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In JoVE (1)
- Dissektion och kultur mus dopaminerga och Striatala Explantat i tredimensionella analyser kollagenmatris
Other Publications (32)
- Current Opinion in Neurobiology
- Trends in Cell Biology
- International Immunology
- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
- Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
- Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
- Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
- BMC Developmental Biology
- Progress in Neurobiology
- Trends in Biochemical Sciences
- Progress in Neurobiology
- Current Opinion in Neurobiology
- Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
- Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
- The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
- Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
- Nature Genetics
- Archives of Neurology
- Trends in Cell Biology
- BMC Neuroscience
- The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
- Current Biology : CB
- Molecular and Cellular Biology
- Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS
- Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
- Annals of Neurology
- Human Molecular Genetics
- Neurobiology of Aging
- Neurobiology of Aging
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Articles by R. Jeroen Pasterkamp in JoVE
Dissektion och kultur mus dopaminerga och Striatala Explantat i tredimensionella analyser kollagenmatris
Ewoud R.E. Schmidt, Francesca Morello, R. Jeroen Pasterkamp
Department of Neuroscience & Pharmacology, Rudolf Magnus Institute for Neuroscience, University Medical Center Utrecht
Explantat från mitthjärnan dopaminsystemet och striatum används i en kollagenmatris analys för
Other articles by R. Jeroen Pasterkamp on PubMed
MICALs, a Family of Conserved Flavoprotein Oxidoreductases, Function in Plexin-mediated Axonal Repulsion
Cell. Jun, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 12110185
Members of the semaphorin family of secreted and transmembrane proteins utilize plexins as neuronal receptors to signal repulsive axon guidance. It remains unknown how plexin proteins are directly linked to the regulation of cytoskeletal dynamics. Here, we show that Drosophila MICAL, a large, multidomain, cytosolic protein expressed in axons, interacts with the neuronal plexin A (PlexA) receptor and is required for Semaphorin 1a (Sema-1a)-PlexA-mediated repulsive axon guidance. In addition to containing several domains known to interact with cytoskeletal components, MICAL has a flavoprotein monooxygenase domain, the integrity of which is required for Sema-1a-PlexA repulsive axon guidance. Vertebrate orthologs of Drosophila MICAL are neuronally expressed and also interact with vertebrate plexins, and monooxygenase inhibitors abrogate semaphorin-mediated axonal repulsion. These results suggest a novel role for oxidoreductases in repulsive neuronal guidance.
Current Opinion in Neurobiology. Feb, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12593985
Semaphorins constitute one of the largest families of repulsive and attractive growth cone guidance proteins. They affect the growth cone's actin cytoskeleton through interactions with receptor complexes composed of ligand-binding, signal-transducing, and modulatory subunits. Our understanding of the intracellular signal transduction machinery linking semaphorins to actin dynamics is limited; however, recent advances provide a more comprehensive view of the molecular basis of neuronal semaphorin signaling.
Nature. Jul, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12879062
Striking parallels exist between immune and nervous system cellular signalling mechanisms. Molecules originally shown to be critical for immune responses also serve neuronal functions, and similarly neural guidance cues can modulate immune function. We show here that semaphorin 7A (Sema7A), a membrane-anchored member of the semaphorin family of guidance proteins previously known for its immunomodulatory effects, can also mediate neuronal functions. Unlike many other semaphorins, which act as repulsive guidance cues, Sema7A enhances central and peripheral axon growth and is required for proper axon tract formation during embryonic development. Unexpectedly, Sema7A enhancement of axon outgrowth requires integrin receptors and activation of MAPK signalling pathways. These findings define a previously unknown biological function for semaphorins, identify an unexpected role for integrins and integrin-dependent intracellular signalling in mediating semaphorin responses, and provide a framework for understanding and interfering with Sema7A function in both immune and nervous systems.
Trends in Cell Biology. Feb, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15695091
Plexins are cell-surface receptors for the semaphorin family of neuronal guidance cues. Following semaphorin binding, the plexin cytoplasmic region initiates poorly understood signal-transduction events that lead to modifications of the cytoskeleton. Recent findings shed new light on the signalling network downstream of semaphorins and plexins by demonstrating that one of the plexins, plexin-B1, possesses an intrinsic GTPase-activating protein (GAP) activity towards R-Ras. Inactivation of R-Ras by the plexin-B1 GAP domains is required for plexin-B1-mediated effects on the cytoskeleton. These results indicate that plexins not only bind to but also regulate directly the activity of some of their downstream effectors.
