brain damage has become increasingly important. The tetracycline derivative, doxycycline (DOXY), has been reported to be neuroprotective in adult animal models of cerebral ischemia. To investigate the putative neuroprotective effects of DOXY in an animal model of neonatal HI, a time-course study was run such that pups received either DOXY (10 mg/kg) or VEH immediately before hypoxia, 1, 2, or 3 hours after HI (n=6). At 7 days after injury, the pups were euthanized, and the brains were removed and processed for immunohistochemical and Western blot analyses using antibodies against specific markers for neurons, apoptotic markers, microglia, oligodendrocytes, and astrocytes. Results showed that in vulnerable brain regions including the hippocampal formation, thalamus, striatum, cerebral cortex and white matter tracts, DOXY significantly decreased caspase-3 immunoreactivity (a marker of apoptosis), promoted neuronal survival, inhibited microglial activation and reduced reactive astrocytosis compared with VEH-treated HI pups. These effects were found to occur in a time-dependent manner. Taken together, these results strongly suggest that doxycycline has potential as a pharmacological treatment for mild HI in neonates.
Cardiac Function, Myocardial Glutathione, and Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 Levels in Hypoxic Newborn Pigs Reoxygenated by 21%, 50%, or 100% Oxygen
Shock (Augusta, Ga.). Apr, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15803064
After asphyxia, it is standard to resuscitate the newborn with 100% oxygen, which may create a hypoxia-reoxygenation process that may contribute to subsequent myocardial dysfunction. We examined the effects of graded reoxygenation on cardiac function, myocardial glutathione levels, and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 activity during recovery. Thirty-two piglets (1-3 days old, weighing 1.5-2.1 kg) were anesthetized and instrumented for continuous monitoring of cardiac index, and systemic and pulmonary arterial pressures. After 2 h of hypoxia, piglets were randomized to receive reoxygenation for 1 h with 21%, 50%, or 100% oxygen (n = 8 each), followed by 3 h at 21% oxygen. At 2 h of hypoxemia (PaO2 32-34 mmHg), the animals had hypotension, decreased cardiac index, and elevated pulmonary arterial pressure (P < 0.001 vs. controls). Upon reoxygenation, cardiac function recovered in all groups with higher cardiac index and lower systemic vascular resistance in the 21% group at 30 min of reoxygenation (P < 0.05 vs. controls). Pulmonary artery pressure normalized in an oxygen-dependent fashion (100% = 50% > 21%), despite an immediate recovery of pulmonary vascular resistance in all groups. The hypoxia-reoxygenated (21%-100%) hearts had similarly increased MMP-2 activity and decreased glutathione levels (P < 0.05, 100% vs. controls), which correlated significantly with cardiac index and stroke volume during reoxygenation, and similar features of early myocardial necrosis. In neonatal resuscitation, if used with caution because of a slower resolution of pulmonary hypertension, 21% reoxygenation results in similar cardiac function and early myocardial injury as 50% or 100%. The significance of higher oxidative stress with high oxygen concentration is unknown, at least in the acute recovery period.
Postoperative Lactate Concentrations Predict the Outcome of Infants Aged 6 Weeks or Less After Intracardiac Surgery: a Cohort Follow-up to 18 Months
The Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery. Sep, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16153937
An observational cohort study was conducted in infants less than 6 weeks of age undergoing intracardiac surgery to examine the predictive value of serial postoperative lactate determination on survival and early childhood neurodevelopment.
Acta Paediatrica (Oslo, Norway : 1992). Feb, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16449030
To determine relationships between ototoxic drugs and 4-y sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) in near-term and term survivors of severe neonatal respiratory failure.
Intratracheal Administration of Sildenafil and Surfactant Alleviates the Pulmonary Hypertension in Newborn Piglets
Resuscitation. May, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16500016
To study systemic and pulmonary effects of low-dose sildenafil with surfactant in newborn piglets with pulmonary hypertension (PHT) induced by thromboxane A(2) analog (U46619).
A Dose-response Study of Graded Reoxygenation on the Carotid Haemodynamics, Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 Activities and Amino Acid Concentrations in the Brain of Asphyxiated Newborn Piglets
Resuscitation. May, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16500017
It is controversial to choose an appropriate oxygen concentration to resuscitate asphyxiated newborns regarding the clinical and biochemical oxidative effects. We examined the vasomotor response to reoxygenation with graded reoxygenation and the effects on matrix metalloproteinases and amino acids of the immature brain.
Pediatric Research. May, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16627873
Hemostatic disturbances are common in asphyxiated newborns after resuscitation. We compared platelet function in hypoxic newborn piglets reoxygenated with 21% or 100% oxygen. Piglets (1-3 d, 1.5-2.1 kg) were anesthetized and acutely instrumented for hemodynamic monitoring. After stabilization, normocapnic hypoxia was induced with an inspired oxygen concentration of 10-15% for 2 h. Piglets were then resuscitated for 1 h with 21% or 100% oxygen, followed by 3 h with 21% oxygen. Platelet counts and collagen (2, 5, and 10 microg/mL)-stimulated whole blood aggregation were studied before hypoxia and at 4 h of post-hypoxia/reoxygenation. Platelet function was studied using transmission electron microscopy and by measuring plasma thromboxane B2 (TxB2) and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and -9 levels. Control piglets were sham-operated without hypoxia/reoxygenation. The hypoxemic (PaO2 33 mm Hg) piglets developed hypotension with metabolic acidosis (pH 7.02-7.05). Upon reoxygenation, piglets recovered and blood gases gradually normalized. At 4 h reoxygenation, platelet aggregation ex vivo was impaired as evidenced by a rightward-downward shifting of the concentration-response curves. Electron microscopy showed features of platelet activation. Plasma MMP-9 but not MMP-2 activity significantly increased. Resuscitation with 100% but not 21% oxygen increased plasma TxB2 levels. Platelet counts decreased after hypoxia/reoxygenation but were not different between groups during the experiment. Resuscitation of hypoxic newborn piglets caused platelet activation with significant deterioration of platelet aggregation ex vivo and increased plasma MMP-9 levels. High oxygen concentrations may aggravate the activation of prostaglandin-thromboxane mechanistic pathway.
Dose Response of Intravenous Sildenafil on Systemic and Regional Hemodynamics in Hypoxic Neonatal Piglets
Shock (Augusta, Ga.). Jul, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16783205
In neonates with acute pulmonary hypertension (PHT), the dose-response effect of sildenafil citrate, a selective phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor that can alleviate PHT, has not been detailedly examined. We tested the hypothesis that the treatment of hypoxia-induced acute PHT with sildenafil would dose-dependently reduce the elevated pulmonary and systemic arterial pressures (PAP and SAP, respectively) with no effect on the oxygenation in newborn animals. We also examined the regional hemodynamic responses. Using a randomized controlled design, piglets (age range, 1-3 days; weight range, 1.5-2.1 kg) were anesthetized and acutely instrumented to measure cardiac index, left common carotid, superior mesenteric and left renal arterial flow indexes, SAP, and PAP. After stabilization, hypoxia was induced with fractional inspired oxygen concentration at 0.15 and, subsequently, piglets were randomized to receive i.v. sildenafil at 0.06, 0.2, or 2.0 mg/kg per hour or normal saline (controls) for 90 min (n = 6 each). Within 30 min of hypoxia (PaO2, 31 +/- 5 mmHg), the piglets developed PHT (PAP, 33 +/- 5 vs. 26 +/- 4 mmHg at baseline; P < 0.05. Sildenafil dose-dependently reduced the hypoxia-induced PHT (PAP at 90 min: 33 +/- 6, 29 +/- 6, and 26 +/- 6 mmHg of 0.06, 0.2, and 2.0 mg/kg per hour, respectively, vs. 44 +/- 8 mmHg of controls; P < 0.05. Sildenafil at 2.0 mg/kg per hour had the greatest decrease in SAP (P < 0.05) with no significant change at 0.06 and 0.2 mg/kg per hour. Pulmonary selectivity (PAP:SAP ratio) was best in the group treated with 0.2 mg/kg per hour dosage of sildenafil (P < 0.05). There were no differences in cardiac index and regional flow indexes between groups. Although hypoxia decreased oxygen delivery and increased oxygen extraction with no significant effect on oxygen consumption, the administration of sildenafil did not affect the oxygen metabolism (vs. controls). In neonatal piglets, i.v. sildenafil dose-dependently alleviates the hypoxia-induced acute PHT, with the best pulmonary selectivity at 0.2 mg/kg per hour, and shows no significant effect on regional circulation and oxygen metabolism.
Inhibition of Sulfur Compounds and Antioxidants on MMP-2 and -9 at the Activity Level Found During Neonatal Hypoxia-reoxygenation
European Journal of Pharmacology. Aug, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16859674
The inhibitory effect of different sulfur compounds and antioxidants at the activity level of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and -9 during neonatal hypoxia-reoxygenation is unknown. The tissue activity of MMP-2 and -9 was first determined by gelatin zymography in different tissues of 6 newborn piglets that underwent alveolar hypoxia and reoxygenation. The in vitro inhibitory effects of sulfur compounds and antioxidants with or without the thiol group were compared at the highest concentrations of MMP-2 and -9 found. These compounds included: amino acids containing sulfur [cysteine, DL-homocysteine, L-methionine] and not containing sulfur [L-histidine], antioxidants containing sulfur [L-glutathione and N-acetyl-cysteine] and not containing sulfur [ascorbic acid], and oxidized glutathione. Lung had the highest activity of MMP-2 and -9 among the tissues studied. The compounds showed differential effects on the activity of MMP-2 and -9. The order of the potency of inhibition of these compounds for MMP-2 was cysteine> or =histidine> or =ascorbic acid> or =glutathione> or =oxidized glutathione> or =homocysteine> or =N-acetyl-cysteine>methionine, whereas for MMP-9, it was cysteine> or =ascorbic acid> or =histidine>glutathione>homocysteine>N-acetyl-cysteine>oxidized glutathione>methionine. The IC50 values of these compounds on MMP-2 were significantly lower than the corresponding IC50 values on MMP-9. In conclusions, at the activity level of MMP-2 and -9 measured after neonatal hypoxia-reoxygenation, cysteine showed the highest potency of inhibition. The compounds showed different potencies of inhibition, regardless of the presence or absence of the thiol group or the antioxidant property of the compound.
