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In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (19)
- Bioelectrochemistry (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
- In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology. Animal
- Endothelium : Journal of Endothelial Cell Research
- Biology of Reproduction
- Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
- Biotechnology and Bioengineering
- Nature Biotechnology
- Stem Cells and Development
- Methods in Molecular Biology (Clifton, N.J.)
- Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
- Stem Cells (Dayton, Ohio)
- Regenerative Medicine
- Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
- Acta Biomaterialia
- Biotechnology Progress
- Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
- PloS One
- PloS One
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Articles by Raj R. Rao in JoVE
ניתוח Immunocytochemical של בתאי גזע האדם pluripotent באמצעות מנגנון מתוצרת עצמית Cytospin
Enrique Y. Pascual, Marion J. Riggs, Raj R. Rao
Department of Chemical and Life Sciences Engineering, Virginia Commonwealth University
מכתים השעיה immunocytochemical בתאי גזע אנושיים pluripotent (hPSCs) על פני קרום התא סמנים (SSEA-3/SSEA-4) הושג על בסיס השימוש במנגנון cytospin מתוצרת עצמית כדי ליצור monolayer של תאים להסתכלות וכימות.
Other articles by Raj R. Rao on PubMed
Effects of 60 Hz Electromagnetic Field Exposure on APP695 Transcription Levels in Differentiating Human Neuroblastoma Cells
Bioelectrochemistry (Amsterdam, Netherlands). Jul, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 12049751
Epidemiological studies have suggested that workers with primary occupation that are likely to have resulted in the medium-to-high extremely low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure are at increased risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis. As a first step in investigating the possibility of an association between the ELF-EMF exposure and AD at the cellular level, we have used the differentiating IMR-32 neuroblastoma cells. In double-blind experiments, IMR-32 cells were exposed to the magnetic field intensities of 50, 100, and 200 microT at a frequency of 60 Hz for a period of 4 h at the three ages of differentiation (2, 10, and 16 days after incubation in differentiation medium). We used a custom-made Helmholtz coil setup driven by a 60-Hz sinusoidal signal from a function generator and an in-house built power amplifier. Total RNA extracted from the exposed cells was separated by the agarose gel electrophoresis and transferred to a nylon membrane for the northern hybridization. Digoxygenin-labeled APP695 RNA probes were used to detect changes in the APP695 mRNA levels in response to the ELF-EMF exposure. The results reported herein provided no support for any relationship between the APP695 gene transcription and IMR-32 differentiation age, as well as the magnetic field exposure. This study constitutes the first step towards investigating the possibility of an association between the ELF-EMF exposure and AD manifestations at the cellular level.
Biochemical and Electrophysiological Differentiation Profile of a Human Neuroblastoma (IMR-32) Cell Line
In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology. Animal. Sep, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 12605539
A human neuroblastoma cell line (IMR-32), when differentiated, mimics large projections of the human cerebral cortex and under certain tissue culture conditions, forms intracellular fibrillary material, commonly observed in brains of patients affected with Alzheimer's disease. Our purpose is to use differentiated IMR-32 cells as an in vitro system for magnetic field exposure studies. We have previously studied in vitro differentiation of murine neuroblastoma (N1E-115) cells with respect to resting membrane potential development. The purpose of this study was to extend our investigation to IMR-32 cells. Electrophysiological (resting membrane potential, V(m)) and biochemical (neuron-specific enolase activity [NSE]) measurements were taken every 2 d for a period of 16 d. A voltage-sensitive oxonol dye together with flow cytometry was used to measure relative changes in V(m). To rule out any effect due to mechanical cell detachment, V(m) was indirectly measured by using a slow potentiometric dye (tetramethylrhodamine methyl ester) together with confocal digital imaging microscopy. Neuron-specific enolase activity was measured by following the production of phosphoenolpyruvate from 2-phospho-d-glycerate at 240 nm. Our results indicate that in IMR-32, in vitro differentiation as characterized by an increase in NSE activity is not accompanied by resting membrane potential development. This finding suggests that pathways for morphological-biochemical and electrophysiological differentiations in IMR-32 cells are independent of one another.