Soluble CD100 Functions on Human Monocytes and Immature Dendritic Cells Require Plexin C1 and Plexin B1, Respectively
International Immunology. Apr, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15746246
CD100 represents the first semaphorin described in the immune system. It is expressed as a 300-kDa homodimer at the surface of most hematopoietic cells, but is also found in a soluble form following a proteolytic cleavage upon cell activation. We herein established that soluble CD100 (sCD100) impaired the migration of human monocytes and immature dendritic cells (DCs), but not of mature DCs. Performing competition assays, we identified plexin C1 (VESPR/CD232) as being involved in sCD100-mediated effects on human monocytes. Interestingly, we observed a complete down-regulation of plexin C1 expression during the in vitro differentiation process of monocytes to immature DCs, while concomitantly the surface expression of plexin B1 was induced. The latter receptor then binds sCD100 on immature DCs, mediating its inhibitory effect on cell migration. Finally, we showed that sCD100 modulated the cytokine production from monocytes and immature DCs. Together these results suggest that sCD100 plays a critical role in the regulation of antigen-presenting cell migration and functions via a tightly regulated process of receptor expression.
High-resolution Structure of the Catalytic Region of MICAL (molecule Interacting with CasL), a Multidomain Flavoenzyme-signaling Molecule
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Nov, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16275925
Semaphorins are extracellular cell guidance cues that govern cytoskeletal dynamics during neuronal and vascular development. MICAL (molecule interacting with CasL) is a multidomain cytosolic protein with a putative flavoprotein monooxygenase (MO) region required for semaphorin-plexin repulsive axon guidance. Here, we report the 1.45-A resolution crystal structure of the FAD-containing MO domain of mouse MICAL-1 (residues 1-489). The topology most closely resembles that of the NADPH-dependent flavoenzyme p-hydroxybenzoate hydroxylase (PHBH). Comparison of structures before and after reaction with NADPH reveals that, as in PHBH, the flavin ring can switch between two discrete positions. In contrast with other MOs, this conformational switch is coupled with the opening of a channel to the active site, suggestive of a protein substrate. In support of this hypothesis, distinctive structural features highlight putative protein-binding sites in suitable proximity to the active site entrance. The unusual juxtaposition of this N-terminal MO (hydroxylase) activity with the characteristics of a multiprotein-binding scaffold exhibited by the C-terminal portion of the MICALs represents a unique combination of functionality to mediate signaling.
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences. Sep, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16939971
Semaphorins are developmental axon guidance cues that continue to be expressed during adulthood and are regulated by neural injury. During the formation of the nervous system, repulsive semaphorins guide axons to their targets by restricting and channelling their growth. They affect the growth cone cytoskeleton through interactions with receptor complexes that are linked to a complicated intracellular signal transduction network. Following injury, regenerating axons stop growing when they reach the border of the glial-fibrotic scar, in part because they encounter a potent molecular barrier that inhibits growth cone extension. A number of secreted semaphorins are expressed in the glial-fibrotic scar and at least one transmembrane semaphorin is upregulated in oligodendrocytes surrounding the lesion site. Semaphorin receptors, and many of the signal transduction components required for semaphorin signalling, are present in injured central nervous system neurons. Here, we review evidence that supports a critical role for semaphorin signalling in axon regeneration, and highlight a number of challenges that lie ahead with respect to advancing our understanding of semaphorin function in the normal and injured adult nervous system.
