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In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (10)
- Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
- Biotechnology and Bioengineering
- Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
- Biotechnology Progress
- Microbial Cell Factories
- Journal of Microbiological Methods
- Fungal Genetics and Biology : FG & B
- Biotechnology and Bioengineering
- Journal of Fluorescence
Articles by Rainer Krull in JoVE
Customization of Aspergillus niger Morphology Through Addition of Talc Micro Particles
Thomas Wucherpfennig, Antonia Lakowitz, Habib Driouch, Rainer Krull, Christoph Wittmann
Institute of Biochemical Engineering, Technische Universität Braunschweig
A method to precisely generate and to comprehensively characterize morphology of filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger is described, which allows the mathematical correlation of morphological appearance and productivity.
Other articles by Rainer Krull on PubMed
Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering. Oct, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15309605
Product formation of mycelial organisms, like Aspergillus niger, is intimately connected with their morphology. Pellet morphology is often requested for product formation. Therefore, it is important to reveal the influence of the hydrodynamic conditions on the morphological development. In the present study, pellet morphology and glucoamylase formation were studied under different agitation intensities of A. niger AB1.13. For pellet formation inside the bioreactor, without the use of precultures, it is necessary to work at low energy dissipation rates. Biomass growth and glucoamylase activity were correlated with energy dissipation. Furthermore, product yield was analysed in dependence of pellet size and concentration. The present work shows that simple equations based on Monod-kinetics can describe growth and product formation, in general, also in mycelian organisms. All measured morphological data, like pellet concentration, as well as glucoamylase formation, strongly depend on the hydrodynamic conditions.
Biotechnology and Bioengineering. May, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19191328
In this work, a three-dimensional model of fluid-structure interactions (FSI) in biofilm systems is developed in order to simulate biofilm detachment as a result of mechanical processes. Therein, fluid flow past the biofilm surface results in a mechanical load on the structure which in turn causes internal stresses in the biofilm matrix. When the strength of the matrix is exceeded parts of the structure are detached. The model is used to investigate the influence of several parameters related to the mechanical strength of the biofilm matrix, Young's modulus, Reynolds number, and biofilm structure on biofilm detachment. Variations in biofilm strength and flow conditions significantly influence the simulation outcome. With respect to structural properties the model is widely independent from a change of Young's modulus. A further result of this work indicates that the change of biofilm structure due to growth or other processes will significantly change the stress distribution in the biofilm and thereby the detachment rate. An increase of the mechanical load by increasing fluid flow results in a flat surface of the remaining biofilm structure. It is concluded that the change of structure during biofilm development is the key determinant in terms of the detachment behavior.
Morphology of Filamentous Fungi: Linking Cellular Biology to Process Engineering Using Aspergillus Niger
Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology. 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20490972
In various biotechnological processes, filamentous fungi, e.g. Aspergillus niger, are widely applied for the production of high value-added products due to their secretion efficiency. There is, however, a tangled relationship between the morphology of these microorganisms, the transport phenomena and the related productivity. The morphological characteristics vary between freely dispersed mycelia and distinct pellets of aggregated biomass. Hence, advantages and disadvantages for mycel or pellet cultivation have to be balanced out carefully. Due to this inadequate understanding of morphogenesis of filamentous microorganisms, fungal morphology, along with reproducibility of inocula of the same quality, is often a bottleneck of productivity in industrial production. To obtain an optimisation of the production process it is of great importance to gain a better understanding of the molecular and cell biology of these microorganisms as well as the approaches in biochemical engineering and particle technique, in particular to characterise the interactions between the growth conditions, cell morphology, spore-hyphae-interactions and product formation. Advances in particle and image analysis techniques as well as micromechanical devices and their applications to fungal cultivations have made available quantitative morphological data on filamentous cells. This chapter provides the ambitious aspects of this line of action, focussing on the control and characterisation of the morphology, the transport gradients and the approaches to understand the metabolism of filamentous fungi. Based on these data, bottlenecks in the morphogenesis of A. niger within the complex production pathways from gene to product should be identified and this may improve the production yield.
