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In JoVE (1)
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Articles by Richard K. Niles in JoVE
En lektin HPLC-metod för att berika selektivt glykosylerat peptider från komplexa biologiska prover
Eric Johansen1, Birgit Schilling2, Michael Lerch1, Richard K. Niles1, Haichuan Liu1, Bensheng Li2, Simon Allen1, Steven C. Hall1, H. Ewa Witkowska1, Fred E. Regnier3, Bradford W. Gibson2, Susan J. Fisher1, Penelope M. Drake1
1Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, University of California, San Francisco - UCSF, 2Buck Institute for Age Research, 3Department of Chemistry, Purdue University
Lektin-konjugerade POROS pärlor var anställda för HPLC. Glykopeptid standarder varit positiva och negativa kontroller. MARS-14 utarmat var trypsin-rötas humanplasma kromatograferas och genomströmning (FT) och bundna fraktioner samlas in för ESI-LC-MS/MS analyser. Glykopeptider berikades i bundna fraktionen jämfört med FT.
Other articles by Richard K. Niles on PubMed
A Mass Spectrometry-based Strategy for Detecting and Characterizing Endogenous Proteinase Activities in Complex Biological Samples
Proteomics. Feb, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18186022
Endogenous proteinases in biological fluids such as human saliva produce a rich peptide repertoire that reflects a unique combination of enzymes, substrates, and inhibitors/activators. Accordingly, this subproteome is an interesting source of biomarkers for disease processes that either directly or indirectly involve proteolysis. However, the relevant proteinases, typically very low abundance molecules, are difficult to classify and identify. We hypothesized that a sensitive technique for monitoring accumulated peptide products in an unbiased, global manner would be very useful for detecting and profiling proteolytic activities in complex biological samples. Building on the longstanding use of 18O isotope-based approaches for the classification of proteolytic and other enzymatic processes we devised a new method for evaluating endogenous proteinases. Specifically, we showed that upon ex vivo incubation endogenous proteinases in human parotid saliva introduced 18O from isotopically enriched water into the C-terminal carboxylic groups of their peptide products. Subsequent peptide sequence determination and inhibitor profiling enabled the detection of discrete subsets of proteolytic products that were generated by different enzymes. As a proof-of-principle we used one of these fingerprints to identify the relevant activity as tissue kallikrein. We termed this technique PALeO. Our results suggest that PALeO is a rapid and highly sensitive method for globally assessing proteinase activities in complex biological samples.
Hemoglobin Cleavage Site-specificity of the Plasmodium Falciparum Cysteine Proteases Falcipain-2 and Falcipain-3
PloS One. 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19357776
The Plasmodium falciparum cysteine proteases falcipain-2 and falcipain-3 degrade host hemoglobin to provide free amino acids for parasite protein synthesis. Hemoglobin hydrolysis has been described as an ordered process initiated by aspartic proteases, but cysteine protease inhibitors completely block the process, suggesting that cysteine proteases can also initiate hemoglobin hydrolysis. To characterize the specific roles of falcipains, we used three approaches. First, using random P(1) - P(4) amino acid substrate libraries, falcipain-2 and falcipain-3 demonstrated strong preference for cleavage sites with Leu at the P(2) position. Second, with overlapping peptides spanning alpha and beta globin and proteolysis-dependent (18)O labeling, hydrolysis was seen at many cleavage sites. Third, with intact hemoglobin, numerous cleavage products were identified. Our results suggest that hemoglobin hydrolysis by malaria parasites is not a highly ordered process, but rather proceeds with rapid cleavage by falcipains at multiple sites. However, falcipain-2 and falcipain-3 show strong specificity for P(2) Leu in small peptide substrates, in agreement with the specificity in optimized small molecule inhibitors that was identified previously. These results are consistent with a principal role of falcipain-2 and falcipain-3 in the hydrolysis of hemoglobin by P. falciparum and with the possibility of developing small molecule inhibitors with optimized specificity as antimalarial agents.
