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In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (18)
- American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
- American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
- American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
- American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
- Translational Research : the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
- American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
- Inhalation Toxicology
- Clinical and Applied Thrombosis/hemostasis : Official Journal of the International Academy of Clinical and Applied Thrombosis/Hemostasis
- Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
- The Journal of Biological Chemistry
- American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
- Vascular Pharmacology
- Cardiovascular Toxicology
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Articles by Robert M. Lust in JoVE
קשירת עורקים כלילית לבין הזרקת Intramyocardial ב מודל Murine של אוטם
Jitka A.I. Virag, Robert M. Lust
Department of Physiology, Brody School of Medicine, East Carolina University
מניפולציות גנטיות רבות ו / או זריקות intramyocardial של גנים, חלבונים, תאים, ו / או biomaterials באים על גבי מימד הזמן במחקרים של פגיעה איסכמיה / reperfusion חריפה שיפוץ כרונית בעכברים. וידאו זה ממחיש את הליכי microsurgical עבור איסכמיה / reperfusion, קשירת עורק כלילי קבע, ומחקרים הזרקת intramyocardial.
Other articles by Robert M. Lust on PubMed
American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology. May, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 14715513
Despite epidemiological evidence of cardiovascular complications in asthmatics, the direct contribution of asthmatic pathophysiology to cardiovascular effects is unknown. Considering parallels in underlying pathophysiology, we tested the hypothesis that presence of systemic allergy and asthma worsens the outcome of myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. Systemic allergy and asthma were created in rabbits by repeated intraperitoneal injections of allergen with adjuvant, followed by an airway challenge in two groups. Nonsensitized animals served as controls. In situ myocardial ischemia-reperfusion was induced in anesthetized animals by a 30-min ligation of a coronary artery, followed by 3 h of reperfusion. Ischemia-reperfusion was done at 24 h after intraperitoneal boost (1 DB) and 7 days (7 DB) after the last intraperitoneal injection and at 24 h (1DAWCH) and 7 days (7DAWCH) after airway challenge. The infarct size (determined by 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining, normalized to area at risk) was significantly higher in all sensitized groups compared with control (1DB, 31 +/- 4; 7DB, 28.9 +/- 2.6; 1DAWCH, 66.1 +/- 4.1; 7DAWCH, 28.9 +/- 9.2; control, 16.7 +/- 3.2; means +/- SE; P < 0.01 by ANOVA; n = 6). The 1DAWCH group showed significantly greater infarct than all other groups (P < 0.05). Myocardial neutrophil infiltration was significantly higher in the sensitized groups compared with control (P < 0.01). Tissue neutrophil counts showed a strong positive correlation to infarct sizes (r2 = 0.9). These observations indicate that the presence of systemic allergy and asthma is associated with increased myocardial neutrophil infiltration during acute ischemia-reperfusion and increased size of the resulting infarct.
American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology. Aug, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16582015
Epidemiological studies have linked ambient particulate matter (PM) levels to an increased incidence of adverse cardiovascular events. Yet little is definitively known about the mechanisms accounting for the cardiovascular events associated with PM exposure. The goal of this study was to determine the effects of ultrafine (<0.1 microm) PM exposure on ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. ICR mice were exposed to 100 microg of PM or vehicle by intratracheal instillation. Twenty-four hours later, mice were anesthetized with pentobarbital sodium (60 mg/kg), the left anterior descending coronary artery was ligated for 20 min, flow was restored for 2 h, and the resulting myocardial infarct (MI) size was evaluated. PM exposure doubled the relative size of the MI compared with the vehicle control. No difference was observed in the percentage of the left ventricle at risk for ischemia. PM exposure increased the level of oxidative stress in the myocardium after I/R. The density of neutrophils in the reperfused myocardium was increased by PM exposure, but differences in the number of blood leukocytes, expression of adhesion molecules on circulating neutrophils, and activation state of circulating neutrophils 24 h after PM exposure could not be correlated to the increased I/R injury observed. Additionally, aortas isolated from PM-exposed animals and studied in vitro exhibited a reduced endothelium-dependent relaxation response to acetylcholine. These results indicate that exposure to ultrafine PM increases oxidative stress in the myocardium, alters vascular reactivity, and augments injury after I/R in a murine model.
