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- Высокая профилирования микроРНК Производительность: Оптимизированная Мультиплекс QRT-PCR на шкале Nanoliter на Fluidigm Динамический МФХБ ArrayTM
Other Publications (38)
- The Hematology Journal : the Official Journal of the European Haematology Association / EHA
- Genes & Development
- Development (Cambridge, England)
- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
- Stem Cells (Dayton, Ohio)
- Nature Genetics
- Cell Stem Cell
- Genes & Development
- BMC Bioinformatics
- Nature Genetics
- Nature Biotechnology
- Cancer Research
- Circulation Research
- PloS One
- Nature Biotechnology
- Current Biology : CB
- Genes & Development
- Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.)
- Journal of Immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950)
- Cancer Research
- Nature Medicine
- Cell Stem Cell
- Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
- Genes & Development
- Neural Development
- Development (Cambridge, England)
- Nature Biotechnology
- Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
- Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
- RNA (New York, N.Y.)
- Cancer Research
- Developmental Biology
- F1000 Biology Reports
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Articles by Robert Blelloch in JoVE
Высокая профилирования микроРНК Производительность: Оптимизированная Мультиплекс QRT-PCR на шкале Nanoliter на Fluidigm Динамический МФХБ ArrayTM
Felix Moltzahn1,2,3, Nathan Hunkapiller1,2,4, Alain A. Mir5, Tal Imbar1,2,6, Robert Blelloch1,2,3,7
1The Eli and Edythe Broad Center of Regeneration Medicine and Stem Cell Research, University of California San Francisco, 2Center for Reproductive Sciences, University of California San Francisco, 3Department of Urology, University of California San Francisco, 4Department of Cell and Tissue Biology, University of California San Francisco, 5Fluidigm Corporation, Fluidigm Corporation, 6Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Center, 7UCSF - Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California San Francisco
Здесь мы опишем оптимизированы мультиплекс обратной транскриптазы количественный ПЦР (QRT-PCR) протокол в сочетании с микрожидкостных платформе, стоимость и время, эффективная высокопроизводительного скрининга инструмент для микроРНК (миРНК) уровни экспрессии, особенно при работе с ограниченным количеством образцов.
Other articles by Robert Blelloch on PubMed
The Hematology Journal : the Official Journal of the European Haematology Association / EHA. 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15190291
Nuclear transfer experiments in mammals have shown that the nucleus of an adult cell has the ability to direct the development of an entire organism, id est its genome is totipotent. However, these experiments did not conclusively demonstrate that the nuclei of terminally differentiated adult cells remain totipotent. It is possible that rare adult stem cells served as donors for the few surviving clones. To address this question, we have generated monoclonal mice from terminally differentiated lymphocytes that carry a single antigen receptor rearrangement in all tissues. Nuclear transfer technology may provide a powerful method for obtaining autologous cells for replacement therapy. We have demonstrated the feasibility of this concept by combining nuclear transfer with gene and cell therapy to treat the immune deficiency of Rag2 mutant mice, thus establishing a paradigm for 'therapeutic cloning'. Moreover, we will discuss the potential use of nuclear transfer to study the role of reversible genomic (epigenetic) modifications during tumorigenesis.
Genes & Development. Aug, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15289459
We have used nuclear transplantation to test whether the reprogramming activity of oocytes can reestablish developmental pluripotency of malignant cancer cells. We show here that the nuclei of leukemia, lymphoma, and breast cancer cells could support normal preimplantation development to the blastocyst stage but failed to produce embryonic stem (ES) cells. However, a blastocyst cloned from a RAS-inducible melanoma nucleus gave rise to ES cells with the potential to differentiate into multiple cell types in vivo including melanocytes, lymphocytes, and fibroblasts. Chimeras produced from these ES cells developed cancer with higher penetrance, shorter latency, and an expanded tumor spectrum when compared with the donor mouse model. These results demonstrate that the secondary changes of a melanoma nucleus are compatible with a broad developmental potential but predispose mice to melanomas and other malignant tumors on reactivation of RAS. Our findings serve as a paradigm for studying the tumorigenic effect of a given cancer genome in the context of a whole animal.