MICAL Flavoprotein Monooxygenases: Expression During Neural Development and Following Spinal Cord Injuries in the Rat
Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences. Jan, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16230022
MICALs comprise of a family of phylogenetically conserved, multidomain cytosolic flavoprotein monooxygenases. Drosophila (D-)MICAL binds the neuronal Sema1a receptor PlexA, and D-MICAL-PlexA interactions are required in vivo for Sema1a-induced axon repulsion. The biological functions of vertebrate MICAL proteins, however, remain unknown. Here, we describe three rodent MICAL genes and analyze their expression in the intact rat nervous system and in two models of spinal cord injury. MICAL-1, -2, and -3 expression patterns in the embryonic, postnatal, and adult nervous system support the idea that MICALs play roles in neural development and plasticity. In addition, MICAL expression is elevated in oligodendrocytes and in meningeal fibroblasts at sites of spinal cord injury but is unchanged in lesioned corticospinal tract neurons. Furthermore, we find that the selective monooxygenase inhibitor EGCG attenuates the repulsive effects of Sema3A and Sema3F in vitro, but not those of several other repulsive cues and substrates. These results implicate MICALs in neuronal regeneration and support the possibility of employing EGCG to attenuate Sema3-mediated axon repulsion in the injured spinal cord.
Nature. Apr, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17377534
Semaphorins are axon guidance factors that assist growing axons in finding appropriate targets and forming synapses. Emerging evidence suggests that semaphorins are involved not only in embryonic development but also in immune responses. Semaphorin 7A (Sema7A; also known as CD108), which is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored semaphorin, promotes axon outgrowth through beta1-integrin receptors and contributes to the formation of the lateral olfactory tract. Although Sema7A has been shown to stimulate human monocytes, its function as a negative regulator of T-cell responses has also been reported. Thus, the precise function of Sema7A in the immune system remains unclear. Here we show that Sema7A, which is expressed on activated T cells, stimulates cytokine production in monocytes and macrophages through alpha1beta1 integrin (also known as very late antigen-1) as a component of the immunological synapse, and is critical for the effector phase of the inflammatory immune response. Sema7A-deficient (Sema7a-/-) mice are defective in cell-mediated immune responses such as contact hypersensitivity and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Although antigen-specific and cytokine-producing effector T cells can develop and migrate into antigen-challenged sites in Sema7a-/- mice, Sema7a-/- T cells fail to induce contact hypersensitivity even when directly injected into the antigen-challenged sites. Thus, the interaction between Sema7A and alpha1beta1 integrin is crucial at the site of inflammation. These findings not only identify a function of Sema7A as an effector molecule in T-cell-mediated inflammation, but also reveal a mechanism of integrin-mediated immune regulation.
Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17607945
MICALs (for Molecule Interacting with CasL) form a recently discovered family of evolutionary conserved signal transduction proteins. They contain multiple well-conserved domains known for interactions with the cytoskeleton, cytoskeletal adaptor proteins, and other signaling proteins. In addition to their ability to bind other proteins, MICALs contain a large NADPH-dependent flavoprotein monooxygenase enzymatic domain. Although MICALs have already been implicated in a variety of cellular processes, their function during axonal pathfinding in the Drosophila neuromuscular system has been best characterized. During the establishment of neuromuscular connectivity in the fruit fly, MICAL binds the axon guidance receptor Plexin A and transduces semaphorin-1a-mediated repulsive axon guidance. Intriguingly, mutagenesis and pharmacological inhibitor studies suggest a role for MICAL flavoenzyme redox functions in semaphorin/plexin-mediated axonal pathfinding events. This review summarizes our current understanding of MICALs, with an emphasis on their role in semaphorin signaling.
Expression Patterns of Semaphorin7A and PlexinC1 During Rat Neural Development Suggest Roles in Axon Guidance and Neuronal Migration
BMC Developmental Biology. 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17727705
Although originally identified as embryonic axon guidance cues, semaphorins are now known to regulate multiple, distinct, processes crucial for neuronal network formation including axon growth and branching, dendritic morphology, and neuronal migration. Semaphorin7A (Sema7A), the only glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored semaphorin, promotes axon growth in vitro and is required for the proper growth of the mouse lateral olfactory tract in vivo. Sema7A has been postulated to signal through two unrelated receptors, an RGD-dependent alpha1beta1-integrin and a member of the plexin family, plexinC1. beta1-integrins underlie Sema7A-mediated axon growth and Sema7A function in the immune system. Sema7A-plexinC1 interactions have also been implicated in immune system function, but the neuronal role of this ligand-receptor pair remains to be explored. To gain further insight into the function(s) of Sema7A and plexinC1 during neural development, we present here a detailed analysis of Sema7A and plexinC1 expression in the developing rat nervous system.