Purified and Proliferating Endothelial Cells Derived and Expanded in Vitro from Embryonic Stem Cells
Endothelium : Journal of Endothelial Cell Research. 2003 | Pubmed ID: 14741848
Embryonic stem (ES) cells serve as an excellent in vitro system for studying differentiation events and for developing methods of generating various specialized cells for future regenerative therapeutic applications. Two obstacles associated with using embryonic stem cells include (a) isolating homogeneous populations of differentiated cells and (b) obtaining terminally differentiated cell populations that are capable of proliferating further. Here, the authors describe methods in which they have overcome these two obstacles by generating highly purified populations (>96%) of actively proliferating endothelial cells from mouse ES cells. Briefly, 60,000 ES cells progress through three different stages of cell induction/expansion and two cell isolation procedures, generating over 300 million endothelial cells. These ES-derived endothelial cells display characteristics similar to vascular endothelial cells in that they express several common endothelial markers, they form two-dimensional (2D) tubelike structures as well as complex microvessels in three-dimensional (3D) collagen type I gels, and they retain the ability to reorganize their cytoskeleton in response to mechanical forces. Our findings indicate that it is possible to obtain proliferating populations of homogeneous endothelial cells from mouse ES cells without genetically manipulating the ES cells or coculturing with feeder cells.
Gene Expression Profiling of Embryonic Stem Cells Leads to Greater Understanding of Pluripotency and Early Developmental Events
Biology of Reproduction. Dec, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15140800
Embryonic stem cells are characterized by their ability to propagate indefinitely in culture, maintaining a normal karyotype and their undifferentiated state. They have the potential of differentiating into any specialized cell type in the body. An understanding of the transcriptional profile related to pluripotency and early development is necessary to better tap their developmental potential and also maintain their undifferentiated phenotype. Currently, several techniques are in use to ascertain the gene expression profile of embryonic stem cells. This review summarizes the information generated using microarray and other approaches on the gene expression analyses of stem cells in both mouse and human cell lines. We also discuss specific approaches useful in future studies aimed at further deciphering the pluripotent nature of human embryonic stem cells.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. Oct, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15369773
Currently, there are no differentiation strategies for human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) that efficiently produce one specific cell type, possibly because of lack of understanding of the genes that control signaling events prior to overt differentiation. sed HepG2 cell conditioned medium (MEDII), which induces early differentiation in mouse ES cells while retaining pluripotent markers, to query gene expression in hESCs. Treatment of adherent hESCs with 50% MEDII medium effected differentiation to a cell type with gene expression similar to primitive streak stage cells of mouse embryos. MEDII treatment up-regulates TDGF1 (Cripto), a gene essential for anterior-posterior axis and mesoderm formation in mouse embryos and a key component of the TGFB1/NODAL signaling pathway. LEFTYA, an antagonist of NODAL/TDGF1 signaling expressed in anterior visceral endoderm, is down-regulated with MEDII treatment, as is FST, an inhibitor of mesoderm induction via the related INHBE1 pathway. In summary, the TGFB1/NODAL pathway is important for primitive-streak and mesoderm formation and in using MEDII, we present a means for generating an in vitro cell population that maintains pluripotent gene expression (POU5F1, NANOG) and SSEA-4 markers while regulating genes in the TGFB1/NODAL pathway, which may lead to more uniform formation of mesoderm in vitro.