Severity of Myocardial Injury Following Ischemia-reperfusion is Increased in a Mouse Model of Allergic Asthma
American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology. Jan, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 16905595
Cardiovascular disease is common in asthmatic patients but often is attributed to respiratory drug therapy. With mounting evidence for an inflammatory role in the development of cardiovascular disease, we hypothesized that the inflammation associated with asthma adversely affects the cardiovascular system independent of therapeutic interventions. The hypothesis was tested in a murine model of myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. BALB/C mice were sensitized by intraperitoneal injection of ragweed (RW) or normal saline (NS) and challenged by intratracheal instillation of RW or NS. Effective allergic sensitization and challenge were confirmed by hyperresponsiveness to aerosolized methacholine and bronchoalveolar lavage. In vivo myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury was induced by ligation of the left anterior descending artery for 20 min, followed by reperfusion for 2 h. The infarct size (% risk area) and neutrophil density in the myocardial area at risk were significantly higher in the RW/RW group than in the control groups. The tissue neutrophil count correlated with the infarct size but did not correlate with blood neutrophil counts. Furthermore, in the RW/RW group, circulating granulocytes showed an enhanced expression of CD11b and P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1, enhanced stimulated release of myeloperoxidase, and enhanced expression of P-selectin in the coronary vasculature. These results indicate that allergic responses in the airways enhance expression of attachment molecules in coronary vasculature and activate circulating neutrophils, resulting in recruitment of highly activated neutrophils to the infarct zone during an acute ischemia-reperfusion event, thereby enhancing tissue destruction.
Artificial Selection for High-capacity Endurance Running is Protective Against High-fat Diet-induced Insulin Resistance
American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism. Jul, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17341547
Elevated oxidative capacity, such as occurs via endurance exercise training, is believed to protect against the development of obesity and diabetes. Rats bred both for low (LCR)- and high (HCR)-capacity endurance running provide a genetic model with inherent differences in aerobic capacity that allows for the testing of this supposition without the confounding effects of a training stimulus. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects of a high-fat diet (HFD) on weight gain patterns, insulin sensitivity, and fatty acid oxidative capacity in LCR and HCR male rats in the untrained state. Results indicate chow-fed LCR rats were heavier, hypertriglyceridemic, less insulin sensitive, and had lower skeletal muscle oxidative capacity compared with HCR rats. Upon exposure to an HFD, LCR rats gained more weight and fat mass, and their insulin resistant condition was exacerbated, despite consuming similar amounts of metabolizable energy as chow-fed controls. These metabolic variables remained unaltered in HCR rats. The HFD increased skeletal muscle oxidative capacity similarly in both strains, whereas hepatic oxidative capacity was diminished only in LCR rats. These results suggest that LCR rats are predisposed to obesity and that expansion of skeletal muscle oxidative capacity does not prevent excess weight gain or the exacerbation of insulin resistance on an HFD. Elevated basal skeletal muscle oxidative capacity and the ability to preserve liver oxidative capacity may protect HCR rats from HFD-induced obesity and insulin resistance.
Translational Research : the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine. Jun, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17543851
Epidemiological studies have linked levels of particulate matter (PM) in ambient air to cardiovascular mortality and hospitalizations for myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke. Thrombus formation plays a primary role in potentiating acute cardiovascular events, and this study was undertaken to determine whether pulmonary exposure to PM alters hemostasis. PM was collected from the Chapel Hill, NC airshed and was administered to mice by intratracheal instillation at a dose previously shown to exacerbate myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. Twenty-four hours after exposure, an increase occurred in the number of circulating platelets and plasma concentrations of fibrinogen and soluble P-selectin. The concentration of tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) in plasma was decreased, whereas the plasma concentration of plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1) was increased. Consistent with these observations, bleeding time from a tail-tip transection was shortened. These results provide evidence that PM exposure alters hemostasis in otherwise healthy animals and may thereby promote clot formation and impede clot resolution in susceptible individuals. The results also establish definite hemostatic endpoints that can be used to further investigate the effects of dose and particle characteristics on the toxicity of ambient particles.
Hemodynamic Effects of Chronic Urotensin II Administration in Animals with and Without Aorto-caval Fistula
Peptides. Aug, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17553596
Urotensin II (UTII) is a potent vasoactive peptide. Recent studies have demonstrated increased expression of both UTII and its receptor (UTR) expression in end-stage congestive heart failure (CHF), but it is unclear whether UTII and UTR are late stage markers of decompensation, or earlier adaptive responses. The purpose of this study was to measure the effects of chronic UTII administration in normal and volume overloaded animals. Chronic 4 weeks administration of UTII produced decreases in hemodynamic function in animals not subjected to volume overload while returning function to control levels in animals with overload. Expression levels of calcium regulatory proteins phospholamban (PLN), sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) ATPase (SERCA2), and Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger (NCX) were measured to determine if administration of UTII resulted in aberrant Ca(2+) handling. Changes in protein expression revealed that UTII influenced Ca(2+) handling proteins in normal animals although these changes are not seen in the volume overload.
