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In JoVE (2)
- Yetişkin Zebra balığı Böbrek diseksiyonu
- Zebra balığı Pronephros Lazer Ablasyon Böbrek Epitel Rejenerasyon Eğitim
Other Publications (11)
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Articles by Rebecca A. Wingert in JoVE
Yetişkin Zebra balığı Böbrek diseksiyonu
Gary F. Gerlach*, Lauran N. Schrader*, Rebecca A. Wingert
Department of Biological Sciences, University of Notre Dame
Zebrafish böbrek, her iki böbrek ve hematopoetik yetişkin kök / progenitör hücrelerin ev ve bu omurgalı bir model organizmadaki hücre tipleri ve onların soyu incelemek için olağanüstü bir fırsat teşkil etmektedir. Burada, yetişkin zebrafish böbrek hücre izolasyonu, nakli, böbrek ve / veya kan hücre popülasyonlarının ifade çalışmaları gibi uygulamalar için de kullanılabilir belirlemek ve cerrahi kaldırmak için araştırmacı sağlayan ayrıntılı bir diseksiyon prosedürü göstermektedir.
Zebra balığı Pronephros Lazer Ablasyon Böbrek Epitel Rejenerasyon Eğitim
Corbin S. Johnson*, Nicholas F. Holzemer*, Rebecca A. Wingert
Department of Biological Sciences, University of Notre Dame
Insanlarda akut böbrek hasarı (AKI), böbrek nefron oluşturan epitel hücrelerin zarar görmesine neden olduğu yaygın bir klinik sorundur ve AKI, yüksek ölüm oranları% 50-70 ile ilişkili
Other articles by Rebecca A. Wingert on PubMed
The Chianti Zebrafish Mutant Provides a Model for Erythroid-specific Disruption of Transferrin Receptor 1
Development (Cambridge, England). Dec, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15563524
Iron is a crucial metal for normal development, being required for the production of heme, which is incorporated into cytochromes and hemoglobin. The zebrafish chianti (cia) mutant manifests a hypochromic, microcytic anemia after the onset of embryonic circulation, indicative of a perturbation in red blood cell hemoglobin production. We show that cia encodes tfr1a, which is specifically expressed in the developing blood and requisite only for iron uptake in erythroid precursors. In the process of isolating zebrafish tfr1, we discovered two tfr1-like genes (tfr1a and tfr1b) and a single tfr2 ortholog. Abrogation of tfr1b function using antisense morpholinos revealed that this paralog was dispensable for hemoglobin production in red cells. tfr1b morphants exhibited growth retardation and brain necrosis, similar to the central nervous system defects observed in the Tfr1 null mouse, indicating that tfr1b is probably used by non-erythroid tissues for iron acquisition. Overexpression of mouse Tfr1, mouse Tfr2, and zebrafish tfr1b partially rescued hypochromia in cia embryos, establishing that each of these transferrin receptors are capable of supporting iron uptake for hemoglobin production in vivo. Taken together, these data show that zebrafish tfr1a and tfr1b share biochemical function but have restricted domains of tissue expression, and establish a genetic model to study the specific function of Tfr1 in erythroid cells.
Developmental Cell. Jan, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15621534
The differentiation of hematopoietic progenitors into erythroid or myeloid cell lineages is thought to depend upon relative levels of the transcription factors gata1 and pu.1. While loss-of-function analysis shows that gata1 is necessary for terminal erythroid differentiation, no study has demonstrated that loss of gata1 alters myeloid differentiation during ontogeny. Here we provide in vivo evidence that loss of Gata1, but not Gata2, transforms primitive blood precursors into myeloid cells, resulting in a massive expansion of granulocytic neutrophils and macrophages at the expense of red blood cells. In addition to this fate change, expression of many erythroid genes was found to be differentially dependent on Gata1 alone, on both Gata1 and Gata2, or independent of both Gata factors, suggesting that multiple pathways regulate erythroid gene expression. Our studies establish a transcriptional hierarchy of Gata factor dependence during hematopoiesis and demonstrate that gata1 plays an integral role in directing myelo-erythroid lineage fate decisions during embryogenesis.
Nature. Aug, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16110529
Iron is required to produce haem and iron-sulphur (Fe-S) clusters, processes thought to occur independently. Here we show that the hypochromic anaemia in shiraz (sir) zebrafish mutants is caused by deficiency of glutaredoxin 5 (grx5), a gene required in yeast for Fe-S cluster assembly. We found that grx5 was expressed in erythroid cells of zebrafish and mice. Zebrafish grx5 rescued the assembly of grx5 yeast Fe-S, showing that the biochemical function of grx5 is evolutionarily conserved. In contrast to yeast, vertebrates use iron regulatory protein 1 (IRP1) to sense intracellular iron and regulate mRNA stability or the translation of iron metabolism genes. We found that loss of Fe-S cluster assembly in sir animals activated IRP1 and blocked haem biosynthesis catalysed by aminolaevulinate synthase 2 (ALAS2). Overexpression of ALAS2 RNA without the 5' iron response element that binds IRP1 rescued sir embryos, whereas overexpression of ALAS2 including the iron response element did not. Further, antisense knockdown of IRP1 restored sir embryo haemoglobin synthesis. These findings uncover a connection between haem biosynthesis and Fe-S clusters, indicating that haemoglobin production in the differentiating red cell is regulated through Fe-S cluster assembly.