Biotechnology and Bioengineering. Nov, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15493035
Human embryonic stem cells (ESCs) have generated enormous interest due to their ability to self-renew and produce many different cell types. In conjunction with microarray technology, human ESCs provide a powerful tool for employing a systems-based approach to deciphering the molecular mechanisms that control pluripotency and early development. Recent work has focused on defining "stemness" and pluripotency based on different experimental and analytical approaches in both mouse and human ESCs. Using a mixed linear model statistical approach, we report a stringent direct comparison between data sets obtained from two human ESCs (BG01 and H1) in order to obtain a list of genes that are enriched in ESCs. In addition, we used another pluripotent population derived from BG01 ESCs to obtain a list of genes that we consider important to the maintenance of pluripotency. A total of 133 genes overlapped between the three pluripotent populations. A majority of the 133 genes were classified under the key functional categories of cell-cycle regulation, signaling, and regulation of transcription. Key genes expressed were Oct4, Sox2, LeftyA, and Fgf2. Also found to be enriched in all three populations is FLJ10713, a gene encoding a hypothetical protein of unknown function that has been shown in earlier studies to possess a homolog in mouse ESCs and also to cluster tightly with Oct4 in human ESCs. Although there were many genes unique to each pluripotent population, they shared similarities based on functional ontologies that define pluripotency. The significance of our studies underscores the need for direct comparison of stem cell populations that share biological similarities using uniform stringent analytical approaches, in order to better define pluripotency. Our findings have important implications for the maintenance of pluripotency and in developing directed differentiation strategies for various regenerative applications.
A Single Magnetic Field Exposure System for Sequential Investigation of Real Time and Downstream Cellular Responses
Bioelectromagnetics. Jan, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 14696050
To be able to correlate real time membrane potential or ion flux changes with further downstream gene transcription responses due to extremely low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure, we devised an experimental system consisting of a pair of symmetric circular coils. This system can be used on an inverted microscope stage (real time signaling) as well as inside controlled environment incubators (gene transcription end points). The system includes a unique, custom made switch box for blinding the experimental staff and a power amplifier. We report herein the design and characterization of the system with respect to parameters considered important in in vitro ELF-EMF exposure studies, including linear magnetic field distribution, compensation for microscope objective lens interference, heating effects of the coils, and harmonic content of the signals.
Nature Biotechnology. Jan, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15637610
Stem Cells and Development. Apr, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16646666
Rhesus and human embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are similar, making rhesus ESCs an appropriate preclinical allograft model for refining stem cell therapies. Use of rhesus ESC-derived neural progenitors (NPs) in preclinical applications will be enhanced if the neural derivation process is scalable and free from contaminating ESCs or nonneural cells. In this study, we have quantified temporal gene expression changes of rhesus ESC differentiated to uniform NPs using simple feeder-free adherent cultures. NPs exhibited a significant up-regulation of neural-specific genes and a downregulation of pluripotency genes. Additionally, expression of Hu, MAP2, and Tuj1, shows that NPs can form post-mitotic neurons. This study represents a simple and scalable means of producing adherent primate NPs for preclinical testing of neural cell-based therapy.
Methods in Molecular Biology (Clifton, N.J.). 2007 | Pubmed ID: 18453248
The pluripotent nature of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) is based on their potential to form every cell type in the body. Prior to use in directed differentiation strategies, these cells need to be thoroughly characterized. The large number of glycoproteins and carbohydrates that exist on the cell surface provide an excellent opportunity for characterizing hESCs and a means to delineate pluripotent and differentiated cell types. A panel of 14 lectins, based on their specificity for a variety of carbohydrates and carbohydrate linkages, along with stage-specific embryonic antigen-4 (SSEA-4), have been chosen to examine hESCs for other potential pluripotent markers. These studies have been achieved by binding quantitation by flow cytometry and binding localization in adherent colonies by immunocytochemistry. We have shown that certain lectins may be used as markers that are associated with the pluripotent state of hESCs because binding percentages and binding localization of these lectins are similar to those of SSEA-4. This presents options for systematic classification of pluripotent hESCs and for distinguishing differentiated hESC types based on glycan presentation that accompanies differentiation.
Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity. May, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18177420
Derivation of human neural progenitors (hNP) from human embryonic stem (hES) cells in culture has been reported with the use of feeder cells or conditioned media. This introduces undefined components into the system, limiting the ability to precisely investigate the requirement for factors that control the process. Also, the use of feeder cells of non-human origin introduces the potential for zoonotic transmission, limiting its clinical usefulness. Here we report a feeder-free system to produce hNP from hES cells and test the effects of various media components involved in the process. Five protocols using defined media components were compared for efficiency of hNP generation. Based on this analysis, we discuss the role of basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF2), N2 supplement, non-essential amino acids (NEAA), and knock-out serum replacement (KSR) on the process of hNP generation. All protocols led to down-regulation of Oct4/POU5F1 expression (from 90.5% to <3%), and up-regulation of neural progenitor markers to varying degrees. Media with N2 but not KSR and NEAA produced cultures with significantly higher (p<0.05) expression of the neural progenitor marker Musashi 1 (MSI1). Approximately 89% of these cells were Nestin (NES)+ after 3 weeks, but they did not proliferate. In contrast, differentiation media supplemented with KSR and NEAA produced fewer NES+ (75%) cells, but these cells were proliferative, and by five passages the culture consisted of >97% NES+ cells. This suggests that KSR and NEAA supplements did not enhance early differentiation but did promote proliferating of hNP cell cultures. This resulted in an efficient, robust, repeatable differentiation system suitable for generating large populations of hNP cells. This will facilitate further study of molecular and biochemical mechanisms in early human neural differentiation and potentially produce uniform neuronal cells for therapeutic uses without concern of zoonotic transmission from feeder layers.
Nuclear Factor I Isoforms Regulate Gene Expression During the Differentiation of Human Neural Progenitors to Astrocytes
Stem Cells (Dayton, Ohio). May, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19418463
Even though astrocytes are critical for both normal brain functions and the development and progression of neuropathological states, including neuroinflammation associated with neurodegenerative diseases, the mechanisms controlling gene expression during astrocyte differentiation are poorly understood. Thus far, several signaling pathways were shown to regulate astrocyte differentiation, including JAK-STAT, bone morphogenic protein-2/Smads, and Notch. More recently, a family of nuclear factor-1 (NFI-A, -B, -C, and -X) was implicated in the regulation of vertebral neocortex development, with NFI-A and -B controlling the onset of gliogenesis. Here, we developed an in vitro model of differentiation of stem cells towards neural progenitors (NP) and subsequently astrocytes. The transition from stem cells to progenitors was accompanied by an expected change in the expression profile of markers, including Sox-2, Musashi-1, and Oct4. Subsequently, generated astrocytes were characterized by proper morphology, increased glutamate uptake, and marker gene expression. We used this in vitro differentiation model to study the expression and functions of NFIs. Interestingly, stem cells expressed only background levels of NFIs, while differentiation to NP activated the expression of NFI-A. More importantly, NFI-X expression was induced during the later stages of differentiation towards astrocytes. In addition, NFI-X and -C were required for the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein and secreted protein acidic and rich in cystein-like protein 1, which are the markers of astrocytes at the later stages of differentiation. We conclude that an expression program of NFIs is executed during the differentiation of astrocytes, with NFI-X and -C controlling the expression of astrocytic markers at late stages of differentiation.
Regenerative Medicine. Jul, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19580405
Human pluripotent stem cells, including embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells, hold enormous potential for the treatment of many diseases, owing to their ability to generate cell types useful for therapeutic applications. Currently, many stem cell culture propagation and differentiation systems incorporate animal-derived components for promoting self-renewal and differentiation. However, use of these components is labor intensive, carries the risk of xenogeneic contamination and yields compromised experimental results that are difficult to duplicate. From a biomaterials perspective, the generation of an animal- and cell-free biomimetic microenvironment that provides the appropriate physical and chemical cues for stem cell self-renewal or differentiation into specialized cell types would be ideal. This review presents the use of natural and synthetic polymers that support propagation and differentiation of stem cells, in an attempt to obtain a clear understanding of the factors responsible for the determination of stem cell fate.
Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering. 2009 | Pubmed ID: 20528730
Multiple neurodegenerative disorders typically result from irrevocable damage and improper functioning of specialized neuronal cells or populations of neuronal cells. These disorders have the potential to contribute to an already overburdened health care system unless the progression of neurodegeneration can be altered. Progress in understanding neurodegenerative cell biology has been hampered by a lack of predictive and, some would claim, relevant cellular models. Additionally, the research needed to develop new drugs and determine methods for repair or replacement of damaged neurons is severely hampered by the lack of an adequate in vitro human neuron cell-based model. In this context, pluripotent stem cells and neural progenitors and their properties including unlimited proliferation, plasticity to generate other cell types, and a readily available source of cells--pose an excellent alternative to ex vivo primary cultures or established immortalized cell lines in contributing to our understanding of neurodegenerative cell biology and our ability to analyze the therapeutic or cytotoxic effects of chemicals, drugs, and xenobiotics. Many questions that define the underlying "genesis" of the neuronal death in these disorders also remain unanswered, with evidence suggesting a key role for mitochondrial dysfunction. The assessment of stem cells, neural progenitors, and engineered adult cells can provide useful insights into neuronal development and neurodegenerative processes. Finally, the potential for a combination of cell- and gene-based therapeutics for neurodegenerative disorders is also discussed.
Characterization of Human Fibroblast-derived Extracellular Matrix Components for Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Propagation
Acta Biomaterialia. Dec, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20659593
Recent studies from our laboratory have shown that acellular substrates generated from human fibroblasts successfully maintained human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) in their undifferentiated state for extended periods. Aiming at better characterization, we conducted proteomic analyses to identify the extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins in mouse embryonic- and two human fibroblast-derived acellular substrates. Our studies identified heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG) as a core component of these substrates and immunocytochemical analyses confirmed the presence of HSPG as well as other ECM proteins identified through proteomic analyses. In our attempt to develop surfaces that mimic fibroblast-deposited ECM and their self-renewal capabilities, substrates comprising HSPG and other core ECM proteins were formulated and assessed for the function of hPSC self-renewal. WA09 and BG01v hPSCs maintained on these substrates exhibit multiple characteristics of pluripotency, including (i) tight colony formation with typical stem cell morphology; (ii) positive expression of alkaline phosphatase, (iii) positive expression of SSEA3, SSEA4 and Oct4 based on immunocytochemical analyses; (iv) POU5F1, NANOG and SOX2 mRNA expression; and (v) in vitro differentiation and expression of germ-layer-specific markers. Our studies also reveal that although HSPG by itself-does not support hPSC self-renewal, a substrate that combines HSPG and fibronectin is sufficient for undifferentiated propagation of hPSCs. These studies form the basis for identification of appropriate ECM components in a substrate that synergistically promotes activation of adhesion and signaling pathways responsible for hPSC self-renewal.
Stable Propagation of Human Embryonic and Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells on Decellularized Human Substrates
Biotechnology Progress. Jul-Aug, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20730767
Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) that include human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) have gained enormous interest as potential sources for regenerative biomedical therapies and model systems for studying early development. Traditionally, mouse embryonic fibroblasts have been used as a supportive feeder layer for the sustained propagation of hPSCs. However, the use of nonhuman-derived feeders presents concerns about the possibility of xenogenic contamination, labor intensiveness, and variability in experimental results in hPSC cultures. Toward addressing some of these concerns, we report the propagation of three different hPSCs on feeder-free extracellular matrix (ECM)-based substrates derived from human fibroblasts. hPSCs propagated in this setting were indistinguishable by multiple criteria, including colony morphology, expression of pluripotency protein markers, trilineage in vitro differentiation, and gene expression patterns, from hPSCs cultured directly on a fibroblast feeder layer. Further, hPSCs maintained a normal karyotype when analyzed after 15 passages in this setting. Development of this ECM-based culture system is a significant advance in hPSC propagation methods as it could serve as a critical component in the development of humanized propagation systems for the production of stable hPSCs and its derivatives for research and therapeutic applications.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. Mar, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20117095
We have developed and validated a microporous poly(ethylene terephthalate) membrane-based indirect co-culture system for human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC) propagation, which allows real-time conditioning of the culture medium with human fibroblasts while maintaining the complete separation of the two cell types. The propagation and pluripotent characteristics of a human embryonic stem cell (hESC) line and a human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) line were studied in prolonged culture in this system. We report that hPSCs cultured on membranes by indirect co-culture with fibroblasts were indistinguishable by multiple criteria from hPSCs cultured directly on a fibroblast feeder layer. Thus this co-culture system is a significant advance in hPSC culture methods, providing a facile stem cell expansion system with continuous medium conditioning while preventing mixing of hPSCs and feeder cells. This membrane culture method will enable testing of novel feeder cells and differentiation studies using co-culture with other cell types, and will simplify stepwise changes in culture conditions for staged differentiation protocols.