American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism. Oct, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17638705
Peroxisomal oxidation yields metabolites that are more efficiently utilized by mitochondria. This is of potential clinical importance because reduced fatty acid oxidation is suspected to promote excess lipid accumulation in obesity-associated insulin resistance. Our purpose was to assess peroxisomal contributions to mitochondrial oxidation in mixed gastrocnemius (MG), liver, and left ventricle (LV) homogenates from lean and fatty (fa/fa) Zucker rats. Results indicate that complete mitochondrial oxidation (CO(2) production) using various lipid substrates was increased approximately twofold in MG, unaltered in LV, and diminished approximately 50% in liver of fa/fa rats. In isolated mitochondria, malonyl-CoA inhibited CO(2) production from palmitate 78%, whereas adding isolated peroxisomes reduced inhibition to 21%. These data demonstrate that peroxisomal products may enter mitochondria independently of CPT I, thus providing a route to maintain lipid disposal under conditions where malonyl-CoA levels are elevated, such as in insulin-resistant tissues. Peroxisomal metabolism of lignoceric acid in fa/fa rats was elevated in both liver and MG (LV unaltered), but peroxisomal product distribution varied. A threefold elevation in incomplete oxidation was solely responsible for increased hepatic peroxisomal oxidation (CO(2) unaltered). Alternatively, only CO(2) was detected in MG, indicating that peroxisomal products were exclusively partitioned to mitochondria for complete lipid disposal. These data suggest tissue-specific destinations for peroxisome-derived products and emphasize a potential role for peroxisomes in skeletal muscle lipid metabolism in the obese, insulin-resistant state.
Inhalation Toxicology. 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17886053
Increased ambient air particulate matter (PM) concentrations are associated with risk for myocardial infarction, stroke, and arrhythmia, and ultrafine PM (UFPM) might be particularly toxic to the cardiovascular system. Recent epidemiological studies are beginning to offer mechanistic insights, yet the rodent model remains a valuable tool to explore potential mechanisms. This article reviews a series of studies from our laboratory demonstrating the promise of mouse models to link health effects to biological mechanisms. Specifically, data from 6- to 10-wk-old male ICR mice exposed to intratracheal instillation of 100 microg of UFPM collected from the Chapel Hill, NC airshed are described. Studies of ischemia/reperfusion, vascular function, and hemostasis are described. In summary, UFPM exposure doubles the size of myocardial infarction attendant to an episode of ischemia and reperfusion while increasing postischemic oxidant stress. UFPM alters endothelial-dependent and -independent regulation of systemic vascular tone; increases platelet number, plasma fibrinogen, and soluble P-selectin levels; and reduces bleeding time, implying enhanced thrombogenic potential. Taking these findings together, this model of acute UFPM exposure in the mouse indicates that UFPM induces a prothrombotic state and decreases vasomotor responsiveness, thereby offering insight into how UFPM could contribute to vascular events associated with thrombosis and ischemia and increasing the extent of infarction.
Correction of the Bleeding Time with Lyophilized Platelet Infusions in Dogs on Cardiopulmonary Bypass
Clinical and Applied Thrombosis/hemostasis : Official Journal of the International Academy of Clinical and Applied Thrombosis/Hemostasis. Jan, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18160604
Lyophilized canine platelets were infused in a single large bolus dose into splenectomized dogs after 2 hours' perfusion on cardiopulmonary bypass to test their possible efficacy in restoring hemostasis after compromise of platelet function. The vessel bleeding time (VBT) was monitored by venipuncture of the exposed jugular vein. During cardiopulmonary bypass, platelet counts fell quickly and the VBTs became prolonged over baseline. Infusion of lyophilized platelets reconstituted in normal saline occurred just before or immediately after weaning from the cardiopulmonary bypass pump. The results showed consistent and persistent lowering of the VBTs by the infused lyophilized platelets. Controls showed continuously prolonged VBTs. The weighted average VBT in infused subjects was significantly lower than the average in controls: 3 minutes 10 seconds versus 6 minutes 59 seconds, respectively (t test, P= .01). These results in this setting indicate the possible effectiveness of similar human lyophilized platelet preparations in reducing postoperative bleeding in open heart surgery.
