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- Experimentell Manipulering av Body storlek att uppskatta Morfologiska Skalning Relationer i Drosophila
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Articles by R. Craig Stillwell in JoVE
Experimentell Manipulering av Body storlek att uppskatta Morfologiska Skalning Relationer i Drosophila
R. Craig Stillwell1, Ian Dworkin2, Alexander W. Shingleton2, W. Anthony Frankino1
1Department of Biology & Biochemistry, University of Houston, 2Department of Zoology, Michigan State University
Morfologiska skalning relationer fånga och beskriva organismbiologi form. Vi presenterar en metod för att mäta morfologiska skalning förbindelser över naturliga utbredningsområde kroppen storlekar i helt metamorfa insekter. Med en enkel diet manipulation vi öka distributionen av drag storlekar, tillåter utförlig beskrivning av hur form och storlek samvarierar.
Other articles by R. Craig Stillwell on PubMed
The Genetic Architecture of Life Span and Mortality Rates: Gender and Species Differences in Inbreeding Load of Two Seed-feeding Beetles
Genetics. Oct, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16888331
We examine the inbreeding load for adult life span and mortality rates of two seed beetle species, Callosobruchus maculatus and Stator limbatus. Inbreeding load differs substantially between males and females in both study populations of C. maculatus--life span of inbred females was 9-13% shorter than the life span of outbred females, whereas the life span of inbred males did not differ from the life span of outbred males. The effect of inbreeding on female life span was largely due to an increase in the slope of the mortality curve. In contrast, inbreeding had only a small effect on the life span of S. limbatus--life spans of inbred beetles were approximately 5% shorter than those of outbred beetles, and there was no difference in inbreeding load between the sexes. The inbreeding load for mean life span was approximately 0.4-0.6 lethal equivalents per haploid gamete for female C. maculatus and approximately 0.2-0.3 for both males and females of S. limbatus, all within the range of estimates commonly obtained for Drosophila. However, contrary to the predictions of mutation-accumulation models, inbreeding load for loci affecting mortality rates did not increase with age in either species, despite an effect of inbreeding on the initial rate of increase in mortality. This was because mortality rates decelerated with age and converged to a mortality plateau for both outbred and inbred beetles.
Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution. Oct, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 17133857
Bergmann's and Rensch's rules describe common large-scale patterns of body size variation, but their underlying causes remain elusive. Bergmann's rule states that organisms are larger at higher latitudes (or in colder climates). Rensch's rule states that male body size varies (or evolutionarily diverges) more than female body size among species, resulting in slopes greater than one when male size is regressed on female size. We use published studies of sex-specific latitudinal body size clines in vertebrates and invertebrates to investigate patterns equivalent to Rensch's rule among populations within species and to evaluate their possible relation to Bergmann's rule. Consistent with previous studies, we found a continuum of Bergmann (larger at higher latitudes: 58 species) and converse Bergmann body size clines (larger at lower latitudes: 40 species). Ignoring latitude, male size was more variable than female size in only 55 of 98 species, suggesting that intraspecific variation in sexual size dimorphism does not generally conform to Rensch's rule. In contrast, in a significant majority of species (66 of 98) male latitudinal body size clines were steeper than those of females. This pattern is consistent with a latitudinal version of Rensch's rule, and suggests that some factor that varies systematically with latitude is responsible for producing Rensch's rule among populations within species. Identifying the underlying mechanisms will require studies quantifying latitudinal variation in sex-specific natural and sexual selection on body size.