Tissue-specific Changes in Glutathione Content of Hypoxic Newborn Pigs Reoxygenated with 21% or 100% Oxygen
European Journal of Pharmacology. May, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17349991
We compared the responses towards oxidative stress in the liver, lung, brain, heart, kidney and small intestine of hypoxic newborn animals resuscitated with 21% or 100% oxygen. After stabilization, piglets (1-3 days, 1.6-2.0 kg, n=8/group) were randomized to receive 2 h of alveolar hypoxia (FiO(2)=0.10-0.14) followed by reoxygenation with 21% or 100% oxygen for 1 h and then another hour with 21% oxygen. Controls were sham-operated without hypoxia-reoxygenation. At the end of the experiment, tissues from liver, lung, brain, heart, kidney and small intestine were collected and tested for GSH, GSSG and lipid peroxidation levels and histological examination. In normoxic controls, liver had the highest GSH level, followed by brain, heart, lung, small intestine and kidney which had the highest level of oxidative stress markers (GSSG level and GSSG:GSH ratio). Hypoxic-reoxygenated piglets had the highest GSSG levels and GSSG:GSH ratio in the kidney. Hypoxic piglets resuscitated with 100% oxygen had higher GSSG:GSH ratios in the lung and liver, but not in the kidney, brain, heart and small intestine, than controls, which were not different from the 21% group. No significant differences in peroxidation and histological tissue damage were found between groups in the liver and lung. We concluded that although hypoxic piglets resuscitated with 100% oxygen have higher oxidative stress in the liver and lung than with 21% oxygen, there are no significant differences in peroxidation and histological tissue damage acutely.
Temporal Platelet Aggregatory Function in Hypoxic Newborn Piglets Reoxygenated with 18%, 21%, and 100% Oxygen
Shock (Augusta, Ga.). Apr, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17414430
Thromboembolic and bleeding complications are common after asphyxia. We studied the temporal effects of different oxygen concentrations used in resuscitating hypoxic newborn piglets on platelet aggregatory function. Alveolar normocapnic hypoxia (fractional inspired oxygen concentration = 0.15) was induced in piglets (1-4 d, 1.7-2.5 kg) for 2 h, followed by reoxygenation with 18%, 21%, or 100% oxygen for 1 h and then 21% for 2 h (n = 8-9 per group). Control piglets underwent surgery with no hypoxia-reoxygenation (n = 5). Platelet counts and collagen-stimulated (2-10 microg/mL) whole blood aggregation were studied at normoxic baseline and at 3 h, 2 d, and 4 d of recovery. Platelet activation markers including plasma thromboxane B2 and matrix metalloproteinase 2 and 9 levels were measured. At 2 h hypoxia (mean PaO2 30-35 mmHg), all piglets were hypotensive and acidotic (mean pH 7.19-7.24). In 100% reoxygenation piglets, the concentration-response curves of collagen-stimulated platelet aggregation were significantly shifted upward at 3 h and 2 d of recovery with no differences in the collagen concentration required to induce 50% of maximum aggregation, and this normalized to baseline on 4 d. In the 18% and 21% reoxygenated groups, there were no changes in platelet aggregation during the experiment. Platelet counts were not different between groups and over time. Hypoxic-reoxygenated piglets had increased plasma thromboxane B2 (100% group) and matrix metalloproteinase-2 levels (21% and 100% groups) (versus respective baseline, P < 0.05), with no difference between experimental groups. These findings suggest transient platelet activation in hypoxic newborn piglets resuscitated with 100% but not with 18% and 21% oxygen, of which the clinical significance requires further investigation.
Resuscitation with 21% or 100% Oxygen is Equally Effective in Restoring Perfusion and Oxygen Metabolism in the Liver of Hypoxic Newborn Piglets
Shock (Augusta, Ga.). Jun, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17505306
The differential effects of the use of high or low oxygen levels during resuscitation on the neonatal liver are unknown. We compared the hepatic hemodynamics and oxygen metabolism in hypoxic newborn piglets resuscitated with 21% or 100% oxygen. Twenty-seven piglets (age, 1-3 days; weight, 1.5-2.0 kg) were acutely instrumented to measure cardiac output, hepatic artery, and portal venous blood flows (hepatic artery flow index [HAFI] and portal venous flow index [PVFI], respectively). The animals underwent 2 h of hypoxia (fraction of inspired oxygen, 0.10-0.15), then reoxygenation with 21% (n = 9) or 100% (n = 9) oxygen for 1 h, then 1 h with 21% oxygen. The controls (n = 9) were sham-operated without hypoxia-reoxygenation. Oxygen transport and plasma lactate concentrations were studied. Hypoxic animals had hypotension and decreased cardiac index with metabolic acidosis (mean pH, 7.00-7.02; P < 0.05 vs. controls). The PVFI and the total hepatic blood flow (THFI = PVFI + HAFI), despite the absence of significant change in HAFI, decreased to 16 +/- 2 mL/min/kg and 19 +/- 3 mL/min/kg, respectively (versus 24 +/- 2 mL/min/kg and 28 +/- 2 mL/min/kg of controls; P < 0.05). Fifteen minutes after reoxygenation, the cardiac index improved, PVFI recovered, HAFI was maintained, and THFI was not different between the groups. The hepatic oxygen consumption decreased (59%; P < 0.05) and the extraction increased (89%; P < 0.001) during hypoxia. Similarly, on reoxygenation, the hepatic oxygen consumption improved; however, extraction decreased versus controls on 100% but not on 21% oxygen (P < 0.05). The plasma lactate concentrations increased in both groups with hypoxia and were not different during reoxygenation between the group administered with 21% oxygen and the group administered with 100% oxygen. The hypoxic neonatal liver has reduced hepatic blood flow but has relatively preserved HAFI, and oxygen consumption recovered similarly on reoxygenation with 21% and 100% oxygen. The increased oxygen extraction during hypoxia normalized in 21% but reduced in 100% reoxygenation, with no differences in plasma lactate concentrations.
The Hemodynamic Effects of Dobutamine During Reoxygenation After Hypoxia: a Dose-response Study in Newborn Pigs
Shock (Augusta, Ga.). Sep, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17545944
Asphyxiated neonates usually have myocardial stunning and hypotension and require inotropic support. A randomized controlled study was designed to examine the dose-response effect of dobutamine (5-20 microg x kg(-1) x min(-1)) on systemic and regional circulations and oxygen metabolism in a neonatal swine model of hypoxia/reoxygenation. Thirty-eight anesthetized newborn piglets were acutely instrumented for continuous monitoring of heart rate, systemic and pulmonary arterial pressures, and pulmonary (surrogate for cardiac index), right common carotid, and superior mesenteric and left renal arterial flows. After stabilization, they were exposed to normocapnic alveolar hypoxia (10%-15% oxygen) for 2 h followed by reoxygenation with 100% oxygen for 1 h, then 21% for 3 h. Piglets were block randomized to receive dobutamine infusion (5, 10, or 20 microg x kg(-1) x min(-1)) or saline (control) at 2 to 4 h of reoxygenation (n = 8 each). A nonasphyxiated, sham-operated group was included (n = 6). Blood samples were collected for blood gas analysis, arterial and venous co-oximetry, and plasma lactate concentration determination. At 2-h reoxygenation after hypoxia, there was hypotension (systemic arterial pressure, 27 to 36 mmHg) and myocardial dysfunction (cardiac index from 178-209 to 134-156 mL x kg(-1) x min(-1)). Cardiac index improved significantly with 20 microg x kg(-1) x min(-1) of dobutamine (P < 0.05) and modestly in the treatment groups of 5 and 10 microg x kg(-1) x min(-1) (P < 0.1) (at 120 min, 172 +/- 35, 160 +/- 30, and 158 +/- 56 mL x kg(-1) x min(-1) vs. 119 +/- 33 mL x kg(-1) x min(-1) of controls, respectively), with corresponding increases in stroke volume. Pulmonary vascular resistance was lower in all dobutamine-treated groups (vs. controls, P < 0.05) There were no differences in heart rate, systemic and pulmonary arterial pressures, systemic vascular resistance, and regional flows between groups. The group of 20 mug.kg.min of dobutamine also had higher systemic oxygen delivery (at 120 min, 18 +/- 5 vs. 11 +/- 3 O(2) mL x kg(-1) x min(-1) of controls, P < 0.05) with no significant differences in systemic oxygen consumption and regional oxygen delivery between groups. After the reoxygenation of newborn piglets with severe hypoxia, high dose of dobutamine is effective to treat myocardial stunning and low cardiac output with no significant effect on blood pressure or regional circulation. Further clinical studies are needed to confirm these findings in the human neonate.
