Translate this page to:
In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (2)
This translation into Portuguese was automatically generated.
English Version | Other Languages
Articles by Rachel B. Nelson in JoVE
Medição Translocação Peptide em grandes vesículas Unilamelares
Sara A. Spinella1, Rachel B. Nelson, Donald E. Elmore
1Department of Chemistry, Wellesley College,
Este protocolo de detalhes um método para a medida quantitativa da translocação de peptídeos em grandes vesículas lipídicas unilamelares. Este método também fornece informações sobre a taxa de translocação de membrana e pode ser usado para identificar peptídeos que de forma eficiente e espontânea cruz bicamadas lipídicas.
Other articles by Rachel B. Nelson on PubMed
Proteins. Nov, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18452210
Buforin II is a 21-amino acid polycationic antimicrobial peptide derived from a peptide originally isolated from the stomach tissue of the Asian toad Bufo bufo gargarizans. It is hypothesized to target a wide range of bacteria by translocating into cells without membrane permeabilization and binding to nucleic acids. Previous research found that the structure and membrane interactions of buforin II are related to lipid composition. In this study, we used molecular dynamics (MD) simulations along with lipid vesicle experiments to gain insight into how buforin II interacts differently with phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylglycerol (PG), and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) lipids. Fluorescent spectroscopic measurements agreed with the previous assertion that buforin II does not interact with pure PC vesicles. Nonetheless, the reduced entry of the peptide into anionic PG membranes versus neutral PC membranes during simulations correlates with the experimentally observed reduction in BF2 translocation through pure PG membranes. Simulations showing membrane entry into PC also provide insight into how buforin II may initially penetrate cell membranes. Our MD simulations also allowed us to consider how neutral PE lipids affect the peptide differently than PC. In particular, the peptide had a more helical secondary structure in simulations with PE lipids. A change in structure was also apparent in circular dichroism measurements. PE also reduced membrane entry in simulations, which correlates with decreased translocation in the presence of PE observed in previous studies. Together, these results provide molecular-level insight into how lipid composition can affect buforin II structure and function and will be useful in efforts to design peptides with desired antimicrobial and cell-penetrating properties.
Molecular Characterization of Mutant Arabidopsis Plants with Reduced Plasma Membrane Proton Pump Activity
The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Jun, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20348108
Arabidopsis mutants containing gene disruptions in AHA1 and AHA2, the two most highly expressed isoforms of the Arabidopsis plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase family, have been isolated and characterized. Plants containing homozygous loss-of-function mutations in either gene grew normally under laboratory conditions. Transcriptome and mass spectrometric measurements demonstrate that lack of lethality in the single gene mutations is not associated with compensation by increases in RNA or protein levels. Selected reaction monitoring using synthetic heavy isotope-labeled C-terminal tryptic peptides as spiked standards with a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer revealed increased levels of phosphorylation of a regulatory threonine residue in both isoforms in the mutants. Using an extracellular pH assay as a measure of in vivo ATPase activity in roots, less proton secreting activity was found in the aha2 mutant. Among 100 different growth conditions, those that decrease the membrane potential (high external potassium) or pH gradient (high external pH) caused a reduction in growth of the aha2 mutant compared with wild type. Despite the normal appearance of single mutants under ideal laboratory growth conditions, embryos containing homozygous double mutations are lethal, demonstrating that, as expected, this protein is absolutely essential for plant cell function. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that the two genes together perform an essential function and that the effects of their single mutations are mostly masked by overlapping patterns of expression and redundant function as well as by compensation at the post-translational level.