Progress in Neurobiology. May, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18304718
Dopaminergic neurons located in the ventral midbrain (i.e. mesodiencephalic dopamine, mdDA, neurons) are essential for the control of diverse cognitive and motor behaviors and are associated with multiple psychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. Three anatomically and functionally distinct subgroups of mdDA neurons have been identified (A8-A10) which give rise to prominent forebrain projections (i.e. the mesostriatal, mesocortical and mesolimbic pathways). The development of mdDA neurons is a complex, multi-step process. It includes early developmental events such as cell fate specification, differentiation and migration, and later events including neurite growth, guidance and pruning, and synapse formation. Significant progress has been made in defining the early events involved in mdDA neuron development [see Smits, S.M., Burbach, J.P., Smidt, M.P., 2006. Developmental origin and fate of meso-diencephalic dopamine neurons. Prog. Neurobiol. 78, 1-16.]. Although later stages of mdDA neuron development are less well understood, recent studies have begun to identify cellular and molecular signals thought to be involved in establishing mdDA neuronal connectivity. The purpose of the present review is to summarize our current understanding of the ontogeny and anatomy of mdDA axon pathways, to highlight recent progress in defining the cellular and molecular mechanisms that underlie the formation and remodeling of mdDA circuits, and to discuss the significance of this progress for understanding and treating situations of perturbed connectivity in the mdDA system.
Trends in Biochemical Sciences. Apr, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18374575
Semaphorins were initially characterized according to their role in repulsive axon guidance but are now recognized as crucial regulators of morphogenesis and homeostasis over a wide range of organ systems. The pleiotropic nature of semaphorin signaling and its implication in human disease has triggered an enormous interest in the receptor and intracellular signaling mechanisms that direct the cell-type-specific and diverse biological effects of semaphorins. Recent breakthroughs in our understanding of semaphorin signaling link integrin and semaphorin signaling pathways, identify novel ligand-receptor interactions and provide insight into the cellular and molecular bases of bifunctional and reverse signaling events. These discoveries could lead to therapeutic advances in axonal regeneration, cancer and other diseases.
Progress in Neurobiology. Aug, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19523502
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive, neurodegenerative disease characterized by the selective loss of motor neurons in the brain and spinal cord. Death due to respiratory failure occurs typically 2-5 years after disease onset. The pathogenic mechanism that underlies ALS remains largely unknown, but is known to include both genetic and environmental factors. At the cellular level, pathological changes in motor neuron connections and loss of neuromuscular contacts precede motor neuron degeneration and clinical symptoms. Several lines of recent evidence support the challenging hypothesis that aberrant expression or function of axon guidance proteins such as Semaphorins, Ephrins, Netrins and Slits, normally involved in sculpting and maintaining motor neuron circuits, may induce such pathological changes in motor neuron circuitry and contribute to the pathogenic mechanism involved in ALS. In the present review, we discuss the emerging roles of axon guidance proteins in the pathogenesis of ALS. First, we summarize our current understanding of the role of axon guidance proteins during the formation of motor neuron circuits. Subsequently, we present several lines of evidence showing an association between aberrant axon guidance protein function or expression and ALS. Finally, we discuss the therapeutic potential of axon guidance proteins in understanding and treating the changes in motor neuron connectivity that underlie this debilitating disease.
Current Opinion in Neurobiology. Jun, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19541473
The semaphorins, originally discovered as evolutionarily conserved steering molecules for developing axons, also influence neuronal structure and function in the early postnatal and juvenile nervous systems through several refinement processes. Semaphorins control synaptogenesis, axon pruning, and the density and maturation of dendritic spines. In addition, semaphorins and their downstream signaling components regulate synaptic physiology and neuronal excitability in the mature hippocampus, and these proteins are also implicated in a number of developmental, psychiatric, and neurodegenerative disorders. Significant inroads have been made in defining the mechanisms by which semaphorins regulate dynamic changes in the neuronal cytoskeleton at the molecular and cellular levels during embryonic nervous system development. However, comparatively little is known about how semaphorins influence neuronal structure and synaptic plasticity during adult nervous system homeostasis or following injury and disease. A detailed understanding of how semaphorins function beyond initial phases of neural network assembly is revealing novel insights into key aspects of nervous system physiology and pathology.
