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In JoVE (1)

Other Publications (7)

Articles by Rafi Chapanian in JoVE

 JoVE Immunology and Infection

Antigens Protected Functional Red Blood Cells By The Membrane Grafting Of Compact Hyperbranched Polyglycerols

1Centre for Blood Research, University of British Columbia, 2Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of British Columbia, 3Canadian Blood Services, University of British Columbia, 4Department of Chemistry, Life Sciences Centre, University of British Columbia


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The cell membrane modification of red blood cells (RBCs) with hyperbranched polyglycerol (HPG) is presented. Modified RBCs were characterized by aqueous two phase partitioning, osmotic fragility and complement mediated lysis. The camouflage of surface proteins and antigens was evaluated using the flow cytometry and Micro Typing System (MTS) blood phenotyping cards.

Other articles by Rafi Chapanian on PubMed

The Role of Oxidation and Enzymatic Hydrolysis on the in Vivo Degradation of Trimethylene Carbonate Based Photocrosslinkable Elastomers

The in vivo degradation of trimethylene carbonate (TMC) containing elastomers was investigated, and the mechanism of degradation explored through in vitro degradation under enzymatic and oxidative conditions. The elastomers were prepared via UV initiated crosslinking of prepolymers of TMC and equimolar amounts of TMC and epsilon-caprolactone (CL). The degradation process was followed by investigating the changes in the mechanical properties, mass loss, water uptake, sol content, differential scanning calorimetry, and surface chemistry through attenuated total reflectance infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy. During in vivo degradation, TMC and TMCCL elastomers exhibited surface erosion. The tissue response was of greater intensity in the case of the TMC elastomer. Both elastomers exhibited degradation in cholesterol esterase containing solutions in vitro, but no parallels were found between the rate of in vivo degradation and the rate of in vitro degradation. Only the TMCCL elastomer degraded in lipase. Degradation in a stable superoxide anion in vitro medium was consistent with the observed in vivo degradation results, indicating a dominant role of oxidation through the secretion of this reactive oxygen species by adherent phagocytic cells in the degradation of these elastomers.

Long Term in Vivo Degradation and Tissue Response to Photo-cross-linked Elastomers Prepared from Star-shaped Prepolymers of Poly(epsilon-caprolactone-co-D,L-lactide)

Long term in vivo degradation, and tissue response to, cylindrical elastomers made of photo-cross-linked star-poly(epsilon-caprolactone-co-D,L-lactide) triacrylate were investigated through subcutaneous implantation in rats. The elastomers were prepared via UV initiated crosslinking of prepolymers of equimolar amounts of monomers; a high crosslink density elastomer (ELAST 1250) was prepared from a prepolymer of 1250 Da and a low crosslink density elastomer (ELAST 7800) was prepared from a prepolymer of 7800 Da. The elastomers were characterized using cross-polarization magic angle spinning solid state (13)C NMR and attenuated total reflectance fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The progress of the in vivo degradation process was followed by employing SEM, uniaxial tensile, mass loss, water uptake, and sol content measurements. The rate of in vivo degradation was faster than the rate of in vitro degradation for both ELAST 1250 and ELAST 7800. Long term in vivo degradation studies indicated that both elastomers undergo bulk hydrolysis along with surface erosion occurring due to the physiological environment. In the case of low cross-link density elastomers, the onset of mass loss was accompanied with an increase in both water uptake and sol content, whereas, in the case of high crosslink density elastomers, only the water uptake increased. This degradation pattern was due to crazing of the high crosslink density elastomers. ELAST 7800 cylinders were totally degraded, and ELAST 1250 cylinders had lost 80% of their mass, within 30 weeks. Aminor host reaction with minimal vascularity and inflammation was invoked, with a milder tissue response observed with more highly crosslinked cylinders.