Systemic and Regional Hemodynamic Effects of High-dose Epinephrine Infusion in Hypoxic Piglets Resuscitated with 100% Oxygen
Shock (Augusta, Ga.). Oct, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17577139
Shock and poor regional perfusion are common in asphyxiated neonates. We compared the systemic and regional hemodynamic effects of high-dose epinephrine (E) with those of dopamine combined with low-dose epinephrine (DE) infusions in a neonatal model of hypoxia-reoxygenation. Neonatal piglets (1-3 days, 1.5-2.5 kg) were acutely instrumented to continuously monitor systemic arterial pressure (SAP), pulmonary artery pressure, cardiac index (CI), and blood flows at the left common carotid, superior mesenteric, and renal arteries. Either epinephrine (1 microg.kg(-1).min(-1)) or dopamine (10 microg.kg(-1).min(-1)) and epinephrine (0.2 microg.kg(-1).min(-1)) were given for 2 h in hypoxic piglets resuscitated with 100% oxygen (n = 8 per group) in a randomized blinded fashion. Control piglets received hypoxia and reoxygenation but no catecholamine infusion (n = 7). Alveolar hypoxia (PaO2, 33-37 mmHg) caused reduced CI (89-92 vs. 171-186 mL.kg(-1).min(-1) of baseline, P < 0.05), hypotension (SAP, 28-32 mmHg) with pH 7.05 to 7.10, and decreased regional flows. Upon reoxygenation, CI and SAP improved but gradually deteriorated to 131 to 136 mL.kg(-1).min(-1) and 41 to 49 mmHg at 2 h of reoxygenation, respectively. E and DE administration similarly improved CI (167 +/- 60 and 166 +/- 55 vs. 121 +/- 35 mL.kg(-1).min(-1) of controls) and SAP (53 +/- 7 and 56 +/- 10 vs. 39 +/- 8 mmHg of controls), respectively, and the pulmonary vascular resistance (vs. controls, all P < 0.05). Heart rate and pulmonary artery pressure were not different between groups. Systemic oxygen delivery and consumption were increased in E- and DE-treated groups with no difference in extraction ratio between groups. There were no differences in regional blood flows and oxygen delivery between groups. After hyperlactatemia with hypoxia, plasma lactate levels decreased with no difference between groups. Epinephrine given as the sole agent is as effective as dopamine and low-dose epinephrine combined in treating shock and hypotension that follow the resuscitation of hypoxic neonatal piglets, with no reduction in regional perfusion.
N-acetylcysteine Improves the Hemodynamics and Oxidative Stress in Hypoxic Newborn Pigs Reoxygenated with 100% Oxygen
Shock (Augusta, Ga.). Oct, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17577140
Neonatal asphyxia may lead to cardiac and renal complications perhaps mediated by oxygen free radicals. Using a model of neonatal hypoxia-reoxygenation, we tested the hypothesis that N-acetylcysteine (NAC) would improve cardiac function and renal blood flow. Eighteen piglets (aged 1-4 days old, weighing 1.4-2.2 kg) were anesthetized and acutely instrumented for continuous monitoring of pulmonary and renal artery flow (cardiac index [CI] and renal artery flow index [RAFI], respectively) and mean blood pressure. Alveolar hypoxia was induced for 2 h, followed by resuscitation with 100% oxygen for 1 h and 21% oxygen for 3 h. Animals were randomized to sham-operated, hypoxic control, and NAC treatment (i.v. bolus of 150 mg/kg given at 10 min of reoxygenation followed by 100 mg/kg per h infusion) groups. Myocardial and renal tissue glutathione content and lipid hydroperoxide levels were assayed, and histology was examined. After 2 h of hypoxia, all animals were acidotic (pH 6.96 +/- 0.04) and in cardiogenic shock with depressed renal blood flow. Upon reoxygenation, CI and RAFI increased but gradually deteriorated later. The NAC treatment prevented the decreased CI, stroke volume, mean blood pressure, systemic oxygen delivery, RAFI, and renal oxygen delivery at 2 to 4 h of reoxygenation observed in hypoxic controls (versus shams, all P < 0.05). The myocardial and renal tissue glutathione content was significantly higher in the NAC treatment group (versus controls). The CI and RAFI at 4 h of reoxygenation correlated with the tissue glutathione redox ratio (r = 0.5 and 0.6, respectively, P < 0.05). There were no significant differences in heart rate, pulmonary artery pressure, systemic oxygen uptake, and tissue lipid hydroperoxide levels between groups. No histologic injury was found in the heart or kidney. In this porcine model of neonatal hypoxia and 100% reoxygenation, NAC improved cardiac function and renal perfusion, with improved tissue glutathione content.
Expression of Angiostatin and Its Related Factors in the Plasma of Newborn Pigs with Hypoxia and Reoxygenation
Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics. Oct, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17718998
Little is known about angiostatin and its related factors in the hypoxia-reoxygenation of neonates. In this study we compared the effect of 21% and 100% reoxygenation on temporal changes in the plasma level of these factors in newborn piglets subjected to hypoxia. Newborn piglets were subjected to 2 h hypoxia followed by 1 h of reoxygenation with either 21% or 100% oxygen and observed for 4 days. On day 4 of recovery in 100% hypoxic-reoxygenated group, there were increases in total angiostatin, plasminogen/plasmin and MMP-2 levels, and decreases in VEGF levels (vs. respective baseline levels, all P <0.001), whereas no significant temporal changes were found in the 21% hypoxic-reoxygenated and sham-operated groups. Angiostatin levels correlated positively with the levels of MMP-2 and HIF-1alpha and negatively with VEGF levels in 100% hypoxic-reoxygenated group (all P <0.05). In comparison to 21% oxygen, neonatal resuscitation with 100% oxygen was found to increase the levels anti-angiogenic factors.
Proceedings of the Western Pharmacology Society. 2007 | Pubmed ID: 18605228
Hypoxia is a potent stimulus of angiogenic factors and angiostatin can inhibit angiogenesis. Little is known about the expression of angiostatin and its related factors in hypoxic newborns. Using a swine model of neonatal hypoxia, we hypothesized that hypoxia would decrease plasma levels of angiostatin in a time-dependent fashion. In this study newborn piglets underwent hypoxia (15-18% oxygen) for 3 hr, were allowed to recover in 21% oxygen and were then observed for 96 hr. Sham-operated piglets did not experience hypoxia. Plasma levels of angiostatin, plasminogen/plasmin, MMP-2 and -9, and VEGF were determined at normoxic baseline; at the end of hypoxia; at 5 hr; and at 96 hr post-hypoxia. Plasma levels of angiostatin, but not plasminogen/plasmin, decreased significantly at the end of hypoxia and 5 hr after hypoxia compared with the sham-operated group (P < 0.05). Plasma MMP-2 levels at the end of hypoxia were lower in the hypoxic group than in sham animals (P < 0.005). In the hypoxic but not sham-operated group, plasma levels of angiostatin and MMP-2 were positively correlated (r = 0.69; P < 0.001). Plasma MMP-9 and VEGF levels were not different between sham-operated and hypoxic groups and did not correlate with plasma angiostatin levels. In conclusion, hypoxia showed a transient suppressive effect on the expression of plasma angiostatin in newborn piglets. This may imply an inhibitory role of hypoxia on MMP-2 and the proteolytic cleavage of plasminogen to angiostatin.
Proceedings of the Western Pharmacology Society. 2007 | Pubmed ID: 18605229
Platelet activation and dysfunction occurs upon hypoxia and reoxygenation and is associated with oxygen free radical generation and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) -2 and -9 activation. The effect of NAC on platelet function in newborn piglets after asphyxia was studied along with plasma MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities. Piglets (1-4 day, 1.4-2.2 kg) were acutely instrumented for the induction of normocapnic hypoxia (10-15% O2) for 2hr followed by reoxygenation for 1hr with 100% O2 and then 3hr with 21% O2. Animals were randomized to 3 groups (n = 6 each); sham, control and treatment with NAC upon reoxygenation (150 mg/kg i.v. bolus and 100 mg/kg/hr i.v. infusion). Platelet count and collagen (2, 5 and 10 microg/mL)-stimulated whole blood aggregation were studied at baseline and after 4hr reoxygenation. Plasma MMP -2 and -9 activities were analyzed by gelatin zymography. Piglets had severe hypoxia (PaO2 32 +/- 2 vs. 65 +/- 2 mmHg sham; p < 0.05) and metabolic acidosis (pH 6.96 +/- 0.04 vs. 7.33 +/- 0.01 sham; p < 0.05). At 4hr of reoxygenation, platelet counts decreased similarly in all experimental groups, and no animal had a platelet count < 100 x 10(9)/L. Platelet aggregation was significantly reduced with a rightward shift of concentration-response curve. NAC treatment improved platelet aggregatory function at 4hr of reoxygenation (p < 0.05). Plasma MMP-9, but not MMP-2, activities were increased with NAC treatment (147 +/- 19 vs. 51 +/- 20 and 42 +/- 11 AU of control and sham, respectively, p < 0.001). In a newborn piglet model of asphyxia and reoxygenation, NAC treatment effectively improves platelet aggregation when given upon resuscitation.
Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry. Nov, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18607691
Hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) creates an energetic deficiency in the heart, which may contribute to myocardial dysfunction. We hypothesized that H/R-induced impairment of cardioenergetic enzymes occurs in asphyxiated newborn animals. After hypoxia for 2 h (10-15% oxygen), newborn piglets were resuscitated with 100% oxygen for 1 h, followed by 21% oxygen for 3 h. Sham-operated control piglets had no H/R. Hemodynamic parameters in the piglets were continuously measured. At the end of experiment, hearts were isolated for proteomic analysis. In asphyxiated hearts, the level of isocitrate dehydrogenase and malate dehydrogenase was reduced compared to controls. Inverse correlations between the level of myocardial malate dehydrogenase and cardiac function were observed in the control, but not the H/R hearts. We conclude that reoxygenation of asphyxiated newborn piglets reduces the level of myocardial isocitrate dehydrogenase and malate dehydrogenase. While the cause is not clear, it may be related to the impaired tricarboxylic acid cycle pathway and energy production in the heart.
Not All Models Are Created Equal: Animal Models to Study Hypoxic-ischemic Encephalopathy of the Newborn. Commentary on Gelfand SL Et Al.: A New Model of Oxidative Stress in Rat Pups (Neonatology 2008;94:293-299)
Neonatology. 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18784427
Postresuscitation N-acetylcysteine Treatment Reduces Cerebral Hydrogen Peroxide in the Hypoxic Piglet Brain
Intensive Care Medicine. Jan, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 17938888
Reactive oxygen species have been implicated in the pathogenesis of hypoxia-reoxygenation injury. However, little information is known regarding the temporal profile of cerebral hydrogen peroxide (HPO) production and its response to N-acetylcysteine (an antioxidant) administration during neonatal hypoxia-reoxygenation. Using an acute swine model of neonatal hypoxia-reoxygenation, we examined the short-term neuroprotective effects of N-acetylcysteine on cerebral HPO production and oxidative stress in the brain.
The Systemic, Pulmonary and Regional Hemodynamic Recovery of Asphyxiated Newborn Piglets Resuscitated with 18%, 21% and 100% Oxygen
Resuscitation. Mar, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18022751
The increase in oxidative stress following neonatal hypoxia-reoxygenation can be related to subsequent cardiovascular deficits. We compared the acute systemic, pulmonary and regional hemodynamic recovery in hypoxic newborn pigs reoxygenated by low (18%) or high (100%) concentration of oxygen with that by 21% oxygen.
Persistent Neurochemical Changes in Neonatal Piglets After Hypoxia-ischemia and Resuscitation with 100%, 21% or 18% Oxygen
Resuscitation. Apr, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18083289
Neonatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI) is a common complication of pregnancy and delivery. Conventional clinical practice is to resuscitate neonates with 100% O2, and evidence is building to suggest resuscitation with lower O2 concentrations is safer. Significant neurochemical changes are associated with HI injury and persistent changes in amino acids are related to cell death, therefore we used a swine survival model of neonatal HI-reoxygenation (HI/R) to investigate the effects of resuscitation with 100%, 21% or 18% O2 on amino acid neurotransmitters.
Oxidative Stress and Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 Activity in the Liver After Hypoxia and Reoxygenation with 21% or 100% Oxygen in Newborn Piglets
European Journal of Pharmacology. Feb, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18154950
We designed a randomized controlled study to identify and compare the liver tissue responses in systemic hypoxia and resuscitation with 21% and 100% oxygen using an animal model of neonatal hypoxia and reoxygenation. Twenty-seven piglets (1-3 days old, weight 1.5-2.0 kg) were acutely instrumented and mechanically ventilated. The animals underwent 2 h of normocapnic alveolar hypoxia (10-15% oxygen) then reoxygenation with 21% or 100% oxygen for 1 h, then 1 h with 21% oxygen. Controls were sham-operated without hypoxia-reoxygenation. After 2 h of reoxygenation liver tissue samples were immediately processed for histological and biochemical analyses of markers of oxidative stress and tissue injury. Two hours of hypoxia caused a significant reduction in mean arterial pressure with cardiogenic shock and metabolic acidemia, with similar recovery upon resuscitation with 21% and 100% oxygen. After 2 h of reoxygenation, the hepatic GSSG:total glutathione ratio and matrix metalloproteninase-9 activity, which correlated with the portal venous oxygenation at 15 min of reoxygenation, were greater in the 100% group and hepatic lactate level was higher in the 21% group than the controls (all P<0.05). Both hypoxic-reoxygenated groups had similarly elevated hepatic Bcl-2 levels. Apart from more non-distinct mitochondria identified in the 100% group, hepatic tissue adenylate energy charge and plasma transaminases levels did not differ among groups. We concluded that in this acute model of neonatal hypoxia and reoxygenation, resuscitation using 21% oxygen avoids the excess oxidative stress and elevated matrix metalloproteninase-9 activity in the liver when 100% oxygen was used. The study supports the conservative use of oxygen in optimizing post-hypoxic hepatic recovery.
Intensive Care Medicine. Jun, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18236027
We examined the effects of 18%, 21% or 100% oxygen on the recovery of the heart and kidneys in a short-term survival model of neonatal hypoxia-reoxygenation (HR).
The Effect of Dobutamine on Platelet Aggregatory Function in Newborn Piglets with Hypoxia and Reoxygenation
Shock (Augusta, Ga.). Sep, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18323735
Dobutamine, a beta-adrenoceptor agonist that is often used to treat myocardial dysfunction in asphyxiated neonates, may act on the adrenoceptors of platelets resulting in activation. Little information is available on the effect and mechanistic pathway of dobutamine on the platelet aggregatory function in neonatal asphyxia. Newborn piglets were acutely instrumented and exposed to hypoxia for 2 h and reoxygenation for 4 h. Piglets were randomized to receive dobutamine infusion (5, 10, or 20 microg/kg per min) or saline (hypoxic-control) at 2 to 4 h of reoxygenation (n = 8 each), and sham-operated animals were not exposed to hypoxia and reoxygenation (n = 6). Platelet number, collagen-stimulated whole blood aggregation, and plasma concentrations of thromboxane B2 were studied. The effects of alpha- and beta-adrenoceptor antagonists (phentolamine and propranolol, respectively) on platelet aggregation to in vitro administration of dobutamine (3 microM) were also examined. Shock and metabolic acidosis developed similarly in all hypoxia-reoxygenated groups. At 4 h of reoxygenation, platelet numbers in all groups decreased, with no differences among groups. Platelet aggregation deteriorated significantly with a rightward shift of concentration-response curve in piglets receiving 10 and 20 microg/kg per min of dobutamine. The group that received 20 microg/kg per min of dobutamine had increased plasma thromboxane B2 concentrations from baseline (P < 0.05). The platelet aggregatory response induced by 3 microM of dobutamine was improved by the coadministration of the beta-but not the alpha-adrenoceptor antagonist. We observed platelet aggregatory dysfunction in hypoxic-reoxygenated newborn piglets treated with high-dose dobutamine. Further investigation is needed to examine the differential effects of dobutamine and hypoxia-reoxygenation in platelet aggregation in newborns.
Intensive Care Medicine. Jul, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18357438
Neonatal asphyxia causes cardiogenic shock and pulmonary hypertension with decreased brain perfusion. We examined the dose-response of milrinone on systemic, pulmonary, and carotid circulations in a model of neonatal hypoxia-reoxygenation.
Shock (Augusta, Ga.). Feb, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18386393
Shock and tissue hypoperfusion are common after asphyxia. We compared systemic and regional hemodynamic effects of epinephrine and dopamine in the treatment of shock and hypotension in asphyxiated newborn piglets resuscitated with 100% oxygen. Twenty-four piglets (1-3 days old; weight, 1.4-2.6 kg) were acutely instrumented to measure cardiac index (CI), carotid, mesenteric and renal arterial blood flows, and mean systemic (SAPs) and pulmonary arterial pressures (PAPs). Piglets had normocapnic alveolar hypoxia (F(IO2)=0.08-0.10) for 50 min and reoxygenated with F(IO2)=1.0 for 1 h then F(IO2)=0.21 for 3.5 h. After 2 h reoxygenation, either dopamine (2 microg kg(-1) min(-1)) or epinephrine (0.2 microg kg(-1) min(-1)) was given for 30 min in a blinded randomized manner, which was then increased to maintain SAP (within 10% of baseline, pressure-driven dose) for 2 h. Hypoxia caused hypotension (SAP, 44%+/-3% of baseline), cardiogenic shock (CI, 41%+/-4%), and metabolic acidosis (mean pH, 7.04-7.09). Upon reoxygenation, hemodynamic parameters immediately recovered but gradually deteriorated during 2 h with SAP at 45+/-1 mmHg, CI at 74+/-9% of baseline, and pH 7.32+/-0.03. Low doses of either drug had no significant systemic and renal hemodynamic response. Epinephrine (0.3-1.5 microg kg(-1) min(-1)) for 2 h increased SAP and CI (with higher stroke volume) and decreased pulmonary vascular resistance (with reduced PAP-SAP ratio), whereas the responses with dopamine (10-25 microg kg(-1) min(-1)) were modest. Low-dose epinephrine improved mesenteric and carotid arterial flows, whereas the pressure-driven doses of epinephrine and dopamine increased carotid and mesenteric arterial flows, respectively. To treat shock in asphyxiated newborn piglets resuscitated with 100% oxygen, epinephrine exhibits an inotropic action compared with dopamine, whereas both catecholamines can increase carotid and mesenteric perfusion.