Nature. Mar, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16511496
Iron has a fundamental role in many metabolic processes, including electron transport, deoxyribonucleotide synthesis, oxygen transport and many essential redox reactions involving haemoproteins and Fe-S cluster proteins. Defective iron homeostasis results in either iron deficiency or iron overload. Precise regulation of iron transport in mitochondria is essential for haem biosynthesis, haemoglobin production and Fe-S cluster protein assembly during red cell development. Here we describe a zebrafish mutant, frascati (frs), that shows profound hypochromic anaemia and erythroid maturation arrest owing to defects in mitochondrial iron uptake. Through positional cloning, we show that the gene mutated in the frs mutant is a member of the vertebrate mitochondrial solute carrier family (SLC25) that we call mitoferrin (mfrn). mfrn is highly expressed in fetal and adult haematopoietic tissues of zebrafish and mouse. Erythroblasts generated from murine embryonic stem cells null for Mfrn (also known as Slc25a37) show maturation arrest with severely impaired incorporation of 55Fe into haem. Disruption of the yeast mfrn orthologues, MRS3 and MRS4, causes defects in iron metabolism and mitochondrial Fe-S cluster biogenesis. Murine Mfrn rescues the defects in frs zebrafish, and zebrafish mfrn complements the yeast mutant, indicating that the function of the gene may be highly conserved. Our data show that mfrn functions as the principal mitochondrial iron importer essential for haem biosynthesis in vertebrate erythroblasts.
The Cdx Genes and Retinoic Acid Control the Positioning and Segmentation of the Zebrafish Pronephros
PLoS Genetics. Oct, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17953490
Kidney function depends on the nephron, which comprises a blood filter, a tubule that is subdivided into functionally distinct segments, and a collecting duct. How these regions arise during development is poorly understood. The zebrafish pronephros consists of two linear nephrons that develop from the intermediate mesoderm along the length of the trunk. Here we show that, contrary to current dogma, these nephrons possess multiple proximal and distal tubule domains that resemble the organization of the mammalian nephron. We examined whether pronephric segmentation is mediated by retinoic acid (RA) and the caudal (cdx) transcription factors, which are known regulators of segmental identity during development. Inhibition of RA signaling resulted in a loss of the proximal segments and an expansion of the distal segments, while exogenous RA treatment induced proximal segment fates at the expense of distal fates. Loss of cdx function caused abrogation of distal segments, a posterior shift in the position of the pronephros, and alterations in the expression boundaries of raldh2 and cyp26a1, which encode enzymes that synthesize and degrade RA, respectively. These results suggest that the cdx genes act to localize the activity of RA along the axis, thereby determining where the pronephros forms. Consistent with this, the pronephric-positioning defect and the loss of distal tubule fate were rescued in embryos doubly-deficient for cdx and RA. These findings reveal a novel link between the RA and cdx pathways and provide a model for how pronephric nephrons are segmented and positioned along the embryonic axis.
Experimental Hematology. Apr, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18243489
The specification and differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells into red blood cells requires precise coordination by multiple transcription factors. Most genes important for erythroid maturation are regulated by the Gata family of DNA-binding proteins. Previously, we identified three novel genes kelch-repeat containing protein (krcp), kiaa0650, and testhymin/glucocorticoid inducible transcript 1 (glcci1) to be expressed in erythroid cells in a Gata-independent manner, and we sought to further understand how these transcripts are regulated during zebrafish hematopoiesis.
Experimental Hematology. Sep, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18550261
Inherited or acquired mutations in the heme biosynthetic pathway leads to a debilitating class of diseases collectively known as porphyrias, with symptoms that can include anemia, cutaneous photosensitivity, and neurovisceral dysfunction. In a genetic screen for hematopoietic mutants, we isolated a zebrafish mutant, montalcino (mno), which displays hypochromic anemia and porphyria. The objective of this study was to identify the defective gene and characterize the phenotype of the zebrafish mutant.