VEGF-induced Angiogenesis Following Localized Delivery Via Injectable, Low Viscosity Poly(trimethylene Carbonate)

The purpose of this study was to examine the potential of low molecular weight poly(trimethylene carbonate) for localized vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) delivery. Poly(trimethylene carbonate) of various molecular weights was prepared by ring-opening polymerization initiated by 1-octanol. The resultant polymers were liquid at room temperature with low glass transition temperatures and viscosities at 37 degrees C that permitted their injection through an 18 (1/2) G 1.5'' needle. Particles consisting of VEGF co-lyophilized with trehalose were mixed into the polymers and the rate of release of VEGF was assessed in vitro. With a 1% particle loading, VEGF was released from the polymer at a rate of 20 ng/day over a period of 3 weeks. This release behavior was independent of the molecular weight of polymer used. Increasing the VEGF content in the lyophilized particles did not increase the VEGF release rate, an effect attributed to the solubility limit of VEGF in the solution formed upon dissolution of the particles. The VEGF released retained its bioactivity at greater than 95% of that of as-lyophilized VEGF, as assessed using a human aortic endothelial cell proliferation assay. This high bioactivity was supported by in vivo release experiments, wherein VEGF containing polymer implants induced the generation of significantly greater numbers of blood vessels towards the polymer implant than controls. The blood vessels did not remain stable and were reduced in number by three weeks, due to the unsustained and low concentration of VEGF released. This formulation approach, of using a low viscosity polymer delivery vehicle, is potentially useful for localized delivery of acid-sensitive proteins, such as VEGF.

Osmotic Release of Bioactive VEGF from Biodegradable Elastomer Monoliths is the Same in Vivo As in Vitro

The feasibility of generating an extended period of linear release of therapeutic proteins from photo-cross-linked, biodegradable elastomer monolithic devices in vitro has been previously demonstrated. The release is driven primarily by the osmotic pressure generated upon the dissolution of the encapsulated particles within the polymer. The osmotic pressure is provided by co-incorporation into the particle of trehalose as an osmotigen. Herein, we demonstrate that the release rate of a therapeutic protein, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), by this osmotic pressure mechanism is the same in vivo as found in vitro. (125) I-VEGF was colyophilized with trehalose and serum albumin and distributed as particles throughout a photo-cross-linked elastomer composed of trimethylene carbonate, ε-caprolactone, and d,l-lactide. The release of VEGF from the device was monitored by measuring the decrease in radioactivity within the devices in vitro and within explanted devices that had been implanted subcutaneously in the dorsal area of Wistar rats. The released VEGF remained bioactive in vivo, inducing the formation of blood vessels that contained red blood cells. Furthermore, the released trehalose was well tolerated by the surrounding tissue.

In vivo Circulation, Clearance, and Biodistribution of Polyglycerol Grafted Functional Red Blood Cells

The in vivo circulation of hyperbranched polyglycerol (HPG) grafted red blood cells (RBCs) was investigated in mice. The number of HPG molecules grafted per RBC was measured using tritium labeled HPGs ((3)H-HPG) of different molecular weights; the values ranged from 1 × 10(5) to 2 × 10(6) molecules per RBC. HPG-grafted RBCs were characterized in vitro by measuring the electrophoretic mobility, complement mediated lysis, and osmotic fragility. Our results show that RBCs grafted with 1.5 × 10(5) HPG molecules per RBC having molecular weights 20 and 60 kDa have similar characteristics as that of control RBCs. The in vivo circulation of HPG-grafted RBCs was measured by a tail vain injection of (3)H-HPG60K-RBC in mice. The radioactivity of isolated RBCs, whole blood, plasma, different organs, urine and feces was evaluated at different time intervals. The portion of (3)H-HPG60K-RBC that survived the first day in mice (52%) remained in circulation for 50 days. Minimal accumulation radioactivity in organs other than liver and spleen was observed suggesting the normal clearance mechanism of modified RBCs. Animals gained normal weights and no abnormalities observed in necropsy analysis. The stability of the ester-amide linker between the RBC and HPG was evaluated by comparing the clearance rate of (3)H-HPG60K-RBC and PKH-26 lipid fluorescent membrane marker labeled HPG60K-RBCs. HPG modified RBCs combine the many advantages of a dendritic polymer and RBCs, and hold great promise in systemic drug delivery and other applications of functional RBC.