Effects of Postresuscitation N-acetylcysteine on Cerebral Free Radical Production and Perfusion During Reoxygenation of Hypoxic Newborn Piglets
Pediatric Research. Sep, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18437097
Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and nitric oxide (NO) contribute to the pathogenesis of cerebral hypoxic-ischemic injury. We evaluated the neuroprotective effect of N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC, a free radical scavenger) against oxidative stress and perfusion in a model of neonatal hypoxia-reoxygenation (H-R). Piglets (1-3 d, 1.6-2.3 kg) were randomized into a sham-operated group (without H-R) (n = 5) and two H-R experimental groups (2 h normocapnic alveolar hypoxia followed by 4 h reoxygenation) (n = 7/group). Five minutes after reoxygenation, piglets were given either i.v. saline (H-R controls) or NAC (30 mg/kg bolus then 20 mg/kg/h infusion) in a blinded-randomized fashion. Heart rate, mean arterial pressure, carotid arterial blood flow (transit-time ultrasonic probe), cerebral cortical H2O2 and NO production (electrochemical sensor), cerebral tissue glutathione and nitrotyrosine levels (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) were examined. Hypoxic piglets were acidotic (pH 6.88-6.90), which recovered similarly in the H-R groups (p > 0.05 versus shams). Postresuscitation NAC treatment significantly attenuated the increase in cortical H2O2, but not NO, concentration during reoxygenation, with lower cerebral oxidized glutathione levels. NAC-treated piglets had significantly higher carotid oxygen delivery and lower cerebral lactate levels than that of H-R controls with corresponding changes in carotid arterial flow and vascular resistance. In newborn piglets with H-R, postresuscitation administration of NAC reduced cerebral oxidative stress and improved cerebral perfusion.
Neonatology. 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19052475
An increasing body of evidence has revealed that interventions performed during resuscitation of extremely-low-gestational-age neonates (ELGANs) may have a direct influence on the immediate survival and also on long-term morbidity. It has been proposed that interventions in the delivery room and/or hypothermia could trigger changes constitutive of chronic lung disease. New approaches in the first minutes of life using more gentle parameters of intervention are being studied. Thus, titrating inspiratory fraction of oxygen, the use of non-invasive ventilation to reduce trauma to the lung, the use of polyethylene/polyurethane wrapping to avoid hypothermia and delaying cord clamping altogether constitute promising initiatives. The first minutes of life are a valuable window for intervention. However, whilst these practice changes make sense and there are emerging data to support them, further evidence including long-term follow up is needed to definitively change resuscitation procedures in ELGANs.
Pediatric Pulmonology. Jan, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19061228
Little information is available regarding the temporal changes in hemodynamics and blood gases during the development of a moderate pneumothorax in a neonate. In this study, we aim to investigate the temporal changes of hemodynamics and arterial blood gases in a neonatal swine model of unilateral pneumothorax.
Effects of N-acetylcysteine on Intestinal Reoxygenation Injury in Hypoxic Newborn Piglets Resuscitated with 100% Oxygen
Neonatology. 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19332996
Neonatal asphyxia may lead to the development of ischemia-reperfusion induced intestinal injury, which is related to oxygen-derived free radical production. N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) is a thiol-containing antioxidant which increases intracellular stores of glutathione.
Cardiac Dysfunction in an Animal Model of Neonatal Asphyxia is Associated with Increased Degradation of MLC1 by MMP-2
Basic Research in Cardiology. Nov, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19452190
The purpose of this study was to determine if decreased heart function after hypoxia followed by reoxygenation (H-R) is associated with increased degradation of cardiac myosin light chain 1 (MLC1) by matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), and to investigate the effects of the increased level of peroxynitrite in the hearts of H-R animals on MLC1 degradation by MMP-2. Total of 12 newborn piglets were acutely instrumented to monitor cardiac function as assessed by stroke volume. Anesthetized piglets were block randomized to the normoxic group (n = 6), which received ventilation with room air for 6 h, or to the H-R group (n = 6), which received ventilation with 10-15% oxygen for 2 h, followed by reoxygenation with 100% oxygen for 1 h and then with 21% oxygen for 3 h. Hearts were removed and snap frozen for subsequent biochemical analyses. At the end of the 2-h hypoxia period, cardiac output, mean arterial pressure and stroke volume were significantly decreased in the H-R group. After 1 h of 100% oxygen, these parameters had increased slightly, but remained significantly lower than the normoxic controls throughout the reoxygenation period. Compared to normoxic animals, cardiac MLC1 levels were decreased and MMP-2 activity was increased in H-R animals. MMP-2 was co-localized with MLC1, and the amount of MLC1 associated with MMP-2 was higher in the hearts of H-R animals. In normoxic animals, cardiac MLC1 level was negatively, and cardiac MMP-2 activity was positively, strongly correlated with stroke volume index. This relationship was not seen in the H-R group. However, in both the normoxic group and the H-R group, the activity of cardiac MMP-2 was negatively correlated with the level of cardiac MLC1. There was a more than twofold increase in the level of nitrates, a marker for peroxynitrite formation, in the hearts of H-R animals. Mass spectrometric analyses detected peroxynitrite-induced nitration and S-nitrosylation of MLC1 protein in the hearts of H-R animals. These peroxynitrite-induced modifications of MLC1 were localized directly adjacent to the site at which MMP-2 cleaves MLC1. Peroxynitrite, formed during cardiac reoxygenation following a period of hypoxia, modifies the structure of cardiac MLC1 by nitrating and nitrosylating amino acids adjacent to the site where MMP-2 cleaves MLC1. This facilitates the degradation of MLC1 by MMP-2 and may contribute to cardiac dysfunction induced by H-R and other forms of oxidative stress. The high correlation between MMP-2 activity and MLC1 level in control animals suggests that MMP-2 may play an important role in regulating MLC1 turnover under normal physiological conditions. Determining the optimal parameters for controlled reoxygenation after hypoxia, together with pharmacological treatment with MMP-2 inhibitors and/or inhibitors of nitration/nitrosylation of MLC1, could reduce heart injury during the resuscitation of asphyxiated newborns and improve their long-term prognosis by reducing MLC1 degradation. Since the degradation of MLC1 by MMP-2 appears to be a common feature of oxidative stress, these pharmacological interventions may be useful in reducing tissue damage in other oxidative stress-related disorders as well.
Intensive Care Medicine. Sep, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19551371
Significant improvement in myocardial recovery has been shown previously with interventions to decrease reactive oxygen species after ischemia/hypoxia. We investigated whether co-administration of N-acetylcysteine (NAC, a scavenger for reactive oxygen species) and N (G)-monomethyl-L: -arginine (L-NMMA, a non-selective nitric oxide synthase inhibitor) results in better hemodynamic recovery.
Serum Levels of Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 and -9 and Conventional Tumor Markers (CEA and CA 19-9) in Patients with Colorectal and Gastric Cancers
Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine : CCLM / FESCC. 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19569980
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), especially MMP-2 and MMP-9, play an important role in tumor invasion and metastasis. This study aimed to determine the serum levels of MMP-2, MMP-9, 130- and 225-kDa gelatinolytic bands and conventional tumor markers, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and cancer antigen (CA) 19-9, in patients with gastrointestinal cancers. The relationship between these parameters and clinicopathological factors was also studied.
Sodium Tanshinone IIA Sulfonate Increased Intestinal Hemodynamics Without Systemic Circulatory Changes in Healthy Newborn Piglets
American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology. Oct, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19617411
In traditional Chinese medicine, tanshinone IIA is a lipid-soluble component of Danshen that has been widely used for various cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disorders, including neonatal asphyxia. Despite promising effects, little is known regarding the hemodynamic effects of tanshinone IIA in newborn subjects. To examine the dose-response effects of sodium tanshinone IIA sulfonate (STS) on systemic and regional hemodynamics and oxygen transport, 12 newborn piglets were anesthetized and acutely instrumented for the placement of femoral arterial and venous, pulmonary arterial catheters to measure mean arterial, central venous, and pulmonary arterial pressures, respectively. The blood flow at the common carotid, renal, pulmonary, and superior mesenteric (SMA) arteries were continuously monitored after treating the piglets with either STS (0.1-30 mg/kg iv) or saline treatment (n = 6/group). To further delineate the underlying mechanisms for vasorelaxant effects of STS, in vitro vascular myography was carried out to compare its effect on rat mesenteric and carotid arteries (n = 4-5/group). STS dose-dependently increased the SMA blood flow and the corresponding oxygen delivery with no significant effect on systemic and pulmonary, carotid and renal hemodynamic parameters. In vitro studies also demonstrated that STS selectively dilated rat mesenteric but not carotid arteries. Vasodilation in mesenteric arteries was inhibited by apamin and TRAM-34 (calcium-activated potassium channel inhibitors) but not by meclofenamate (cyclooxygenase inhibitor) or N-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (nitric oxide synthase inhibitor). In summary, without significant hemodynamic effects on newborn piglets, intravenous infusion of STS selectively increased mesenteric perfusion in a dose-dependent manner, possibly via an endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor vasodilating pathway.
Two-year Neurodevelopmental Outcomes of Infants Undergoing Neonatal Cardiac Surgery for Interrupted Aortic Arch: a Descriptive Analysis
The Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery. Oct, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19660371
This study determined neurodevelopmental outcomes of survivors of neonatal cardiac surgery for interrupted aortic arch through an interprovincial program and explored preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative outcome predictors.