MeCP2 Deficiency Disrupts Axonal Guidance, Fasciculation, and Targeting by Altering Semaphorin 3F Function
Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences. Nov, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19628041
Rett syndrome (RTT) is an autism spectrum disorder that results from mutations in the transcriptional regulator methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MECP2). In the present work, we demonstrate that MeCP2 deficiency disrupts the establishment of neural connections before synaptogenesis. Using both in vitro and in vivo approaches, we identify dynamic alterations in the expression of class 3 semaphorins that are accompanied by defects in axonal fasciculation, guidance, and targeting with MeCP2 deficiency. Olfactory axons from Mecp2 mutant mice display aberrant repulsion when co-cultured with mutant olfactory bulb explants. This defect is restored when mutant olfactory axons are co-cultured with wild type olfactory bulbs. Thus, a non-cell autonomous mechanism involving Semaphorin 3F function may underlie abnormalities in the establishment of connectivity with Mecp2 mutation. These findings have broad implications for the role of MECP2 in neurodevelopment and RTT, given the critical role of the semaphorins in the formation of neural circuits.
Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19731545
Semaphorin 3F is a Bifunctional Guidance Cue for Dopaminergic Axons and Controls Their Fasciculation, Channeling, Rostral Growth, and Intracortical Targeting
The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience. Oct, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19812329
Dopaminergic neurons in the mesodiencephalon (mdDA neurons) make precise synaptic connections with targets in the forebrain via the mesostriatal, mesolimbic, and mesoprefrontal pathways. Because of the functional importance of these remarkably complex ascending axon pathways and their implication in human disease, the mechanisms underlying the development of these connections are of considerable interest. Despite extensive in vitro studies, the molecular determinants that ensure the perfect formation of these pathways in vivo remain mostly unknown. Here, we determine the embryonic origin and ontogeny of the mouse mesoprefrontal pathway and use these data to reveal an unexpected requirement for semaphorin 3F (Sema3F) and its receptor neuropilin-2 (Npn-2) during mdDA pathway development using tissue culture approaches and analysis of sema3F(-/-), npn-2(-/-), and npn-2(-/-);TH-Cre mice. We show that Sema3F is a bifunctional guidance cue for mdDA axons, some of which have the remarkable ability to regulate their responsiveness to Sema3F as they develop. During early developmental stages, Sema3F chemorepulsion controls previously uncharacterized aspects of mdDA pathway development through both Npn-2-dependent (axon fasciculation and channeling) and Npn-2-independent (rostral growth) mechanisms. Later on, chemoattraction mediated by Sema3F and Npn-2 is required to orient mdDA axon projections in the cortical plate of the medial prefrontal cortex. This latter finding demonstrates that regulation of axon orientation in the target field occurs by chemoattractive mechanisms, and this is likely to also apply to other neural systems. In all, this study provides a framework for additional dissection of the molecular basis of mdDA pathway development and disease.
Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19731554
Meso-diencephalic dopamine neurons (mdDA) neurons are located in the retrorubral field (RRF), substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) and ventral tegmental area (VTA) and give rise to prominent ascending axon projections. These so-called mesotelencephalic projections are organized into three main pathways: the mesostriatal, mesocortical and mesolimbic pathways. Mesotelencephalic pathways in the adult nervous system have been studied in much detail as a result of their important physiological functions and their implication in psychiatric, neurological and neurodegenerative disease. In comparison, relatively little is known about the formation of these projection systems during embryonic and postnatal development. However, understanding the formation of mdDA neurons and their projections is essential for the design of effective therapies for mdDA neuron-associated neurological and neurodegenerative disorders. Here we summarize our current knowledge of the ontogeny of mdDA axon projections in subsystems of the developing rodent central nervous system (CNS) and discuss the cellular and molecular mechanisms that mediate mdDA axon guidance in these CNS regions.