PPAR-gamma Expression in Animals Subjected to Volume Overload and Chronic Urotensin II Administration
Peptides. May, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18423937
Activation of PPAR-gamma through the administration of glitazones has shown promise in preserving function following cardiac injury, although recent evidence has suggested their use may be contraindicated in the case of severe heart failure. This study tested the hypothesis that PPAR-gamma expression increases in a time dependent manner in response to chronic volume overload (VO) induced heart failure. Additionally, we attempted to determine what effect 4 week administration of Urotensin II (UTII) may have on PPAR-gamma expression. VO induced heart failure was produced in Sprague-Dawley rats (n=32) by aorta-caval fistula. Animals were sacrificed at 1, 4, and 14 weeks following shunt creation. In a separate set of experiments, animals were administered 300 pmol/kg/h of UTII for 4 weeks, subjected to 4 weeks of volume overload, or given UTII+VO. Densitometric analysis of left ventricular (LV) protein demonstrated PPAR-gamma expression was significantly ((*)p<0.05) upregulated at 4 and 14 weeks (31.5% and 37%, respectively) post-fistula formation compared to control values. PPAR-gamma activation was decreased in the 4 and 14 week (39.16% and 42.4%, respectively), but not in the 1-week animals, and these changes did not correlate with NF-kappaB activity. Animals given UTII either with or without VO demonstrated increased expression of PPAR-gamma as did animals subjected to 4 week VO alone. Animals given UTII either with or without VO had decreased activity vs. control. These data suggest PPAR-gamma may play a role in the progression of heart failure, however, the exact nature has yet to be determined.
Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology. Jan, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19129733
The vascular activity of scutellarin (SCU), a flavonoid isolated from a Chinese traditional medicinal plant, was investigated in isolated thoracic aortic rings of mice. SCU-induced dose-dependent relaxation of phenylephrine (1 microM) stimulated contractions. This relaxation was reduced by endothelium removal, significantly reduced by both the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor (Nomega-nitro-L-arginine methylester, 300 microM) and slightly limited by the soluble guanylyl cyclase inhibitor (1 H-[1,2,4] oxidazolol [4,3-a] quinoxalin-1-one, 100 microM). The catalase inhibitor (3-amino-1,2,4-triazole, 50 mM) augmented the constriction and blocked the lowest SCU concentration relaxation, whereas catalase addition was without effect. Preincubation with 300 and 1000 microM SCU significantly suppressed the contractile dose-response to phenylephrine, causing both a significant rise in half maximal effective concentration and a decrease in the maximal developed force. Western blot analysis showed that SCU inhibition of contraction was independent of reductions in myosin light chain phosphorylation. These results suggested that SCU relaxation was predominantly endothelium dependent and likely involved the catalase-sensitive nitric oxide synthase signaling pathway, without loss of myosin phosphorylation. The potential clinical use of SCU may prove to be effective in increasing vasoreactivity, independently of smooth muscle contractile activity that is mediated by the 20-kDa myosin light chain phosphorylation.
Carnitine Insufficiency Caused by Aging and Overnutrition Compromises Mitochondrial Performance and Metabolic Control
The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Aug, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19553674
In addition to its essential role in permitting mitochondrial import and oxidation of long chain fatty acids, carnitine also functions as an acyl group acceptor that facilitates mitochondrial export of excess carbons in the form of acylcarnitines. Recent evidence suggests carnitine requirements increase under conditions of sustained metabolic stress. Accordingly, we hypothesized that carnitine insufficiency might contribute to mitochondrial dysfunction and obesity-related impairments in glucose tolerance. Consistent with this prediction whole body carnitine diminution was identified as a common feature of insulin-resistant states such as advanced age, genetic diabetes, and diet-induced obesity. In rodents fed a lifelong (12 month) high fat diet, compromised carnitine status corresponded with increased skeletal muscle accumulation of acylcarnitine esters and diminished hepatic expression of carnitine biosynthetic genes. Diminished carnitine reserves in muscle of obese rats was accompanied by marked perturbations in mitochondrial fuel metabolism, including low rates of complete fatty acid oxidation, elevated incomplete beta-oxidation, and impaired substrate switching from fatty acid to pyruvate. These mitochondrial abnormalities were reversed by 8 weeks of oral carnitine supplementation, in concert with increased tissue efflux and urinary excretion of acetylcarnitine and improvement of whole body glucose tolerance. Acetylcarnitine is produced by the mitochondrial matrix enzyme, carnitine acetyltransferase (CrAT). A role for this enzyme in combating glucose intolerance was further supported by the finding that CrAT overexpression in primary human skeletal myocytes increased glucose uptake and attenuated lipid-induced suppression of glucose oxidation. These results implicate carnitine insufficiency and reduced CrAT activity as reversible components of the metabolic syndrome.