Long-term Cognitive Impairment and Myelination Deficiency in a Rat Model of Perinatal Hypoxic-ischemic Brain Injury
Brain Research. Dec, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19747899
Although periventricular white matter injury is a leading cause of major neurologic disability in premature infants, the relationship between myelination deficiency and long-term cognitive dysfunction is not well understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate oligodendrocytes myelination and long-term spatial cognitive function in rats with perinatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI). Postnatal day 3 (P3) rats were subjected to right carotid artery ligation followed by 2.5 h of hypoxia (6% oxygen). Brain injury during the early and late phases was evaluated by immunostaining at P6 (72 h after the injury) and P47. Spatial cognitive function was evaluated at P42 using the Morris Water Maze test followed by histologic evaluation. HI caused an increase in pre-oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, and microglia in the ipsilateral white matter 72 h after the insult compared to contralateral regions and sham-operated controls (both p<0.05). There were significant decreases in myelin basic protein (MBP)and 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNPase)-labeled oligodendrocytes with glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-labeled glial scarring in the ipsilateral periventricular white matter at P47 compared to contralateral regions and sham-operated controls (all p<0.05). The rats with HI had spatial learning deficits in navigation trials (longer escape latency and swimming distance) and memory dysfunction in probe trials (fewer number of platform crossings and percentage of time in the target quadrant) compared with sham-operated controls (p<0.05). In this neonatal rat model of HI, myelination deficiency induced by activated astrocytes and microglia during the early phase with subsequent glial scarring was associated with long-term spatial learning and memory dysfunction.
The Journal of Pediatrics. Dec, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19914439
Intestinal Hemodynamic Effects of Milrinone in Asphyxiated Newborn Pigs After Reoxygenation with 100% Oxygen: a Dose-response Study
Shock (Augusta, Ga.). Mar, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 18650774
Neonatal asphyxia can result in poor perfusion, vasoconstriction, and decreased oxygen delivery in the intestine. Milrinone increases myocardial contractility and causes peripheral vasodilatation. We examined the dose-response of milrinone on the intestinal circulation, oxygen metabolism, and injury in a newborn piglet model of asphyxia-reoxygenation. Piglets (aged 1-3 days, weighing 1.5-2.3 kg) were acutely instrumented to measure superior mesenteric artery (SMA) flow and oxygen delivery. After stabilization, hypoxia (inspired oxygen concentration, 0.08-0.15) was induced for 2 h followed by reoxygenation with 100% O2 for 1 h then 21% O2 for 3 h. At 2 h of reoxygenation, saline or milrinone infusion at doses of 0.25, 0.5, or 0.75 microg/kg per min was given for 2 h in a blinded randomized fashion (n = 7 per group). Hemodynamic and oxygen transport parameters were analyzed at predefined time points. Intestinal tissue lactate concentrations, plasma milrinone levels, and intestinal glutathione redox status were determined at the end of the experiment. In the intestinal tract, milrinone significantly increased SMA flow and oxygen delivery while decreasing vascular resistance at a dose of 0.75 microg/kg per min (P < 0.05, ANOVA). A modest increase in SMA flow and oxygen delivery was found with milrinone at 0.5 microg/kg per min. Plasma milrinone levels correlated with SMA flow and vascular resistance (r = 0.5 and r = -0.6, respectively, P < 0.05). Intestinal lactate concentrations and histopathology were not significantly different among groups. Oxidized glutathione correlated with SMA vascular resistance and negatively with milrinone levels (r = 0.6 and r = -0.5, P < 0.05). When used to treat shock in a newborn model of asphyxia-reoxygenation, milrinone dose-dependently increases SMA flow and oxygen delivery with a significantly decreased SMA vascular resistance at higher doses.
Heart International. Jun, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 21977281
During cardiopulmonary-bypass matrix-metalloproteinases released may contribute to ventricular dysfunction. This study was to determine plasma matrix-metalloproteinases in neonates after cardiopulmonary-bypass and their relation to post-operative course. A prospective observational study included 18 neonates having cardiac surgery. Plasma matrix-metalloproteinases-2 and 9 activities were measured by gelatin-zymography pre-operatively, on starting cardiopulmonarybypass, 7-8 min after aortic cross-clamp release, and 1h, 4h, 24h, and 3d after cardiopulmonary-bypass. Plasma concentrations of their tissue inhibitors 1 and 2 were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Cardiac function was assessed by serial echocardiography. Paired t-tests and Wilcoxon tests were used to assess temporal changes, and linear correlation with simultaneous clinical and cardiac function parameters were assessed using Pearson's product-moment correlation coefficient. Plasma matrix-metalloproteinases activities and their tissue inhibitor concentrations decreased during cardiopulmonary-bypass. Matrix-metalloproteinase-2 plasma activity increased progressively starting 1h after cardiopulmonarybypass and returned to pre-operative levels at 24h. Matrix-metalloproteinase-9 plasma activity increased significantly after release of aortic cross-clamp, peaked 7-8min later, and returned to baseline at 24h. Plasma tissueinhibitor 1 and 2 concentrations increased 1h after cardiopulmonary-bypass. Cardiac function improved from 4h to 3d after surgery (p<0.05). There was no evidence of significant correlations between matrix-metalloproteinases or their inhibitors and cardiac function, inotrope scores, organ dysfunction scores, ventilation days, or hospital days. The temporal profile of plasma matrix-metalloproteinases and their inhibitors after cardiopulmonary-bypass in neonates are similar to adults. In neonates, further study should determine whether circulating matrix-metalloproteinases are useful biomarkers of disease activity locally within the myocardium, and hence of clinical outcomes.
Effects of Post-resuscitation Treatment with N-acetylcysteine on Cardiac Recovery in Hypoxic Newborn Piglets
PloS One. 2010 | Pubmed ID: 21203535
Although N-acetylcysteine (NAC) can decrease reactive oxygen species and improve myocardial recovery after ischemia/hypoxia in various acute animal models, little is known regarding its long-term effect in neonatal subjects. We investigated whether NAC provides prolonged protective effect on hemodynamics and oxidative stress using a surviving swine model of neonatal asphyxia.
Congenital Cytomegalovirus Infection in High-risk Canadian Infants: Report of a Pilot Screening Study
The Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology = Journal Canadien Des Maladies Infectieuses Et De La Microbiologie Médicale / AMMI Canada. 2010 | Pubmed ID: 21358874
Congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV) is the most common congenital infection; however, the epidemiology in Canada has not been recently examined. The present prospective study pilots tools for a population-based study of cCMV infection in Canada by determining the maternal seroprevalence and risk factors, the clinical characteristics and the incidence of cCMV using a variety of diagnostic tests in a cohort of high-risk infants in northern Alberta.
Plasma Cortisol Response to ACTH Challenge in Hypoxic Newborn Piglets Resuscitated with 21% and 100% Oxygen
Shock (Augusta, Ga.). May, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 19924031
Although the use of supplemental oxygen to resuscitate asphyxiated neonates remains controversial, the effects of hypoxia and reoxygenation (room air versus pure oxygen) on the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis are unknown. We aimed to evaluate the effect of hypoxia and reoxygenation with either 21% or 100% oxygen on plasma cortisol before and after an adrenocorticotrophin (ACTH) challenge in newborn piglets. Thirty-five piglets (aged 1-3 days, weighing 1.5-2.4 kg) were instrumented to measure heart rate, MAP, and cardiac output. After 2 h of normocapnic hypoxia (PaO2, 20-30 mmHg; pH, <6.95), piglets were resuscitated with 21% or 100% oxygen for 1 h and then 21% oxygen for 3 h. Sham-operated piglets had no hypoxia-reoxygenation (H-R). Serial plasma cortisol levels were determined after a blinded randomized administration of ACTH (4 microg/kg, i.v.) or saline at 2 h reoxygenation. The expression of steroidogenic factor 1 in the adrenals was studied. Cardiac output decreased with hypoxia and recovered with resuscitation. Piglets developed hypotension similarly in 21% and 100% H-R groups during reoxygenation (versus sham-operated group, P < 0.05). Both H-R groups had increased plasma cortisol levels (versus sham-operated group, P < 0.05) at 2 h of reoxygenation after hypoxia, with a further increase in levels in 21% H-R piglets at 4 h reoxygenation (versus 100% H-R piglets, P < 0.05). The response to ACTH was delayed in H-R groups, with the maximum increase at 120 min post-ACTH administration (versus 30-60 min post-ACTH for sham-operated piglets). Plasma cortisol levels increased significantly post-ACTH administration in 21% H-R and sham-operated piglets (115% +/-50% and 126% +/- 25% at 120 min, respectively, P < 0.05 vs. pre-ACTH baselines) but not in 100% H-R piglets (51% +/-14%), which had a lower expression of steroidogenic factor 1 than the other groups. Although the clinical significance of high cortisol levels and cortisol response to ACTH in H-R newborn piglets is uncertain, a preserved cortisol response may support using room air in neonatal resuscitation.
Using 100% Oxygen for the Resuscitation of Term Neonates Until Evidence of Spontaneous Circulation: More Investigations Needed
Resuscitation. Feb, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20036456
Intensive Care Medicine. Jun, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20221750
After resuscitation, asphyxiated neonates often develop poor cardiac function with hypotension, pulmonary hypertension and multiorgan ischemia. In a swine model of neonatal hypoxia-reoxygenation, effects of epinephrine, dobutamine and milrinone on systemic, pulmonary and regional hemodynamics and oxygen transport were compared.