Blood. Mar, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19047682
The iron regulatory hormone hepcidin is transcriptionally up-regulated in response to iron loading, but the mechanisms by which iron levels are sensed are not well understood. Large-scale genetic screens in the zebrafish have resulted in the identification of hypochromic anemia mutants with a range of mutations affecting conserved pathways in iron metabolism and heme synthesis. We hypothesized that transferrin plays a critical role both in iron transport and in regulating hepcidin expression in zebrafish embryos. Here we report the identification and characterization of the zebrafish hypochromic anemia mutant, gavi, which exhibits transferrin deficiency due to mutations in transferrin-a. Morpholino knockdown of transferrin-a in wild-type embryos reproduced the anemia phenotype and decreased somite and terminal gut iron staining, while coinjection of transferrin-a cRNA partially restored these defects. Embryos with transferrin-a or transferrin receptor 2 (TfR2) deficiency exhibited low levels of hepcidin expression, however anemia, in the absence of a defect in the transferrin pathway, failed to impair hepcidin expression. These data indicate that transferrin-a transports iron and that hepcidin expression is regulated by a transferrin-a-dependent pathway in the zebrafish embryo.
Nature. Feb, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21270795
Loss of kidney function underlies many renal diseases. Mammals can partly repair their nephrons (the functional units of the kidney), but cannot form new ones. By contrast, fish add nephrons throughout their lifespan and regenerate nephrons de novo after injury, providing a model for understanding how mammalian renal regeneration may be therapeutically activated. Here we trace the source of new nephrons in the adult zebrafish to small cellular aggregates containing nephron progenitors. Transplantation of single aggregates comprising 10-30 cells is sufficient to engraft adults and generate multiple nephrons. Serial transplantation experiments to test self-renewal revealed that nephron progenitors are long-lived and possess significant replicative potential, consistent with stem-cell activity. Transplantation of mixed nephron progenitors tagged with either green or red fluorescent proteins yielded some mosaic nephrons, indicating that multiple nephron progenitors contribute to a single nephron. Consistent with this, live imaging of nephron formation in transparent larvae showed that nephrogenic aggregates form by the coalescence of multiple cells and then differentiate into nephrons. Taken together, these data demonstrate that the zebrafish kidney probably contains self-renewing nephron stem/progenitor cells. The identification of these cells paves the way to isolating or engineering the equivalent cells in mammals and developing novel renal regenerative therapies.
Zebrafish Nephrogenesis Involves Dynamic Spatiotemporal Expression Changes in Renal Progenitors and Essential Signals from Retinoic Acid and Irx3b
Developmental Dynamics : an Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists. Aug, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21761484
Kidney nephrons are composed of proximal and distal tubule segments that perform unique roles in excretion. The developmental pathways that establish nephron segment identities from renal progenitors are poorly understood. Here, we used the zebrafish pronephros to study nephron segmentation. We found that zebrafish nephron progenitors undergo elaborate spatiotemporal expression changes of many genes before adopting a segment fate. Initially, two domains of nephron progenitors are established, then are subdivided and demarcate individual nephron segments. Using genetic and chemical genetic models of retinoic acid (RA) deficiency, we discovered that RA modulates rostral progenitor formation. To delineate downstream pathways, we knocked down the irx3b transcription factor and found it regulates proximal tubule segment size and distal segment differentiation. Our results suggest a model whereby RA patterns the early field of nephron progenitors, with subsequent factors like irx3b acting to refine later progenitor subdomains and ensure activation of segment-specific gene programs.
Wt1a, Foxc1a, and the Notch Mediator Rbpj Physically Interact and Regulate the Formation of Podocytes in Zebrafish
Developmental Biology. Oct, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21871448
Podocytes help form the glomerular blood filtration barrier in the kidney and their injury or loss leads to renal disease. The Wilms' tumor suppressor-1 (Wt1) and the FoxC1/2 transcription factors, as well as Notch signaling, have been implicated as important regulators of podocyte fate. It is not known whether these factors work in parallel or sequentially on different gene targets, or as higher-order transcriptional complexes on common genes. Here, we use the zebrafish to demonstrate that embryos treated with morpholinos against wt1a, foxc1a, or the Notch transcriptional mediator rbpj develop fewer podocytes, as determined by wt1b, hey1 and nephrin expression, while embryos deficient in any two of these factors completely lack podocytes. From GST-pull-downs and co-immunoprecipitation experiments we show that Wt1a, Foxc1a, and Rbpj can physically interact with each other, whereas only Rbpj binds to the Notch intracellular domain (NICD). In transactivation assays, combinations of Wt1, FoxC1/2, and NICD synergistically induce the Hey1 promoter, and have additive or repressive effects on the Podocalyxin promoter, depending on dosage. Taken together, these data suggest that Wt1, FoxC1/2, and Notch signaling converge on common target genes where they physically interact to regulate a podocyte-specific gene program. These findings further our understanding of the transcriptional circuitry responsible for podocyte formation and differentiation during kidney development.