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In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (16)
- Cardiovascular Research
- Journal of the American College of Cardiology
- American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
- Heart Rhythm : the Official Journal of the Heart Rhythm Society
- Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
- Physiological Genomics
- The Journal of Clinical Investigation
- Circulation. Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology
- European Journal of Heart Failure
- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
- Circulation. Heart Failure
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Articles by Ralph J. van Oort in JoVE
المستعرضة في انقباض الأورطي الفئران
Angela C. deAlmeida1, Ralph J. van Oort1, Xander H.T. Wehrens1,2
1Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Baylor College of Medicine (BCM), 2The Margaret M. and Albert B. Alkek Department of Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine (BCM)
مستعرضة انقباض الأبهر (TAC) في الفأر نموذج استخداما تجريبيا لدراسة الآليات الكامنة وراء تضخم القلب والقلب التنمية الفشل. هنا ، نحن تصف إجراءات لتقليص الأبهر لخلق درجة استنساخه من تضخم القلب في الفئران.
Other articles by Ralph J. van Oort on PubMed
Cardiovascular Research. Nov, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16188242
MEF2 Activates a Genetic Program Promoting Chamber Dilation and Contractile Dysfunction in Calcineurin-induced Heart Failure
Circulation. Jul, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16847152
Hypertrophic growth, a risk factor for mortality in heart disease, is driven by reprogramming of cardiac gene expression. Although the transcription factor myocyte enhancer factor-2 (MEF2) is a common end point for several hypertrophic pathways, its precise cardiac gene targets and function in cardiac remodeling remain to be elucidated.
EUK-8, a Superoxide Dismutase and Catalase Mimetic, Reduces Cardiac Oxidative Stress and Ameliorates Pressure Overload-induced Heart Failure in the Harlequin Mouse Mutant
Journal of the American College of Cardiology. Aug, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16904556
The purpose of this study was to identify apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) as a cardiac mitochondrial antioxidant and assess the efficacy of EUK-8, a salen-manganese catalytic free radical scavenger, to protect the AIF-deficient myocardium against pressure overload.
American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology. Jul, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17449551
Intracellular Calcium Leak Due to FKBP12.6 Deficiency in Mice Facilitates the Inducibility of Atrial Fibrillation
Heart Rhythm : the Official Journal of the Heart Rhythm Society. Jul, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18598963
Although defective Ca(2+) homeostasis may contribute to arrhythmogenesis in atrial fibrillation (AF), the underlying molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. Studies in patients with AF revealed that impaired diastolic closure of sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+)-release channels (ryanodine receptors, RyR2) is associated with reduced levels of the RyR2-inhibitory subunit FKBP12.6.
Circulation. Oct, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18809798
Dicer, an RNAse III endonuclease critical for processing of pre-microRNAs (miRNAs) into mature 22-nucleotide miRNAs, has proven a useful target to dissect the significance of miRNAs biogenesis in mammalian biology.
Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology. Dec, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18838078
Physiological Genomics. May, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19318539
Junctophilins (JPHs) are members of a junctional membrane complex protein family important for the physical approximation of plasmalemmal and sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum membranes. As such, JPHs facilitate signal transduction in excitable cells between plasmalemmal voltage-gated calcium channels and intracellular calcium release channels. To determine the molecular evolution of the JPH gene family, we performed a phylogenetic analysis of over 60 JPH genes from over 40 species and compared conservation across species and different isoforms. We found that JPHs are evolutionary highly conserved, in particular the membrane occupation and recognition nexus motifs found in all species. Our data suggest that an ancestral form of JPH arose at the latest in a common metazoan ancestor and that in vertebrates four isoforms arose, probably following two rounds of whole genome duplications. By combining multiple prediction techniques with sequence alignments, we also postulate the presence of new important functional regions and candidate sites for posttranslational modifications. The increasing number of available sequences yields significant insight into the molecular evolution of JPHs. Our analysis is consistent with the emerging concept that JPHs serve dual important functions in excitable cells: structural assembly of junctional membrane complexes and regulation of intracellular calcium signaling pathways.
The Journal of Clinical Investigation. Jul, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19603549
A trial fibrillation (AF), the most common human cardiac arrhythmia, is associated with abnormal intracellular Ca2+ handling. Diastolic Ca2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum via "leaky" ryanodine receptors (RyR2s) is hypothesized to contribute to arrhythmogenesis in AF, but the molecular mechanisms are incompletely understood. Here, we have shown that mice with a genetic gain-of-function defect in Ryr2 (which we termed Ryr2R176Q/+ mice) did not exhibit spontaneous AF but that rapid atrial pacing unmasked an increased vulnerability to AF in these mice compared with wild-type mice. Rapid atrial pacing resulted in increased Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) phosphorylation of RyR2, while both pharmacologic and genetic inhibition of CaMKII prevented AF inducibility in Ryr2R176Q/+ mice. This result suggests that AF requires both an arrhythmogenic substrate (e.g., RyR2 mutation) and enhanced CaMKII activity. Increased CaMKII phosphorylation of RyR2 was observed in atrial biopsies from mice with atrial enlargement and spontaneous AF, goats with lone AF, and patients with chronic AF. Genetic inhibition of CaMKII phosphorylation of RyR2 in Ryr2S2814A knockin mice reduced AF inducibility in a vagotonic AF model. Together, these findings suggest that increased RyR2-dependent Ca2+ leakage due to enhanced CaMKII activity is an important downstream effect of CaMKII in individuals susceptible to AF induction.