Biotechnology Progress. Sep-Oct, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20945484
A diffusion-based microreactor system operated with a reaction volume of 8 μL is presented and characterized to intensify the process understanding in microscale cultivations. Its potential as screening tool for biological processes is evaluated. The advantage of the designed microbioreactor is the use for the continuous cultivation mode by integrating online measurement technique for dissolved oxygen (DO) and optical density (OD). A further advantage is the broaden application for biological systems. The bioreactor geometry was chosen to achieve homogeneous flow during continuous process operation. The device consisted of a microstructured top layer made of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS), which was designed and fabricated using UV-depth and soft lithography assembled with a glass bottom. CFD simulation data used for geometry design were verified via microparticle-image-velocimetry (μPIV). In the used microreactor geometry no concentration gradients occurred along the entire reaction volume because of rapid diffusive mixing, the homogeneous medium flow inside the growth chamber of the microreactor could be realized. Undesirable bubble formation before and during operation was reduced by using degassed medium as well as moistened and moderate incident air flow above the gas permeable PDMS membrane. Because of this a passive oxygen supply of the culture medium in the device is ensured by diffusion through the PDMS membrane. The oxygen supply itself was monitored online via integrated DO sensors based on a fluorescent dye complex. An adequate overall volumetric oxygen transfer coefficient K(L)a as well as mechanical stability of the device were accomplished for a membrane thickness of 300 μm. Experimental investigations considering measurements of OD (online) and several metabolite concentrations (offline) in a modified Verduyn medium. The used model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae DSM 2155 tended to strong reactor wall growth resembling a biofilm.
Polyelectrolyte Multilayer Surface Functionalization of Poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) for Reduction of Yeast Cell Adhesion in Microfluidic Devices
Biomicrofluidics. 2010 | Pubmed ID: 21267092
Polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEMs) based on the combinations poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride)∕poly(acrylic acid) (PDADMAC∕PAA) and poly(allylamine hydrochloride)∕PAA (PAH∕PAA) were adsorbed on poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) and tested for nonspecific surface attachment of hydrophobic yeast cells using a parallel plate flow chamber. A custom-made graft copolymer containing poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) side chains (PAA-g-PEG) was additionally adsorbed on the PEMs as a terminal layer. A suitable PEM modification effectively decreased the adhesion strength of Saccharomyces cerevisiae DSM 2155 to the channel walls. However, a further decrease in initial cell attachment and adhesion strength was observed after adsorption of PAA-g-PEG copolymer onto PEMs from aqueous solution. The results demonstrate that a facile layer-by-layer surface functionalization from aqueous solutions can be successfully applied to reduce cell adhesion strength of S. cerevisiae by at least two orders of magnitude compared to bare PDMS. Therefore, this method is potentially suitable to promote planktonic growth inside capped PDMS-based microfluidic devices if the PEM deposition is completed by a dynamic flow-through process.
Microbial Cell Factories. 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21801352
The filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger is a widely used strain in a broad range of industrial processes from food to pharmaceutical industry. One of the most intriguing and often uncontrollable characteristics of this filamentous organism is its complex morphology, ranging from dense spherical pellets to viscous mycelia depending on culture conditions. Optimal productivity correlates strongly with a specific morphological form, thus making high demands on process control.
An in Vitro Urinary Tract Catheter System to Investigate Biofilm Development in Catheter-associated Urinary Tract Infections
Journal of Microbiological Methods. Dec, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21939694
Biofilm development in urinary tract catheters is an often underestimated problem. However, this form of infection leads to high mortality rates and causes significant costs in health care. Therefore, it is important to analyze these biofilms and establish avoiding strategies. In this study a continuous flow-through system for the cultivation of biofilms under catheter-associated urinary tract infection conditions was established and validated. The in vitro urinary tract catheter system implies the composition of urine (artificial urine medium), the mean volume of urine of adults (1 mL min(-1)), the frequently used silicone catheter (foley silicon catheter) as well as the infection with uropathogenic microorganisms like Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Three clinical isolates from urine of catheterized patients were chosen due to their ability to form biofilms, their mobility and their cell surface hydrophobicity. As reference strain P. aeruginosa PA14 has been used. Characteristic parameters as biofilm thickness, specific biofilm growth rate and substrate consumption were observed. Biofilm thicknesses varied from 105±16 μm up to 246±67 μm for the different isolates. The specific biofilm growth rate could be determined with a non invasive optical biomass sensor. This sensor allows online monitoring of the biofilm growth in the progress of the cultivation.