Neonatal Asphyxia Induces the Nitration of Cardiac Myosin Light Chain 2 That is Associated with Cardiac Systolic Dysfunction
Shock (Augusta, Ga.). Dec, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20386496
Hypoxia followed by reoxygenation (H-R) observed during perinatal asphyxia is a serious complication with high mortality and morbidity rates that may cause adverse cardiovascular effects in neonates. Our aim was to determine if oxidative stress related to H-R induces peroxynitrite-dependent modifications of the cardiac contractile protein, myosin regulatory light chain 2 (MLC2), and whether this is associated with development of cardiac systolic dysfunction. Twelve newborn piglets were acutely instrumented for hemodynamic monitoring and randomized to a control group ventilated with only atmospheric air or to the H-R study group exposed to alveolar normocapnic hypoxia followed by reoxygenation. Afterward, animals were euthanized, and the hearts were harvested for biochemical analyses. Systolic function as well as cardiac MLC2 levels decreased in H-R animals, whereas nitrates and nitrotyrosine levels increased. Negative correlations between nitrates, nitrotyrosine, and MLC2 levels were observed. Moreover, H-R induced nitration of two tyrosine residues within the MLC2 protein. Similarly, in vitro exposure of MLC2 to peroxynitrite resulted in the nitration of tyrosine, which increased the susceptibility of MLC2 to subsequent degradation by matrix metalloproteinase 2. Substitution of this tyrosine with phenylalanine prevented the matrix metalloproteinase 2-dependent degradation of MLC2. In addition, a large decrease in MLC2 phosphorylation caused by H-R was observed. Oxidative stress related to asphyxia induces nitration of cardiac MLC2 protein and thus increases its degradation. This and a large decrease in MLC2 phosphorylation contribute to the development of systolic dysfunction. Inhibition of MLC2 nitration and/or direct inhibition of its degradation by MMP-2 could be potential therapeutic targets aiming at reduction of myocardial damage during resuscitation of asphyxiated newborns.
European Journal of Pharmacology. Oct, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20621087
Little is known about the expression of kidney angiostatin in the hypoxia and reoxygenation of neonates. In this study, we compared the effect of 21% and 100% reoxygenation on kidney levels of angiostatin and its related factors in newborn piglets subjected to hypoxia-reoxygenation. Newborn piglets were subjected to 2h hypoxia followed by 1h of reoxygenation with either 21% or 100% oxygen and observed for 4days. There were 3 isoforms (38, 43 and 50kDa) of angiostatins identified in the kidney tissue of newborn piglets with the 38kDa being the major isoform (~60%). The 38kDa, but not 43 and 50kDa, angiostatin isoform correlated significantly with the levels of total angiostatin and plasminogen (r=0.95 and r=0.58, respectively). On day 4 of recovery in 100% hypoxic-reoxygenated group, there were decreases in kidney tissue levels of plasminogen, total angiostatin, angiostatin (38 and 43kDa, but not 50kDa), whereas no significant changes were found in the 21% hypoxic-reoxygenated group when compared to the sham-operated piglets with no hypoxia-reoxygenation. Both 21% and 100% hypoxic-reoxygenated groups did not show significant changes in kidney tissue levels of 50kDa angiostatin, MMP-2, MMP-9 and HIF-1alpha. In comparison to 21% oxygen, neonatal resuscitation with 100% oxygen decreased the kidney tissue levels of plasminogen and angiostatin that may play a role in neonatal kidney injury and altered renal development in adulthood.
N-acetylcysteine Improves Hemodynamics and Reduces Oxidative Stress in the Brains of Newborn Piglets with Hypoxia-reoxygenation Injury
Journal of Neurotrauma. Oct, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20649480
Reactive oxygen species have been implicated in the pathogenesis of hypoxic-ischemic injury. It has been shown previously that treating an animal with N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), a scavenger of free radicals, significantly minimizes hypoxic-ischemic-induced brain injury in various acute models. Using a subacute swine model of neonatal hypoxia-reoxygenation (H-R), we evaluated the long-term beneficial effect of NAC against oxidative stress-induced brain injury. Newborn piglets were randomly assigned to a sham-operated group (without H-R, n = 6), and two H-R experimental groups (n = 8 each), with 2 h normocapnic alveolar hypoxia and 1 h of 100% oxygen reoxygenation followed by 21% oxygen for 47 h. Five minutes after reoxygenation, the H-R piglets received either normal saline (H-R controls) or NAC (150 mg/kg bolus and 20 mg/kg/h IV for 24 h) in a blinded randomized fashion. Treating the piglets with NAC significantly increased both common carotid arterial flow (CCAF) and oxygen delivery during the early phase of rexoygenation, while both CCAF and carotid oxygen delivery of the H-R group remained lower than the sham-operated groups throughout the experimental period. Compared with H-R controls, significantly higher amounts of anesthetic and sedative medications were required to maintain the NAC-treated piglets in stable condition throughout the experimental period, indicating a stronger recovery. Post-resuscitation NAC treatment also significantly attenuated the increase in cortical caspase-3 and lipid hydroperoxide concentrations. Our findings suggest that post-resuscitation administration of NAC reduces cerebral oxidative stress with improved cerebral oxygen delivery, and probably attenuates apoptosis in newborn piglets with H-R insults.
Cerebral Amino Acid Profiles After Hypoxia-reoxygenation and N-acetylcysteine Treatment in the Newborn Piglet
Neonatology. 2010 | Pubmed ID: 19864926
Neonatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI) is a common clinical occurrence. Recently, much evidence has been gathered to suggest that oxygen free radicals are implicated in the pathogenesis of hypoxia-reoxygenation injury through the initiation and propagation of toxic cascades including glutamate excitotoxicity and the manifestation of post-HI neurologic disorders. Following HI, excessive free radicals are formed and antioxidant defenses are diminished. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is a clinically available antioxidant and has been previously shown to reduce oxidative stress and scavenge free radicals in multiple models of brain injury.
Improved Renal Recovery with Postresuscitation N-acetylcysteine Treatment in Asphyxiated Newborn Pigs
Shock (Augusta, Ga.). Apr, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 20938377
Renal injury is one of the severe and common complications that occurs early in neonates with asphyxia, and reactive oxygen species have been implicated to play an important role on its pathogenesis. Improved renal recovery has been shown previously with N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) in various acute kidney injuries. Using a subacute swine model of neonatal hypoxia-reoxygenation (H/R), we examined whether NAC can sustain its beneficial effect on renal recovery for 48 h. Newborn piglets were randomly assigned into a sham-operated group (without H/R, n = 6) and two H/R experimental groups (n = 8 each) with 2 h normocapnic alveolar hypoxia and 1 h 100% oxygen of reoxygenation followed by 21% oxygen for 47 h. Five minutes after reoxygenation, piglets received either normal saline (H/R control) or NAC (150-mg/kg bolus and 20 mg/kg per hour i.v. for 24 h) in a blinded, randomized fashion. All piglets were acidotic and in cardiogenic shock after hypoxia. Treating the piglets with NAC significantly increased both renal blood flow and oxygen delivery throughout the reoxygenation period. N-acetyl-l-cysteine treatment also improved the renal function with the attenuation of elevated urinary N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase activity and plasma creatinine concentration observed in H/R controls (both P < 0.05). The tissue levels of lipid hydroperoxides and caspase 3 in the kidney of NAC-treated animals were significantly lower than those of H/R controls. Conclusively, postresuscitation administration of NAC elicits a prolonged beneficial effect in improving renal functional recovery and reducing oxidative stress in newborn piglets with H/R insults for 48 h.
Hydrocortisone Administration Increases Pulmonary Artery Pressure in Asphyxiated Newborn Piglets Reoxygenated with 100% Oxygen
European Journal of Pharmacology. Feb, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21114992
In severely asphyxiated neonates developing vasopressor-resistant shock, hydrocortisone is commonly used to improve perfusion. However, its acute haemodynamic effects in asphyxiated neonates are largely unknown. In a swine model of neonatal asphyxia, effects of hydrocortisone on systemic and pulmonary circulations were examined. Piglets (1-3d, 1.5-2.4kg) were acutely instrumented to measure heart rate, systemic and pulmonary artery pressures, and pulmonary artery flow. After 2h of normocapnic hypoxia, animals were resuscitated with 100% oxygen for 1h followed by 21% oxygen for 3h. Intravenous hydrocortisone (1mg/kg) or saline was given in a blinded, randomized fashion 2h after reoxygenation (n=6/group). Haemodynamic parameters, blood gases, plasma cortisol, as well as levels of endothelin-1, nitrite/nitrate, nitrotyrosine, matrix metalloproteinases-2 and -9 in the lung were analysed. Severe hypoxia caused metabolic acidosis (mean pH: 6.91-6.97, mean plasma lactate: 17.2-18.3mM), tachycardia and shock. Hydrocortisone did not affect systemic haemodynamics which recovered with reoxygenation, but it increased pulmonary artery pressure at 90-120min after administration (36±3 vs. 27±2 and 26±1mmHg for hypoxia-reoxygenation control and sham-operated piglets, respectively, P<0.05). In the lung tissue, hydrocortisone significantly increased endothelin-1 and nitrite/nitrate levels, but had no effect on nitrotyrosine. Further, it decreased lung matrix metalloproteinase-9, but not matrix metalloproteinase-2, activity, which were both elevated with hypoxia-reoxygenation. It is most likely that the increase in pulmonary artery pressure observed after hydrocortisone treatment was associated with increased endothelin-1 level in the lung. Our findings caution the use of hydrocortisone as a first-intention treatment of shock in asphyxiated neonates.