Dynamic Dependence on ATR and ATM for Double-strand Break Repair in Human Embryonic Stem Cells and Neural Descendants
PloS One. 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20368801
The DNA double-strand break (DSB) is the most toxic form of DNA damage. Studies aimed at characterizing DNA repair during development suggest that homologous recombination repair (HRR) is more critical in pluripotent cells compared to differentiated somatic cells in which nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) is dominant. We have characterized the DNA damage response (DDR) and quality of DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), and in vitro-derived neural cells. Resolution of ionizing radiation-induced foci (IRIF) was used as a surrogate for DSB repair. The resolution of gamma-H2AX foci occurred at a slower rate in hESCs compared to neural progenitors (NPs) and astrocytes perhaps reflective of more complex DSB repair in hESCs. In addition, the resolution of RAD51 foci, indicative of active homologous recombination repair (HRR), showed that hESCs as well as NPs have high capacity for HRR, whereas astrocytes do not. Importantly, the ATM kinase was shown to be critical for foci formation in astrocytes, but not in hESCs, suggesting that the DDR is different in these cells. Blocking the ATM kinase in astrocytes not only prevented the formation but also completely disassembled preformed repair foci. The ability of hESCs to form IRIF was abrogated with caffeine and siRNAs targeted against ATR, implicating that hESCs rely on ATR, rather than ATM for regulating DSB repair. This relationship dynamically changed as cells differentiated. Interestingly, while the inhibition of the DNA-PKcs kinase (and presumably non-homologous endjoining [NHEJ]) in astrocytes slowed IRIF resolution it did not in hESCs, suggesting that repair in hESCs does not utilize DNA-PKcs. Altogether, our results show that hESCs have efficient DSB repair that is largely ATR-dependent HRR, whereas astrocytes critically depend on ATM for NHEJ, which, in part, is DNA-PKcs-independent.
Differing Lectin Binding Profiles Among Human Embryonic Stem Cells and Derivatives Aid in the Isolation of Neural Progenitor Cells
PloS One. 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21850265
Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and their differentiated progeny allow for investigation of important changes/events during normal embryonic development. Currently most of the research is focused on proteinacous changes occurring as a result of differentiation of stem cells and little is known about changes in cell surface glycosylation patterns. Identification of cell lineage specific glycans can help in understanding their role in maintenance, proliferation and differentiation. Furthermore, these glycans can serve as markers for isolation of homogenous populations of cells. Using a panel of eight biotinylated lectins, the glycan expression of hESCs, hESCs-derived human neural progenitors (hNP) cells, and hESCs-derived mesenchymal progenitor (hMP) cells was investigated. Our goal was to identify glycans that are unique for hNP cells and use the corresponding lectins for cell isolation. Flow cytometry and immunocytochemistry were used to determine expression and localization of glycans, respectively, in each cell type. These results show that the glycan expression changes upon differentiation of hESCs and is different for neural and mesenchymal lineage. For example, binding of PHA-L lectin is low in hESCs (14±4.4%) but significantly higher in differentiated hNP cells (99±0.4%) and hMP cells (90±3%). Three lectins: VVA, DBA and LTL have low binding in hESCs and hMP cells, but significantly higher binding in hNP cells. Finally, VVA lectin binding was used to isolate hNP cells from a mixed population of hESCs, hNP cells and hMP cells. This is the first report that compares glycan expression across these human stem cell lineages and identifies significant differences. Also, this is the first study that uses VVA lectin for isolation for human neural progenitor cells.