Influence of Polymer Architecture on Antigens Camouflage, CD47 Protection and Complement Mediated Lysis of Surface Grafted Red Blood Cells

Hyperbranched polyglycerol (HPG) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) polymers with similar hydrodynamic sizes in solution were grafted to red blood cells (RBCs) to investigate the impact of polymer architecture on the cell structure and function. The hydrodynamic sizes of polymers were calculated from the diffusion coefficients measured by pulsed field gradient NMR. The hydration of the HPG and PEG was determined by differential scanning calorimetry analyses. RBCs grafted with linear PEG had different properties compared to the compact HPG grafted RBCs. HPG grafted RBCs showed much higher electrophoretic mobility values than PEG grafted RBCs at similar grafting concentrations and hydrodynamic sizes indicating differences in the structure of the polymer exclusion layer on the cell surface. PEG grafting impacted the deformation properties of the membrane to a greater degree than HPG. The complement mediated lysis of the grafted RBCs was dependent on the type of polymer, grafting concentration and molecular size of grafted chains. At higher molecular weights and graft concentrations both HPG and PEG triggered complement activation. The magnitude of activation was higher with HPG possibly due to the presence of many hydroxyl groups per molecule. HPG grafted RBCs showed significantly higher levels of CD47 self-protein accessibility than PEG grafted RBCs at all grafting concentrations and molecular sizes. PEG grafted polymers provided, in general, a better shielding and protection to ABO and minor antigens from antibody recognition than HPG polymers, however, the compact HPGs provided greater protection of certain antigens on the RBC surface. Our data showed that HPG 20 kDa and HPG 60 kDa grafted RBCs exhibited properties that are more comparable to the native RBC than PEG 5 kDa and PEG 10 kDa grafted RBCs of comparable hydrodynamic sizes. The study shows that small compact polymers such as HPG 20 kDa have a greater potential in the generation of functional RBC for therapeutic delivery applications. The intermediate sized polymers (PEG or HPG) which showed greater antigen camouflage at lower grafting concentrations have significant potential in transfusion as universal red blood donor cells.

Influence of Architecture of High Molecular Weight Linear and Branched Polyglycerols on Their Biocompatibility and Biodistribution

The availability of long circulating, multifunctional polymers is critical to the development of drug delivery systems and bioconjugates. The ease of synthesis and functionalization make linear polymers attractive but their rapid clearance from circulation compared to their branched or cyclic counterparts, and their high solution viscosities restrict their applications in certain settings. Herein, we report the unusual compact nature of high molecular weight (HMW) linear polyglycerols (LPGs) (LPG - 100; M(n) - 104 kg mol(-1), M(w)/M(n) - 1.15) in aqueous solutions and its impact on its solution properties, blood compatibility, cell compatibility, in vivo circulation, biodistribution and renal clearance. The properties of LPG have been compared with hyperbranched polyglycerol (HPG) (HPG-100), linear polyethylene glycol (PEG) with similar MWs. The hydrodynamic size and the intrinsic viscosity of LPG-100 in water were considerably lower compared to PEG. The Mark-Houwink parameter of LPG was almost 10-fold lower than that of PEG. LPG and HPG demonstrated excellent blood and cell compatibilities. Unlike LPG and HPG, HMW PEG showed dose dependent activation of blood coagulation, platelets and complement system, severe red blood cell aggregation and hemolysis, and cell toxicity. The long blood circulation of LPG-100 (t(1/2β,) 31.8 ± 4 h) was demonstrated in mice; however, it was shorter compared to HPG-100 (t(1/2β,) 39.2 ± 8 h). The shorter circulation half life of LPG-100 was correlated with its higher renal clearance and deformability. Relatively lower organ accumulation was observed for LPG-100 and HPG-100 with some influence of on the architecture of the polymers. Since LPG showed better biocompatibility profiles, longer in vivo circulation time compared to PEG and other linear drug carrier polymers, and has multiple functionalities for conjugation, makes it a potential candidate for developing long circulating multifunctional drug delivery systems similar to HPG.

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