Effects of Tanshinone IIA, a Major Component of Salvia Miltiorrhiza, on Platelet Aggregation in Healthy Newborn Piglets
Journal of Ethnopharmacology. Sep, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21453766
Tanshinone IIA (STS), an active ingredient of the Chinese herb Danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza) for angina and stroke in adults, has been reported to inhibit platelet function. However, its effect on platelet and underlying mechanism remain largely unknown, particularly in neonates.
The Journal of Pediatrics. Feb, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21238709
Hemostasis is the balance between bleeding and clotting and includes coagulation and fibrinolysis with platelet interactions. Despite developmental hemostasis that describes the major differences between neonates and older children and adults, neonates do not have increased bleeding or clotting unless clinical situations disturb the "balance." Perinatal asphyxia alters the balance of hemostasis, resulting in abnormalities that may result in bleeding and thrombosis. The following discussion will describe normal hemostasis, laboratory measures of hemostasis, developmental hemostasis, and the effects of asphyxia on hemostasis.
Vasopressin Improves Systemic Hemodynamics Without Compromising Mesenteric Perfusion in the Resuscitation of Asphyxiated Newborn Piglets: a Dose-response Study
Intensive Care Medicine. Nov, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 22124774
PURPOSE: Hypoxia and reoxygenation (H-R) contributes to multi-organ failure in neonates, including cardiac and systemic complications. Use of vasopressin, an endogenous vasoconstrictive hormone commonly used to treat refractory hypotension in adults, in neonates with shock remains limited and not yet fully studied. We hypothesize that vasopressin will improve mean arterial pressure (MAP), without compromising cardiac, mesenteric, or carotid hemodynamics using a swine model of neonatal asphyxia. METHODS: Anesthetized piglets (1-4 days old, 1.4-2.5 kg, n = 33) were instrumented for continuous monitoring of cardiac index (CI), MAP, and regional arterial [common carotid (CA), superior mesenteric (SMA)] flow. The animals underwent hypoxia at 10-15% oxygen (2 h) followed by reoxygenation at 100% (0.5 h) and 21% (3.5 h) oxygen. Vasopressin infusion was initiated after 2 h reoxygenation at 0.005, 0.01, or 0.02 units/kg/h i.v. for 2 h (n = 7/group). H-R control (saline infusion) and sham-operated (non-asphyxiated) groups were also included. Intermittent blood gases and plasma lactate were determined as well as tissue lactate levels. Statistical significance was determined using ANOVA. RESULTS: All H-R piglets had hypotension (36-49% decrease in MAP) and decreased regional blood flows (CA -28 to -34%, SMA -12 to +32% of baseline) at 2 h reoxygenation. Vasopressin infusion dose-dependently increased MAP (14% at 0.02 units/kg/h, P < 0.05) without significant detrimental effects in CI, regional blood flows, and intestinal or cerebral tissue lactate levels. CONCLUSIONS: Vasopressin treatment causes a dose-dependent baro-specific effect, while preserving cardiac function and cerebral and mesenteric hemodynamics in newborn piglets following H-R.
Cyclosporine Treatment Improves Mesenteric Perfusion and Attenuates Necrotizing Enterocolitis (NEC)-like Intestinal Injury in Asphyxiated Newborn Piglets During Reoxygenation
Intensive Care Medicine. Dec, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 22143394
PURPOSE: Asphyxia-related intestinal injury in neonates may present similar to necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and is partially associated with hypoxia-reoxygenation injury. Cyclosporine has been shown to reduce myocardial cell death following ischemia-reperfusion. We hypothesize that cyclosporine treatment may attenuate NEC-like intestinal injury in asphyxiated newborn piglets during reoxygenation. METHODS: Twenty piglets (1-4 days old) were acutely anesthetized and instrumented for continuous monitoring of systemic hemodynamics and superior mesenteric arterial (SMA) flow. After stabilization, normocapnic alveolar hypoxia (10-15% oxygen) was instituted for 2 h followed by reoxygenation with 100% oxygen for 0.5 h, then 21% for 3.5 h. The piglets were blindly block-randomized to receive cyclosporine (10 mg/kg) or placebo (normal saline) boluses at 5 min of reoxygenation (n = 8/group). A sham-operated group was included (n = 4) and received no hypoxia-reoxygenation. Intestinal samples were collected for tissue lactate and histological assessment (Park's criteria). RESULTS: At 2 h of hypoxia, piglets had cardiogenic shock (cardiac output 45% of baseline), hypotension (mean arterial pressure 30 mmHg), acidosis (pH 7.04), and decreased superior mesenteric perfusion (all P < 0.05 vs. sham-operated group, ANOVA). Cyclosporine treatment increased SMA flow (114 ± 6 vs. 78 ± 19% of baseline of controls, respectively) with improved SMA oxygen delivery and intestinal tissue lactate (all P < 0.05). Some control piglets had NEC-like injuries including pneumatosis intestinalis, which were attenuated in cyclosporine-treated piglets (P < 0.05 vs. controls). CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to demonstrate that post-resuscitation administration of cyclosporine improves mesenteric perfusion and attenuates NEC-like intestinal injury in newborn piglets following asphyxia-reoxygenation.
Clinical Transplantation. Dec, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 22168310
Yu X, Larsen B, Urschel S, Cheung P-Y, Ross DB, Rebeyka I, West L, Li J. The profile of inflammatory and metabolic response in children undergoing heart transplantation. Clin Transplant 2011 DOI: 10.1111/j.1399-0012.2011.01566.x. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Abstract: Inflammatory and metabolic response is an important factor to determine clinical outcomes. However, it remains unknown in children undergoing heart transplantation (HTx). We examined the perioperative changes in the inflammatory and metabolic response markers C-reactive protein (CRP) and prealbumin (PA) in 38 heart-transplanted children. Data obtained prior to and within one month after HTx included CRP, PA, total and differential white blood cell counts, doses of inotropes and immunosuppressants, cultures of blood and body fluids, duration of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), aortic cross clamp and donor heart ischemia, and days in the intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital. CRP was 32 ± 49 mg/L before HTx, increased to 130 ± 55 mg/L on postoperative day 1-2, and decreased to 21 ± 31 mg/L by one month after HTx. PA was 0.15 ± 0.06 g/L before HTx, decreased to 0.12 ± 0.03 g/L on postoperative day 1-2, and then gradually increased to 0.21 ± 0.10 g/L by one month after HTx. Postoperative CRP positively correlated with epinephrine dosage and CPB duration. PA positively correlated with age. In conclusion, inflammatory and metabolic response is present before HTx and acutely intensified after HTx. It may be mainly influenced by CPB duration and cardiovascular function status.
Shock (Augusta, Ga.). Jan, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22293599
ABSTRACT: Myocardial injury in adults, pediatric and newborn patients is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity. Though the underlying etiologies are different among patient populations, the sequence of initial ischemic-hypoxic injury followed by secondary myocardial reperfusion injury is relatively consistent. Overall infarct size is important because it is believed to be a key determinant of mortality. The detrimental effects of myocardial reperfusion have been proposed to be at least partially related to the formation of mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP). The MPTP is a non-specific pore, which forms during myocardial reperfusion and allows the release of apoptotic signaling molecules and may also lead to cellular necrosis. Cyclosporine A has been shown to be a potent inhibitor of the MPTP, leading to its study as a potential treatment to limit myocardial reperfusion injury. Multiple adult animal models have demonstrated the protective effects of cyclosporine in ischemia-reperfusion. A recent human pilot clinical trial also reported reduced myocardial injury and infarct size in patients treated with cyclosporine intravenously prior to percutaneous coronary intervention for ST-elevation myocardial infarction. Despite the paucity of evidence of cyclosporine A demonstrating myocardial protective in pediatric and newborn patients, the existing animal experimental results are promising.
Milrinone is Preferred to Levosimendan for Mesenteric Perfusion in Hypoxia-reoxygenated Newborn Piglets Treated with Dopamine
Pediatric Research. Mar, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22337258
Introduction:There is little information regarding the comparative hemodynamic effects of adding milrinone or levosimendan to dopamine infusion in hypoxia-reoxygenated (H-R) newborns.Results:Severely hypoxic piglets had cardiogenic shock with depressed cardiac index (CI) and mean arterial pressure (MAP). The hemodynamics deteriorated gradually after initial recovery upon reoxygenation. Heart rate and CI improved with milrinone (D+M) and levosimendan (D+L) administration (P < 0.05 vs. control). Both regimens improved carotid arterial flow and carotid vascular resistance; D+M additionally improved superior mesentric arterial flow (all P < 0.05 vs. control). No effect was found on renal arterial flow or elevated lactate state with either regimen. D+M piglets also had a lower myocardial oxidized/reduced glutathione ratio (P < 0.05 vs. control).Discussion:In conclusion, adding milrinone or levosimendan to dopamine similarly improved systemic hemodynamics in H-R newborn piglets. Milrinone also improved mesenteric perfusion and attenuated myocardial oxidative stress.Methods:Twenty-eight piglets (1-4 d, 1.5-2.5 kg) were instrumented for continuous monitoring of systemic MAP and pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP), CI, and carotid, superior mesenteric, and renal arterial flows. Piglets were randomized with blinding to sham-operated, H-R control (saline), and H-R dopamine (10 μg/kg/min) with D+M or D+L groups. H-R piglets underwent H-R followed by 2 h of drug infusion after reoxygenation. Tissue was collected for biochemical/oxidative stress testing and histological analysis.