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In JoVE (1)
- Determination of Molecular Structures of HIV Envelope Glycoproteins using Cryo-Electron Tomography and Automated Sub-tomogram Averaging
Other Publications (3)
Articles by Rachna Nandwani in JoVE
Determination of Molecular Structures of HIV Envelope Glycoproteins using Cryo-Electron Tomography and Automated Sub-tomogram Averaging
Joel R. Meyerson1,2, Tommi A. White1, Donald Bliss3, Amy Moran3, Alberto Bartesaghi1, Mario J. Borgnia1, M. Jason V. de la Cruz1, David Schauder1, Lisa M. Hartnell1, Rachna Nandwani1,4, Moez Dawood5, Brianna Kim6, Jun Hong Kim7, John Sununu8, Lisa Yang9, Siddhant Bhatia10, Carolyn Subramaniam1, Darrell E. Hurt11, Laurent Gaudreault12, Sriram Subramaniam1
1Laboratory of Cell Biology, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, 2The Medical Research Council Mitochondrial Biology Unit, University of Cambridge, 3National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, 4Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 5William Fremd High School, 6University of Virginia, 7Duke University, 8Yale University, 9University of Notre Dame, 10Washington University in St. Louis, 11Bioinformatics and Computational Biosciences Branch, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, 12Thomas Jefferson High School for Science and Technology
The protocol describes a high-throughput approach to determining structures of membrane proteins using cryo-electron tomography and 3D image processing. It covers the details of specimen preparation, data collection, data processing and interpretation, and concludes with the production of a representative target for the approach, the HIV-1 Envelope glycoprotein. These computational procedures are designed in a way that enables researchers and students to work remotely and contribute to data processing and structural analysis.
Other articles by Rachna Nandwani on PubMed
Molecular Diversity of a Native Mesorhizobial Population of Nodulating Chickpea (Cicer Arietinum L.) in Indian Soils
Journal of Basic Microbiology. Oct, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19322836
Chickpea plants with nodules were collected from 32 different farmers' fields of eight districts of Haryana state. In total, 137 mesorhizobial isolations were made from these nodules and authenticated. Finally, 50 mesorhizobia were selected based on nodulation test, growth characteristics, and site of sampling. The molecular diversity of the mesorhizobial population was assessed by PCR-amplified ERIC profiles as well as RFLP of 16S rDNA. Considerable molecular diversity in Haryana soils was observed. Chickpea rhizobia were grouped into six different clusters at the 70% similarity level by both methodologies, but clustering of the strains was different. Considering that each cluster represented a mesorhizobial genotype, Haryana soils showed a high richness index (0.46), and RFLP analysis showed that the mesorhizobial genotype (MG) I was present in 38% of nodules, followed by MG III which was detected in 34% of the nodules. The distribution of different MG in Haryana soils showed that all six types of rhizobia were never present in any of the districts; however, a maximum of five types were present in the Bhiwani district. Rhizobial genotype III was invariably present in all the nodule samples tested.
Molecular Architectures of Trimeric SIV and HIV-1 Envelope Glycoproteins on Intact Viruses: Strain-dependent Variation in Quaternary Structure
PLoS Pathogens. 2010 | Pubmed ID: 21203482
The initial step in target cell infection by human, and the closely related simian immunodeficiency viruses (HIV and SIV, respectively) occurs with the binding of trimeric envelope glycoproteins (Env), composed of heterodimers of the viral transmembrane glycoprotein (gp41) and surface glycoprotein (gp120) to target T-cells. Knowledge of the molecular structure of trimeric Env on intact viruses is important both for understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying virus-cell interactions and for the design of effective immunogen-based vaccines to combat HIV/AIDS. Previous analyses of intact HIV-1 BaL virions have already resulted in structures of trimeric Env in unliganded and CD4-liganded states at ~20 Å resolution. Here, we show that the molecular architectures of trimeric Env from SIVmneE11S, SIVmac239 and HIV-1 R3A strains are closely comparable to that previously determined for HIV-1 BaL, with the V1 and V2 variable loops located at the apex of the spike, close to the contact zone between virus and cell. The location of the V1/V2 loops in trimeric Env was definitively confirmed by structural analysis of HIV-1 R3A virions engineered to express Env with deletion of these loops. Strikingly, in SIV CP-MAC, a CD4-independent strain, trimeric Env is in a constitutively "open" conformation with gp120 trimers splayed out in a conformation similar to that seen for HIV-1 BaL Env when it is complexed with sCD4 and the CD4i antibody 17b. Our findings suggest a structural explanation for the molecular mechanism of CD4-independent viral entry and further establish that cryo-electron tomography can be used to discover distinct, functionally relevant quaternary structures of Env displayed on intact viruses.
Three-dimensional Structures of Soluble CD4-bound States of Trimeric Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Envelope Glycoproteins Determined by Using Cryo-electron Tomography
Journal of Virology. Dec, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21937655
The trimeric envelope glycoprotein (Env) spikes displayed on the surfaces of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) virions are composed of three heterodimers of the viral glycoproteins gp120 and gp41. Although binding of gp120 to cell surface CD4 and a chemokine receptor is known to elicit conformational changes in gp120 and gp41, changes in quaternary structure of the trimer have only recently been elucidated. For the HIV-1 BaL isolate, CD4 attachment results in a striking rearrangement of the trimer from a "closed" to an "open" conformation. The effect of CD4 on SIV trimers, however, has not been described. Using cryo-electron tomography, we have now determined molecular architectures of the soluble CD4 (sCD4)-bound states of SIV Env trimers for three different strains (SIVmneE11S, SIVmac239, and SIV CP-MAC). In marked contrast to HIV-1 BaL, SIVmneE11S and SIVmac239 Env showed only minor conformational changes following sCD4 binding. In SIV CP-MAC, where trimeric Env displays a constitutively "open" conformation similar to that seen for HIV-1 BaL Env in the sCD4-complexed state, we show that there are no significant further changes in conformation upon the binding of either sCD4 or 7D3 antibody. The density maps also show that 7D3 and 17b antibodies target epitopes on gp120 that are on opposites sides of the coreceptor binding site. These results provide new insights into the structural diversity of SIV Env and show that there are strain-dependent variations in the orientation of sCD4 bound to trimeric SIV Env.