Fungal Genetics and Biology : FG & B. Jan, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22178638
Fungi grow on a great variety of organic and inorganic materials. Colony establishment and growth on solid surfaces require adhesion of spores and hyphae to the substrate, while cell-to-cell interactions among spores and/or hyphae are a prerequisite for the development of three-dimensional mycelial structures such as pellets or biofilms. Surface adherence has been described as a two-step process, comprised of the initial attachment of ungerminated conidia followed by further adhesion of the forming germ tubes and growing hyphae. In the present study, we analyzed the contribution of adhesion of ungerminated spores to pellet and biofilm formation in Aspergillus niger. Mutants deficient in melanin biosynthesis were constructed by the deletion of the alb1 gene, encoding a polyketide synthase essential for pigment biosynthesis. Δalb1 conidia have an altered surface structure and changed physicochemical surface properties. Spore aggregation in liquid culture as well as spore surface attachment differ between the wild type and the mutant in a pH-dependent manner. In liquid culture further pellet formation is unaffected by altered spore-spore interactions, indicating that germ tube and hyphal adherence can compensate for deficiencies in the initial step of spore attachment. In contrast, under conditions promoting adhesion of Δalb1 conidia to polymer surfaces the mutant forms more stable biofilms than the wild type, suggesting that initial spore adhesion supports sessile growth.
Improved Enzyme Production by Bio-pellets of Aspergillus Niger: Targeted Morphology Engineering Using Titanate Microparticles
Biotechnology and Bioengineering. Feb, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 21887774
The present study describes the design of bio-pellet morphologies of the industrial working horse Aspergillus niger strains in submerged culture. The novel approach recruits the intended addition of titanate microparticles (TiSiO(4), 8 µm) to the growth medium. As tested for two recombinant strains producing fructofuranosidase and glucoamylase, the enzyme titer by the titanate-enhanced cultures in shake flasks was increased 3.7-fold to 150 U/mL (for fructofuranosidase) and 9.5-fold to 190 U/mL (for glucoamylase) as compared to the control. This could be successfully utilized for improved enzyme production in stirred tank reactors. Stimulated by the particles, the achieved final glucoamylase activity of 1,080 U/mL (fed-batch) and 320 U/mL (batch) was sevenfold higher as compared to the conventional processes. The major reason for the enhanced production was the close association between the titanate particles and the fungal cells. Already below 2.5 g/L the micromaterial was found inside the pellets, including single particles embedded as 50-150 µm particle aggregates in the center resulting in core shell pellets. With increasing titanate levels the pellet size decreased from 1,700 µm (control) to 300 µm. Fluorescence based resolution of GFP expression revealed that the large pellets of the control were only active in a 200 µm surface layer. This matches with the critical penetration depth for nutrients and oxygen typically observed for fungal pellets. The biomass within the titanate derived fungal pellets, however, was completely active. This was due a reduced thickness of the biomass layer via smaller pellets as well as the core shell structure. Moreover, also the created loose inner pellet structure enabled a higher mass transfer and penetration depths for up to 500 µm. The creation of core-shell pellets has not been achieved previously by the addition of microparticles, for example, made of talc or alumina. Due to this, the present work opens further possibilities to use microparticles for tailor-made morphology design of filamentous fungi, especially for pellet based processes which have a long and strong industrial relevance for industrial production.
Label-free Spatial Analysis of Free and Enzyme-bound NAD(P)H in the Presence of High Concentrations of Melanin
Journal of Fluorescence. Jan, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 21894494
The analysis of autofluorescence, often regarded as undesired noise during the imaging of biological samples, allows label free, unbiased detection of NAD(P)H and melanin in native samples. Because both the emission and absorption spectra of these fluorophores overlap and they can hence not be differentiated using emission filters or with different excitation wavelengths, fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) is used to differentiate between them. In the present paper the application of two-photon excitation microscopy is presented to investigate the autofluorescence of fungal spores. The model organism which was examined is Aspergillus ochraceus. Furthermore a strategy is developed which allows to quantitatively analyze the fluorescence lifetimes of melanin, free NAD(P)H and protein-bound NAD(P)H using forward convolution of a multiexponential decay function with the instrument response function (IRF) and subsequent fitting to the experimental fluorescence data. As a consequence proteins, which are able to bind NAD(P)H, are located with sub-cellular resolution. Furthermore a spatial differentiation of the fluorophores NAD(P)H and melanin inside the spores, is revealed.