Genome-wide Association Study Identifies 19p13.3 (UNC13A) and 9p21.2 As Susceptibility Loci for Sporadic Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
Nature Genetics. Oct, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19734901
We conducted a genome-wide association study among 2,323 individuals with sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and 9,013 control subjects and evaluated all SNPs with P < 1.0 x 10(-4) in a second, independent cohort of 2,532 affected individuals and 5,940 controls. Analysis of the genome-wide data revealed genome-wide significance for one SNP, rs12608932, with P = 1.30 x 10(-9). This SNP showed robust replication in the second cohort (P = 1.86 x 10(-6)), and a combined analysis over the two stages yielded P = 2.53 x 10(-14). The rs12608932 SNP is located at 19p13.3 and maps to a haplotype block within the boundaries of UNC13A, which regulates the release of neurotransmitters such as glutamate at neuromuscular synapses. Follow-up of additional SNPs showed genome-wide significance for two further SNPs (rs2814707, with P = 7.45 x 10(-9), and rs3849942, with P = 1.01 x 10(-8)) in the combined analysis of both stages. These SNPs are located at chromosome 9p21.2, in a linkage region for familial ALS with frontotemporal dementia found previously in several large pedigrees.
Archives of Neurology. Feb, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20142531
To assess the frequency of FUS mutations in 52 probands with familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FALS) and to provide careful documentation of clinical characteristics.
Trends in Cell Biology. Sep, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20655749
To establish axonal connections growth cones must navigate multiple intermediate targets before reaching their final target. During this journey growth cones are guided by extracellular repulsive and attractive signals. Although initially identified as repulsive molecules, members of the semaphorin family include both attractants and repellents. How a navigating growth cone responds to a specific semaphorin is not absolute but instead depends on the biological context in which this cue is encountered. Here we review recent breakthroughs in our understanding of the extrinsic signals and molecular processes that control growth cone responses to class 3 semaphorins (Sema3s) at a well-characterized intermediate target, the spinal cord midline.
Neuropeptide Delivery to the Brain: a Von Willebrand Factor Signal Peptide to Direct Neuropeptide Secretion
BMC Neuroscience. 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20701764
Multiple neuropeptides, sometimes with opposing functions, can be produced from one precursor gene. To study the roles of the different neuropeptides encoded by one large precursor we developed a method to overexpress minigenes and establish local secretion.
Wnt/planar Cell Polarity Signaling Controls the Anterior-posterior Organization of Monoaminergic Axons in the Brainstem
The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience. Nov, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 21106844
Monoaminergic neurons [serotonergic (5-HT) and dopaminergic (mdDA)] in the brainstem project axons along the anterior-posterior axis. Despite their important physiological functions and implication in disease, the molecular mechanisms that dictate the formation of these projections along the anterior-posterior axis remain unknown. Here we reveal a novel requirement for Wnt/planar cell polarity signaling in the anterior-posterior organization of the monoaminergic system. We find that 5-HT and mdDA axons express the core planar cell polarity components Frizzled3, Celsr3, and Vangl2. In addition, monoaminergic projections show anterior-posterior guidance defects in Frizzled3, Celsr3, and Vangl2 mutant mice. The only known ligands for planar cell polarity signaling are Wnt proteins. In culture, Wnt5a attracts 5-HT but repels mdDA axons, and Wnt7b attracts mdDA axons. However, mdDA axons from Frizzled3 mutant mice are unresponsive to Wnt5a and Wnt7b. Both Wnts are expressed in gradients along the anterior-posterior axis, consistent with their role as directional cues. Finally, Wnt5a mutants show transient anterior-posterior guidance defects in mdDA projections. Furthermore, we observe during development that the cell bodies of migrating descending 5-HT neurons eventually reorient along the direction of their axons. In Frizzled3 mutants, many 5-HT and mdDA neuron cell bodies are oriented abnormally along the direction of their aberrant axon projections. Overall, our data suggest that Wnt/planar cell polarity signaling may be a global anterior-posterior guidance mechanism that controls axonal and cellular organization beyond the spinal cord.