Attenuation of Myocardial Injury in Mice with Functional Deletion of the Circadian Rhythm Gene MPer2
American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology. Mar, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20061537
Variations in circadian rhythms are evident in the incidence of cardiovascular disease, and the risk of cardiovascular events increases when rhythms are disrupted. The suprachiasmatic nucleus is the central circadian pacemaker that regulates the daily rhythm of peripheral organs. Diurnal rhythms have more recently been shown to exist in myocardial tissue and are involved in metabolism and contractile function. Thus we sought to determine whether the functional deletion of the circadian rhythm mouse periodic gene 2 (mPer2) would protect the heart against ischemic injury. Nonreperfused myocardial infarction was induced in anesthetized, ventilated C57 (n = 17) and mPer2 mutant (mPer2-M; n = 15) mice via permanent ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery. At 4 days post-myocardial infarction, we observed a 43% reduction of infarct area in mPer2-M mice compared with wild-type mice. This is coincident with 25% less macrophage infiltration, 43% higher capillary density, 17% increase in hypertrophy, and 15% less cardiomyocyte apoptosis in the infarct zone. Also, matrix metalloproteinase-9 was expressed in inflammatory cells in both groups, but total protein was 40% higher in wild-type mice, whereas it was not elevated in mPer2-M mice in response to injury. The functional deletion of the mPer2 gene reduces the severity of myocardial infarct injury by limiting the inflammatory response, reducing apoptosis, and inducing cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, thus preserving cardiac function. These findings collectively imply that the disruption of the circadian clock gene mPer2 is protective. Understanding the interactions between circadian rhythm genes and cardiovascular disease may provide insights into potential preventative and therapeutic strategies for susceptible populations.
Peptides. Nov, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20723572
Congestive heart failure (CHF) alters vascular reactivity and up regulates in urotensin II (UTII), a potent vasoactive peptide. The aim of this study was to investigate the interaction between CHF and UTII in altering vascular reactivity in a rat model of volume overload heart failure. Animals were divided into 4 groups: control, UTII infused (UTII), volume overload only (VO) or volume overload+UTII (VO+UTII). Volume overload was established by the formation of an aortocaval fistula. Following fistula formation animals were administered UTII at a rate of 300 pmol/kg/h for 4 weeks subcutaneously with mini-osmotic pumps. Thoracic aorta rings, with/without endothelium, were subjected to cumulative dose-responses to phenylephrine, sodium nitroprusside (SNP), acetylcholine (ACH), UTII, and the Rho-kinase inhibitor HA-1077. Aortas from VO animals exhibited increased sensitivity to phenylephrine and UTII with a decreased relaxation response to ACH and HA-1077. Aortas from animals subjected to chronic UTII with volume overload (VO + UTII) retained their sensitivity to phenylephrine and UTII while they improved their relaxation to HA-1077 but not ACH. The constrictive response to UTII was dose-dependent and augmented at concentrations <0.01 μM in VO animals. The changes in vascular reactivity paralleled an elevation of both the UTII and α(1A)-adrenergic receptor while the Rho and Rho-kinase signalling proteins were diminished. We found that volume overload increased sensitivity to the vasoconstrictor agents that was inversely related to changes in the Rho-kinase expression. The addition of UTII with VO reversed the constrictive vascular response through alterations in the Rho-kinase signalling pathway.
Vascular Pharmacology. Nov-Dec, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20888432
Asthma is often associated with cardiovascular complications, and recent observations in animal models indicate that induction of pulmonary allergic inflammation increases susceptibility of the myocardium to ischemia and reperfusion injury. In this study, we used a murine model of allergen sensitization in which aspiration of allergen induces pulmonary and systemic inflammation, to test the hypothesis that pulmonary exposure to allergen alters vascular relaxation responses. BALB/C mice were sensitized by intraperitoneal injection of ragweed and challenged by intratracheal instillation of allergen. Airway hyperreactivity and pulmonary inflammation were confirmed, and endothelium-dependent and -independent reactivity of thoracic aorta rings were evaluated. Ragweed sensitization and challenge induced airway hyperreactivity to methacholine and pulmonary inflammation, but did not affect constrictor responses of the aortic rings to phenylephrine and K+ depolarization. In contrast, maximal relaxation of aortic rings to acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside decreased from 87.6±3.9% and 97.7±1.2% to 32±4% and 51±6%, respectively (p<0.05). The sensitivity to acetylcholine was likewise reduced (EC₅₀=0.26±0.05 μM vs. 1.09±0.16 μM, p<0.001). The results demonstrate that induction of allergic pulmonary inflammation in mice depresses endothelium-dependent and -independent vascular relaxation, which can contribute to cardiovascular complications associated with allergic inflammation.