Circulation. Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology. Dec, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 20009080
Mutations in the cardiac ryanodine receptor gene (RyR2) have been recently identified in victims of sudden infant death syndrome. The aim of this study was to determine whether a gain-of-function mutation in RyR2 increases the propensity to cardiac arrhythmias and sudden death in young mice.
European Journal of Heart Failure. Jan, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20023039
The transcription factor MEF2 is a downstream target for several hypertrophic signalling pathways in the heart, suggesting that MEF2 may act as a valuable therapeutic target in the treatment of heart failure.
Accelerated Development of Pressure Overload-induced Cardiac Hypertrophy and Dysfunction in an RyR2-R176Q Knockin Mouse Model
Hypertension. Apr, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20157052
In response to chronic hypertension, the heart compensates by hypertrophic growth, which frequently progresses to heart failure. Although intracellular calcium (Ca(2+)) has a central role in hypertrophic signaling pathways, the Ca(2+) source for activating these pathways remains elusive. We hypothesized that pathological sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) leak through defective cardiac intracellular Ca(2+) release channels/ryanodine receptors (RyR2) accelerates heart failure development by stimulating Ca(2+)-dependent hypertrophic signaling. Mice heterozygous for the gain-of-function mutation R176Q/+ in RyR2 and wild-type mice were subjected to transverse aortic constriction. Cardiac function was significantly lower, and cardiac dimensions were larger at 8 weeks after transverse aortic constriction in R176Q/+ compared with wild-type mice. R176Q/+ mice displayed an enhanced hypertrophic response compared with wild-type mice as assessed by heart weight:body weight ratios and cardiomyocyte cross-sectional areas after transverse aortic constriction. Quantitative PCR revealed increased transcriptional activation of cardiac stress genes in R176Q/+ mice after transverse aortic constriction. Moreover, pressure overload resulted in an increased sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) leak, associated with higher expression levels of the exon 4 splice form of regulator of calcineurin 1, and a decrease in nuclear factor of activated T-cells phosphorylation in R176Q/+ mice compared with wild-type mice. Taken together, our results suggest that RyR2-dependent sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) leak activates the prohypertrophic calcineurin/nuclear factor of activated T-cells pathway under conditions of pressure overload.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Jul, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20615971
Aberrant intracellular Ca(2+) regulation is believed to contribute to the development of cardiomyopathy in Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Here, we tested whether inhibition of protein kinase A (PKA) phosphorylation of ryanodine receptor type 2 (RyR2) prevents dystrophic cardiomyopathy by reducing SR Ca(2+) leak in the mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. mdx mice were crossed with RyR2-S2808A mice, in which PKA phosphorylation site S2808 on RyR2 is inactivated by alanine substitution. Compared with mdx mice that developed age-dependent heart failure, mdx-S2808A mice exhibited improved fractional shortening and reduced cardiac dilation. Whereas application of isoproterenol severely depressed cardiac contractility and caused 95% mortality in mdx mice, contractility was preserved with only 19% mortality in mdx-S2808A mice. SR Ca(2+) leak was greater in ventricular myocytes from mdx than mdx-S2808A mice. Myocytes from mdx mice had a higher incidence of isoproterenol-induced diastolic Ca(2+) release events than myocytes from mdx-S2808A mice. Thus, inhibition of PKA phosphorylation of RyR2 reduced SR Ca(2+) leak and attenuated cardiomyopathy in mdx mice, suggesting that enhanced PKA phosphorylation of RyR2 at S2808 contributes to abnormal Ca(2+) homeostasis associated with dystrophic cardiomyopathy.
Ryanodine Receptor Phosphorylation by Calcium/calmodulin-dependent Protein Kinase II Promotes Life-threatening Ventricular Arrhythmias in Mice with Heart Failure
Circulation. Dec, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 21098440
approximately half of patients with heart failure die suddenly as a result of ventricular arrhythmias. Although abnormal Ca(2+) release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum through ryanodine receptors (RyR2) has been linked to arrhythmogenesis, the molecular mechanisms triggering release of arrhythmogenic Ca(2+) remain unknown. We tested the hypothesis that increased RyR2 phosphorylation by Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II is both necessary and sufficient to promote lethal ventricular arrhythmias.
Junctophilin-2 Expression Silencing Causes Cardiocyte Hypertrophy and Abnormal Intracellular Calcium-handling
Circulation. Heart Failure. Mar, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21216834
Junctophilin-2 (JPH2), a protein expressed in the junctional membrane complex, is necessary for proper intracellular calcium (Ca(2+)) signaling in cardiac myocytes. Downregulation of JPH2 expression in a model of cardiac hypertrophy was recently associated with defective coupling between plasmalemmal L-type Ca(2+) channels and sarcoplasmic reticular ryanodine receptors. However, it remains unclear whether JPH2 expression is altered in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). In addition, the effects of downregulation of JPH2 expression on intracellular Ca(2+) handling are presently poorly understood. We sought to determine whether loss of JPH2 expression is noted among patients with HCM and whether expression silencing might perturb Ca(2+) handling in a prohypertrophic manner.
Disrupted Junctional Membrane Complexes and Hyperactive Ryanodine Receptors After Acute Junctophilin Knockdown in Mice
Circulation. Mar, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21339484
Excitation-contraction coupling in striated muscle requires proper communication of plasmalemmal voltage-activated Ca2+ channels and Ca2+ release channels on sarcoplasmic reticulum within junctional membrane complexes. Although previous studies revealed a loss of junctional membrane complexes and embryonic lethality in germ-line junctophilin-2 (JPH2) knockout mice, it has remained unclear whether JPH2 plays an essential role in junctional membrane complex formation and the Ca(2+)-induced Ca(2+) release process in the heart. Our recent work demonstrated loss-of-function mutations in JPH2 in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.