Current Biology : CB. Jun, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21596566
Rab6 is a conserved small GTPase that localizes to the Golgi apparatus and cytoplasmic vesicles and controls transport and fusion of secretory carriers . Another Rab implicated in trafficking from the trans-Golgi to the plasma membrane is Rab8 [2-5]. Here we show that Rab8A stably associates with exocytotic vesicles in a Rab6-dependent manner. Rab8A function is not needed for budding or motility of exocytotic carriers but is required for their docking and fusion. These processes also depend on the Rab6-interacting cortical factor ELKS , suggesting that Rab8A and ELKS act in the same pathway. We show that Rab8A and ELKS can be linked by MICAL3, a member of the MICAL family of flavoprotein monooxygenases . Expression of a MICAL3 mutant with an inactive monooxygenase domain resulted in a strong accumulation of secretory vesicles that were docked at the cell cortex but failed to fuse with the plasma membrane, an effect that correlated with the strongly reduced mobility of MICAL3. We propose that the monooxygenase activity of MICAL3 is required to regulate its own turnover and the concomitant remodeling of vesicle-docking protein complexes in which it is engaged. Taken together, the results of our study illustrate cooperation of two Rab proteins in constitutive exocytosis and implicates a redox enzyme in this process.
Molecular and Cellular Biology. Sep, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21730291
MICALs (molecules interacting with CasL) are atypical multidomain flavoenzymes with diverse cellular functions. The molecular pathways employed by MICAL proteins to exert their cellular effects remain largely uncharacterized. Via an unbiased proteomics approach, we identify MICAL-1 as a binding partner of NDR (nuclear Dbf2-related) kinases. NDR1/2 kinases are known to mediate apoptosis downstream of the mammalian Ste-20-like kinase MST1, and ablation of NDR1 in mice predisposes the mice to cancer as a result of compromised apoptosis. MST1 phosphorylates NDR1/2 kinases at their hydrophobic motif, thereby facilitating full NDR kinase activity and function. However, if and how this key phosphorylation event is regulated are unknown. Here we show that MICAL-1 interacts with the hydrophobic motif of NDR1/2 and that overexpression or knockdown of MICAL-1 reduces or augments NDR kinase activation or activity, respectively. Surprisingly, MICAL-1 is a phosphoprotein but not an NDR or MST1 substrate. Rather, MICAL-1 competes with MST1 for NDR binding and thereby antagonizes MST1-induced NDR activation. In line with this inhibitory effect, overexpression or knockdown of MICAL-1 inhibits or enhances, respectively, NDR-dependent proapoptotic signaling induced by extrinsic stimuli. Our findings unveil a previously unknown biological role for MICAL-1 in apoptosis and define a novel negative regulatory mechanism of MST-NDR signaling.
Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS. Dec, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21822644
MICALs form an evolutionary conserved family of multidomain signal transduction proteins characterized by a flavoprotein monooxygenase domain. MICALs are being implicated in the regulation of an increasing number of molecular and cellular processes including cytoskeletal dynamics and intracellular trafficking. Intriguingly, some of these effects are dependent on the MICAL monooxygenase enzyme and redox signaling, while other functions rely on other parts of the MICAL protein. Recent breakthroughs in our understanding of MICAL signaling identify the ability of MICALs to bind and directly modify the actin cytoskeleton, link MICALs to the docking and fusion of exocytotic vesicles, and uncover MICALs as anti-apoptotic proteins. These discoveries could lead to therapeutic advances in neural regeneration, cancer, and other diseases.
Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics. Nov, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21864500
MICALs form a conserved multidomain protein family essential for cytoskeletal rearrangements. To complement structural information available, we produced the FAD-containing monooxygenase-like domain of human MICAL-1 (MICAL-MO) in forms differing for the presence and location of a His-tag, which only influences the protein yields. The K(m) for NADPH of the NADPH oxidase reaction is sensitive to ionic strength and type of ions. The apparent k(cat) (pH 7) is limited by enzyme reduction by NADPH, which occurs without detectable intermediates, as established by anaerobic rapid reaction experiments. The sensitivity to ionic strength and type of ions and the pH dependence of the steady-state kinetic parameters extend MICAL-MO similarity with enzymes of the p-hydroxybenzoate hydroxylase class at the functional level. The reaction is also sensitive to solvent viscosity, providing a tool to monitor the conformational changes predicted to occur during turnover. Finally, it was confirmed that MICAL-MO promotes actin depolymerization, and it was shown that F-actin, but not G-actin, stimulates NADPH oxidation by increasing k(cat) and k(cat)/K(NADPH) (≈5 and ≈200-fold, respectively) with an apparent K(m) for actin of 4.7μM, under conditions that stabilize F-actin. The time-course of NADPH oxidation shows substrate recycling, indicating the possible reversibility of MICAL effect.