Multi-site Assessment of the Precision and Reproducibility of Multiple Reaction Monitoring-based Measurements of Proteins in Plasma
Nature Biotechnology. Jul, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19561596
Verification of candidate biomarkers relies upon specific, quantitative assays optimized for selective detection of target proteins, and is increasingly viewed as a critical step in the discovery pipeline that bridges unbiased biomarker discovery to preclinical validation. Although individual laboratories have demonstrated that multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) coupled with isotope dilution mass spectrometry can quantify candidate protein biomarkers in plasma, reproducibility and transferability of these assays between laboratories have not been demonstrated. We describe a multilaboratory study to assess reproducibility, recovery, linear dynamic range and limits of detection and quantification of multiplexed, MRM-based assays, conducted by NCI-CPTAC. Using common materials and standardized protocols, we demonstrate that these assays can be highly reproducible within and across laboratories and instrument platforms, and are sensitive to low mug/ml protein concentrations in unfractionated plasma. We provide data and benchmarks against which individual laboratories can compare their performance and evaluate new technologies for biomarker verification in plasma.
A Lectin Affinity Workflow Targeting Glycosite-specific, Cancer-related Carbohydrate Structures in Trypsin-digested Human Plasma
Analytical Biochemistry. Jan, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 20705048
Glycans are cell-type-specific, posttranslational protein modifications that are modulated during developmental and disease processes. As such, glycoproteins are attractive biomarker candidates. Here, we describe a mass spectrometry-based workflow that incorporates lectin affinity chromatography to enrich for proteins that carry specific glycan structures. As increases in sialylation and fucosylation are prominent among cancer-associated modifications, we focused on Sambucus nigra agglutinin (SNA) and Aleuria aurantia lectin (AAL), lectins which bind sialic acid- and fucose-containing structures, respectively. Fucosylated and sialylated glycopeptides from human lactoferrin served as positive controls, and high-mannose structures from yeast invertase served as negative controls. The standards were spiked into Multiple Affinity Removal System (MARS) 14-depleted, trypsin-digested human plasma from healthy donors. Samples were loaded onto lectin columns, separated by HPLC into flow-through and bound fractions, and treated with peptide: N-glycosidase F to remove N-linked glycans. The deglycosylated peptide fractions were interrogated by ESI HPLC-MS/MS. We identified a total of 122 human plasma glycoproteins containing 247 unique glycosites. Importantly, several of the observed glycoproteins (e.g., cadherin 5 and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin) typically circulate in plasma at low nanogram per milliliter levels. Together, these results provide mass spectrometry-based evidence of the utility of incorporating lectin-separation platforms into cancer biomarker discovery pipelines.
A Lectin Chromatography/mass Spectrometry Discovery Workflow Identifies Putative Biomarkers of Aggressive Breast Cancers
Journal of Proteome Research. Feb, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22309216
We used a lectin chromatography/MS-based approach to screen conditioned medium from a panel of luminal (less aggressive) and triple negative (more aggressive) breast cancer cell lines (n = 5/subtype). The samples were fractionated using the lectins Aleuria aurantia (AAL) and Sambucus nigra agglutinin (SNA), which recognize fucose and sialic acid, respectively. The bound fractions were enzymatically N-deglycosylated and analyzed by LC-MS/MS. In total, we identified 533 glycoproteins, ~90% of which were components of the cell surface or extracellular matrix. We observed 1011 unique glycosites, 100 of which were solely detected in ≥3 triple negative lines. Statistical analyses suggested that a number of these glycosites were triple negative-specific and thus potential biomarkers for this tumor subtype. An analysis of RNAseq data revealed that approximately half of the mRNAs encoding the protein scaffolds that carried potential biomarker glycosites were upregulated in triple negative vs. luminal cell lines, and that a number of genes encoding fucosyl- or sialyltransferases were differentially expressed between the two subtypes, suggesting that alterations in glycosylation may also drive candidate identification. Notably, the glycoproteins from which these putative biomarker candidates were derived are involved in cancer-related processes. Thus, they may represent novel therapeutic targets for this aggressive tumor subtype.