Mast Cells Contribute to Altered Vascular Reactivity and Ischemia-reperfusion Injury Following Cerium Oxide Nanoparticle Instillation
Nanotoxicology. Dec, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21043986
Cerium oxide (CeO₂) represents an important nanomaterial with wide ranging applications. However, little is known regarding how CeO₂ exposure may influence pulmonary or systemic inflammation. Furthermore, how mast cells would influence inflammatory responses to a nanoparticle exposure is unknown. We thus compared pulmonary and cardiovascular responses between C57BL/6 and B6.Cg-Kit(W-sh) mast cell deficient mice following CeO₂ nanoparticle instillation. C57BL/6 mice instilled with CeO₂ exhibited mild pulmonary inflammation. However, B6.Cg-Kit(W-sh) mice did not display a similar degree of inflammation following CeO₂ instillation. Moreover, C57BL/6 mice instilled with CeO₂ exhibited altered aortic vascular responses to adenosine and an increase in myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury which was absent in B6.Cg-Kit(W-sh) mice. In vitro CeO₂ exposure resulted in increased production of PGD₂, TNF-α, IL-6 and osteopontin by cultured mast cells. These findings demonstrate that CeO₂ nanoparticles activate mast cells contributing to pulmonary inflammation, impairment of vascular relaxation and exacerbation of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury.
Cardiovascular Toxicology. Jun, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21279739
Heart failure (HF) is characterized as a limitation to cardiac output that prevents the heart from supplying tissues with adequate oxygen and predisposes individuals to pulmonary edema. Impaired cardiac function is secondary to either decreased contractility reducing ejection (systolic failure), diminished ventricular compliance preventing filling (diastolic failure), or both. To study HF etiology, many different techniques have been developed to elicit this condition in experimental animals, with varying degrees of success. Among rats, surgically induced HF models are the most prevalent, but they bear several shortcomings, including high mortality rates and limited recapitulation of the pathophysiology, etiology, and progression of human HF. Alternatively, a number of non-invasive HF induction methods avoid many of these pitfalls, and their merits in technical simplicity, reliability, survivability, and comparability to the pathophysiologic and pathogenic characteristics of HF are reviewed herein. In particular, this review focuses on the primary pathogenic mechanisms common to genetic strains (spontaneously hypertensive and spontaneously hypertensive heart failure), pharmacological models of toxic cardiomyopathy (doxorubicin and isoproterenol), and dietary salt models, all of which have been shown to induce left ventricular HF in the rat. Additional non-invasive techniques that may potentially enable the development of new HF models are also discussed.
Toxicology. Jan, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22273728
Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is a widespread environmental contaminant that is detectable in serum of the general U.S. population. PFOA is a known developmental toxicant that induces mortality in mammalian embryos and is thought to induce toxicity via interaction with the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha (PPARα). As the cardiovascular system is crucial for embryonic survival, PFOA-induced effects on the heart may partially explain embryonic mortality. To assess impacts of PFOA exposure on the developing heart in an avian model, we used histopathology and immunohistochemical staining for myosin to assess morphological alterations in 19-day-old chicken embryo hearts after PFOA exposure. Additionally, echocardiography and cardiac myofibril ATPase activity assays were used to assess functional alterations in 1-day-old hatchling chickens following developmental PFOA exposure. Overall thinning and thinning of a dense layer of myosin in the right ventricular wall were observed in PFOA-exposed chicken embryo hearts. Alteration of multiple cardiac structural and functional parameters, including left ventricular wall thickness, left ventricular volume, heart rate, stroke volume, and ejection fraction were detected with echocardiography in the exposed hatchling chickens. Assessment of ATPase activity indicated that the ratio of cardiac myofibril calcium-independent ATPase activity to calcium-dependent ATPase activity was not affected, which suggests that developmental PFOA exposure may not affect cardiac energetics. In summary, structural and functional characteristics of the heart appear to be developmental targets of PFOA, possibly at the level of cardiomyocytes. Additional studies will investigate mechanisms of PFOA-induced developmental cardiotoxicity.