Annals of Neurology. Dec, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 22190368
Several studies have suggested an increased frequency of variants in the gene encoding angiogenin (ANG) in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Interestingly, a few ALS patients carrying ANG variants also showed signs of Parkinson disease (PD). Furthermore, relatives of ALS patients have an increased risk to develop PD, and the prevalence of concomitant motor neuron disease in PD is higher than expected based on chance occurrence. We therefore investigated whether ANG variants could predispose to both ALS and PD.
Human Molecular Genetics. Feb, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22378146
Mutations in NIPA1 cause Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia (HSP) type 6, a neurodegenerative disease characterized by an (upper) motor neuron phenotype. Deletions of NIPA1 have been associated with a higher susceptibility to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The exact role of genetic variation in NIPA1 in ALS susceptibility and disease course is, however, not known. We sequenced the entire coding sequence of NIPA1 and genotyped a polyalanine repeat located in the first exon of NIPA1. A total of 2292 ALS patients and 2777 controls from three independent European populations were included. We identified two sequence variants that have a potentially damaging effect on NIPA1 protein function. Both variants were identified in ALS patients; no damaging variants were found in controls. Secondly, we found a significant effect of "long" polyalanine repeat alleles on disease susceptibility: odds ratio = 1.71, p = 1.6 x 10(-4). Our analyses also revealed a significant effect of "long" alleles on patient survival (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.60, p = 4.2 x 10(-4)) and on the age at onset of symptoms (HR = 1.37, p = 4.6 x 10(-3)). In patients carrying "long" alleles, median survival was three months shorter than patients with "normal" genotypes and onset of symptoms occurred 3.6 years earlier. Our data show that NIPA1 polyalanine repeat expansions are a common risk factor for ALS and modulate disease course.
Neurobiology of Aging. Apr, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22078486
Mutations in the valosin-containing protein (VCP) gene were recently reported to be the cause of 1%-2% of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) cases. VCP mutations are known to cause inclusion body myopathy (IBM) with Paget's disease (PDB) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). The presence of VCP mutations in patients with sporadic ALS, sporadic ALS-FTD, and progressive muscular atrophy (PMA), a known clinical mimic of inclusion body myopathy, is not known. To determine the identity and frequency of VCP mutations we screened a cohort of 93 familial ALS, 754 sporadic ALS, 58 sporadic ALS-FTD, and 264 progressive muscular atrophy patients for mutations in the VCP gene. Two nonsynonymous mutations were detected; 1 known mutation (p.R159H) in a patient with familial ALS with several family members suffering from FTD, and 1 mutation (p.I114V) in a patient with sporadic ALS. Conservation analysis and protein prediction software indicate the p.I114V mutation to be a rare benign polymorphism. VCP mutations are a rare cause of familial ALS. The role of VCP mutations in sporadic ALS, if present, appears limited.
Neurobiology of Aging. Mar, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22118904
A large genome-wide screen in patients with sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) showed that the common variant rs12608932 in gene UNC13A was associated with disease susceptibility. UNC13A regulates the release of neurotransmitters, including glutamate. Genetic risk factors that, in addition, modify survival, provide promising therapeutic targets in ALS, a disease whose etiology remains largely elusive. We examined whether UNC13A was associated with survival of ALS patients in a cohort of 450 sporadic ALS patients and 524 unaffected controls from a population-based study of ALS in The Netherlands. Additionally, survival data were collected from individuals of Dutch, Belgian, or Swedish descent (1767 cases, 1817 controls) who had participated in a previously published genome-wide association study of ALS. We related survival to rs12608932 genotype. In both cohorts, the minor allele of rs12608932 in UNC13A was not only associated with susceptibility but also with shorter survival of ALS patients. Our results further corroborate the role of UNC13A in ALS pathogenesis.