Oecologia. Aug, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17440751
Sexual size dimorphism is widespread in animals but varies considerably among species and among populations within species. Much of this variation is assumed to be due to variance in selection on males versus females. However, environmental variables could affect the development of females and males differently, generating variation in dimorphism. Here we use a factorial experimental design to simultaneously examine the effects of rearing host and temperature on sexual dimorphism of the seed beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus. We found that the sexes differed in phenotypic plasticity of body size in response to rearing temperature but not rearing host, creating substantial temperature-induced variation in sexual dimorphism; females were larger than males at all temperatures, but the degree of this dimorphism was smallest at the lowest temperature. This change in dimorphism was due to a gender difference in the effect of temperature on growth rate and not due to sexual differences in plasticity of development time. Furthermore, the sex ratio (proportion males) decreased with decreasing temperature and became female-biased at the lowest temperature. This suggests that the temperature-induced change in dimorphism is potentially due to a change in non-random larval mortality of males versus females. This most important implication of this study is that rearing temperature can generate considerable intraspecific variation in the degree of sexual size dimorphism, though most studies assume that dimorphism varies little within species. Future studies should focus on whether sexual differences in phenotypic plasticity of body size are a consequence of adaptive canalization of one sex against environmental variation in temperature or whether they simply reflect a consequence of non-adaptive developmental differences between males and females.
Phenotypic Plasticity in a Complex World: Interactive Effects of Food and Temperature on Fitness Components of a Seed Beetle
Oecologia. Aug, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17486371
Most studies of phenotypic plasticity investigate the effects of an individual environmental factor on organism phenotypes. However, organisms exist in an ecologically complex world where multiple environmental factors can interact to affect growth, development and life histories. Here, using a multifactorial experimental design, we examine the separate and interactive effects of two environmental factors, rearing host species (Vigna radiata, Vigna angularis and Vigna unguiculata) and temperature (20, 25, 30 and 35 degrees C), on growth and life history traits in two populations [Burkina Faso (BF) and South India (SI)] of the seed beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus. The two study populations of beetles responded differently to both rearing host and temperature. We also found a significant interaction between rearing host and temperature for body size, growth rate and female lifetime fecundity but not larval development time or larval survivorship. The interaction was most apparent for growth rate; the variance in growth rate among hosts increased with increasing temperature. However, the details of host differences differed between our two study populations; the degree to which V. unguiculata was a better host than V. angularis or V. radiata increased at higher temperatures for BF beetles, whereas the degree to which V. unguiculata was the worst host increased at higher temperatures for SI beetles. We also found that the heritabilities of body mass, growth rate and fecundity were similar among rearing hosts and temperatures, and that the cross-temperature genetic correlation was not affected by rearing host, suggesting that genetic architecture is generally stable across rearing conditions. The most important finding of our study is that multiple environmental factors can interact to affect organism growth, but the degree of interaction, and thus the degree of complexity of phenotypic plasticity, varies among traits and between populations.
The American Naturalist. Sep, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17879187
Body size of many animals varies with latitude: body size is either larger at higher latitudes (Bergmann's rule) or smaller at higher latitudes (converse Bergmann's rule). However, the causes underlying these patterns are poorly understood. Also, studies rarely explore how sexual size dimorphism varies with latitude. Here we investigate geographic variation in body size and sexual size dimorphism of the seed-feeding beetle Stator limbatus, collected from 95 locations along a 38 degrees range in latitude. We examine 14 variables to test whether clines in environmental factors are adequate to explain geographic patterns of body size. We found that body size and sexual size dimorphism of S. limbatus varied considerably with latitude; beetles were smaller but more dimorphic at lower latitudes. Body size was not correlated with a gradient in mean temperature, contrary to the commonly accepted hypothesis that clines are produced by latitudinal gradients in temperature. Instead, we found that three factors were adequate to explain the cline in body size: clinal variation in host plant seed size, moisture (humidity), and seasonality (variance in humidity, precipitation, and temperature). We also found that the cline in sexual size dimorphism was partially explainable by a gradient in moisture, though moisture alone was not sufficient to explain the cline. Other ecological or environmental variables must necessarily contribute to differences in selection on male versus female body size. The main implications of our study are that the sexes differ in the magnitude of clinal variation in body size, creating latitudinal variation in sexual size dimorphism, and that clines in body size of seed beetles are likely influenced by variation in host seed size, water availability, and seasonality.
Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution. Oct, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18647341
Body size of many animals increases with increasing latitude, a phenomenon known as Bergmann's rule (Bergmann clines). Latitudinal gradients in mean temperature are frequently assumed to be the underlying cause of this pattern because temperature covaries systematically with latitude, but whether and how temperature mediates selection on body size is unclear. To test the hypothesis that the "relative" advantage of being larger is greatest at cooler temperatures we compare the fitness of replicate lines of the seed beetle, Stator limbatus, for which body size was manipulated via artificial selection ("Large,"Control," and "Small" lines), when raised at low (22 degrees C) and high (34 degrees C) temperatures. Large-bodied beetles (Large lines) took the longest to develop but had the highest lifetime fecundity, and highest fitness (r(C)), at both low and high temperatures. However, the relative difference between the Large and Small lines did not change with temperature (replicate 2) or was greatest at high temperature (replicate 1), contrary to the prediction that the fitness advantage of being large relative to being small will decline with increasing temperature. Our results are consistent with two previous studies of this seed beetle, but inconsistent with prior studies that suggest that temperature-mediated selection on body size is a major contributor to the production of Bergmann clines. We conclude that other environmental and ecological variables that covary with latitude are more likely to produce the gradient in natural selection responsible for generating Bergmann clines.
Sex Differences in Phenotypic Plasticity Affect Variation in Sexual Size Dimorphism in Insects: from Physiology to Evolution
Annual Review of Entomology. 2010 | Pubmed ID: 19728836
Males and females of nearly all animals differ in their body size, a phenomenon called sexual size dimorphism (SSD). The degree and direction of SSD vary considerably among taxa, including among populations within species. A considerable amount of this variation is due to sex differences in body size plasticity. We examine how variation in these sex differences is generated by exploring sex differences in plasticity in growth rate and development time and the physiological regulation of these differences (e.g., sex differences in regulation by the endocrine system). We explore adaptive hypotheses proposed to explain sex differences in plasticity, including those that predict that plasticity will be lowest for traits under strong selection (adaptive canalization) or greatest for traits under strong directional selection (condition dependence), but few studies have tested these hypotheses. Studies that combine proximate and ultimate mechanisms offer great promise for understanding variation in SSD and sex differences in body size plasticity in insects.
Proceedings. Biological Sciences / The Royal Society. Jul, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20219738
Males and females of almost all organisms exhibit sexual differences in body size, a phenomenon called sexual size dimorphism (SSD). How the sexes evolve to be different sizes, despite sharing the same genes that control growth and development, and hence a common genetic architecture, has remained elusive. Here, we show that the genetic architecture (heritabilities and genetic correlations) of the physiological mechanism that regulates size during the last stage of larval development of a moth, differs between the sexes, and thus probably facilitates, rather than hinders, the evolution of SSD. We further show that the endocrine system plays a critical role in generating SSD. Our results demonstrate that knowledge of the genetic architecture underlying the physiological process during development that ultimately produces SSD in adults can elucidate how males and females of organisms evolve to be of different sizes.
Sex Differences in Phenotypic Plasticity of a Mechanism That Controls Body Size: Implications for Sexual Size Dimorphism
Proceedings. Biological Sciences / The Royal Society. Dec, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20610429
The degree and/or direction of sexual size dimorphism (SSD) varies considerably among species and among populations within species. Although this variation is in part genetically based, much of it is probably due to the sexes exhibiting differences in body size plasticity. Here, we use the hawkmoth, Manduca sexta, to test the hypothesis that moths reared on different diet qualities and at different temperatures will exhibit sex-specific body size plasticity. In addition, we explore the proximate mechanisms that potentially create sex-specific plasticity by examining three physiological variables known to regulate body size in this insect: the growth rate, the critical weight (which measures the cessation of juvenile hormone secretion from the corpora allata) and the interval to cessation of growth (ICG; which measures the time interval between the critical weight and the secretion of the ecdysteroids that regulate pupation and metamorphosis). We found that peak larval mass of males and females did not exhibit sex-specific plasticity in response to diet or temperature. However, the sexes did exhibit sex-specific plasticity in the mechanism that controls size; males and females exhibited sex-specific plasticity in the growth rate and the critical weight in response to both diet and temperature, whereas the ICG only exhibited sex-specific plasticity in response to diet. Our results suggest it is important for the sexes to maintain the same degree of SSD across environments and that this is accomplished by the sexes exhibiting differential sensitivity of the physiological factors that determine body size to environmental variation.