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In JoVE (1)
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Articles by Rebecca W. Scott in JoVE
Modelagem e imagem 3-Dimensional Invasion cela coletiva
Rebecca W. Scott1, Diane Crighton2, Michael F. Olson2
1Strathclyde Institute for Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences, University of Strathclyde, 2The Beatson Institute for Cancer Research
Modelos de invasão das células tumorais em três dimensões da matriz extracelular melhor refletir a
Other articles by Rebecca W. Scott on PubMed
Journal of Molecular Medicine (Berlin, Germany). Jun, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17294230
The LIM kinase family consists of just two members: LIM kinase 1 (LIMK1) and LIM kinase 2 (LIMK2). With uniquely organised signalling domains, LIM kinases are regulated by several upstream signalling pathways, principally acting downstream of Rho GTPases to influence the architecture of the actin cytoskeleton by regulating the activity of the cofilin family proteins cofilin1, cofilin2 and destrin. Although the LIM kinases are very homologous, particularly when comparing kinase domains, there is emerging evidence that each may be subject to different regulatory pathways and may contribute to both distinct and overlapping cellular and developmental functions. Normal central nervous system development is reliant upon the presence of LIMK1, and its deletion has been implicated in the development of the human genetic disorder Williams syndrome. Normal testis development, on the other hand, is disrupted by the deletion of LIMK2. In addition, the possible involvement of each kinase in cardiovascular disorders as well as cancer has recently emerged. The LIM kinases have been proposed to play an important role in tumour-cell invasion and metastasis; fine-tuning the balance between phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated cofilin may be a significant determinant of tumour-cell metastatic potential. In this review, we outline the structure, regulation and function of LIM kinases and their functions at cellular and organismal levels, as well as their possible contributions to human disease.
The Journal of Cell Biology. Oct, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20876278
LIM kinases 1 and 2 (LIMK1/2) are centrally positioned regulators of actin cytoskeleton dynamics. Using siRNA-mediated knockdown or a novel small molecule inhibitor, we show LIMK is required for path generation by leading tumor cells and nontumor stromal cells during collective tumor cell invasion. LIMK inhibition lowers cofilin phosphorylation, F-actin levels, serum response factor transcriptional activity and collagen contraction, and reduces invasion in three-dimensional invasion assays. Although motility was unaffected, LIMK inhibition impairs matrix protein degradation and invadopodia formation associated with significantly faster recovery times in FRAP assays indicative of reduced F-actin stability. When LIMK is knocked down in MDA-MB-231 cells, they lose the ability to lead strands of collectively invading cells. Similarly, when LIMK activity is blocked in cancer-associated fibroblasts, they are unable to lead the collective invasion of squamous carcinoma cells in an organotypic skin model. These results show that LIMK is required for matrix remodeling activities for path generation by leading cells in collective invasion.
Development of a High-Throughput Screening Method for LIM Kinase 1 Using a Luciferase-Based Assay of ATP Consumption
Journal of Biomolecular Screening. Dec, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 22156225
Kinases are attractive drug targets because of the central roles they play in signal transduction pathways and human diseases. Their well-formed adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-binding pockets make ideal targets for small-molecule inhibitors. For drug discovery purposes, many peptide-based kinase assays have been developed that measure substrate phosphorylation using fluorescence-based readouts. However, for some kinases these assays may not be appropriate. In the case of the LIM kinases (LIMK), an inability to phosphorylate peptide substrates resulted in previous high-throughput screens (HTS) using radioactive labeling of recombinant cofilin protein as the readout. We describe the development of an HTS-compatible assay that measures relative ATP levels using luciferase-generated luminescence as a function of LIMK activity. The assay was inexpensive to perform, and proof-of-principle screening of kinase inhibitors demonstrated that compound potency against LIMK could be determined; ultimately, the assay was used for successful prosecution of automated HTS. Following HTS, the secondary assay format was changed to obtain more accurate measures of potency and mechanism of action using more complex (and expensive) assays. The luciferase assay nonetheless provides an inexpensive and reliable primary assay for HTS that allowed for the identification of LIMK inhibitors to initiate discovery programs for the eventual treatment of human diseases.