Development (Cambridge, England). Sep, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15294864
TRA-1/GLI is best known as a master regulator of sex determination in the nematode C. elegans, but its fly and vertebrate homologs (e.g. Ci, GLI) regulate embryonic patterning and cell proliferation. In this paper, we show that TRA-1/GLI controls development of the two somatic gonadal precursors (SGPs) in both XX and XO animals, in addition to its role in sex determination. Normally, SGPs reside at the poles of the gonadal primordium and divide according to intrinsic gonadal axes. In tra-1-null mutants, however, SGPs assume non-polar positions and the polarity of one SGP is reversed. Consistent with its SGP function, TRA-1 protein is present in SGPs during embryogenesis and early larval development. Previous studies have shown that the ehn-3 gene also affects SGP positions, and we report here that tra-1 and ehn-3 interact genetically. Whereas SGPs in tra-1 and ehn-3 single mutants are largely normal and generate many descendants, those in tra-1; ehn-3 double mutants do not mature or divide. Furthermore, tra-1 is a dominant enhancer of the ehn-3 gonadal defect, which includes the enhancement of a weak sexual transformation in the gonad. We cloned ehn-3, and found that it encodes a C2H2 zinc-finger protein. A rescuing EHN-3::GFP reporter is predominantly nuclear and expressed specifically in SGPs. The EHN-3 protein is therefore likely to regulate gene expression. We propose that TRA-1/GLI and EHN-3 have overlapping roles in regulation of multiple steps of SGP development. We speculate that regulation of SGP development may be an evolutionarily ancient role of TRA-1/GLI in nematode development.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Sep, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15306687
Embryonal carcinoma (EC) cells have served as a model to study the relationship between cancer and cellular differentiation given their potential to produce tumors and, to varying degrees, participate in embryonic development. Here, nuclear transplantation was used to assess the extent to which the tumorigenic and developmental potential of EC cells is governed by epigenetic as opposed to genetic alterations. Nuclei from three independent mouse EC cell lines (F9, P19, and METT-1) with differing developmental and tumorigenic potentials all were able to direct early embryo development, producing morphologically normal blastocysts that gave rise to nuclear transfer (NT)-derived embryonic stem (ES) cell lines at a high efficiency. However, when tested for tumor or chimera formation, the resulting NT ES cells displayed an identical potential as their respective donor EC cells, in stark contrast to previously reported NT ES cells derived from transfer of untransformed cells. Consistent with this finding, comparative genomic hybridization identified previously undescribed genetic lesions in the EC cell lines. Therefore, nonreprogrammable genetic modifications within EC nuclei define the developmental and tumorigenic potential of resulting NT ES cells. Our findings support the notion that cancer results from the deregulation of stem cells and further suggest that the genetics of ECs will reveal genes involved in stem cell self-renewal and pluripotency.
Reprogramming Efficiency Following Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer is Influenced by the Differentiation and Methylation State of the Donor Nucleus
Stem Cells (Dayton, Ohio). Sep, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16709876
Reprogramming of a differentiated cell nucleus by somatic cell nuclear transplantation is an inefficient process. Following nuclear transfer, the donor nucleus often fails to express early embryonic genes and establish a normal embryonic pattern of chromatin modifications. These defects correlate with the low number of cloned embryos able to produce embryonic stem cells or develop into adult animals. Here, we show that the differentiation and methylation state of the donor cell influence the efficiency of genomic reprogramming. First, neural stem cells, when used as donors for nuclear transplantation, produce embryonic stem cells at a higher efficiency than blastocysts derived from terminally differentiated neuronal donor cells, demonstrating a correlation between the state of differentiation and cloning efficiency. Second, using a hypomorphic allele of DNA methyltransferase-1, we found that global hypomethylation of a differentiated cell genome improved cloning efficiency. Our results provide functional evidence that the differentiation and epigenetic state of the donor nucleus influences reprogramming efficiency.
Nature Genetics. Mar, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17259983
The molecular controls that govern the differentiation of embryonic stem (ES) cells remain poorly understood. DGCR8 is an RNA-binding protein that assists the RNase III enzyme Drosha in the processing of microRNAs (miRNAs), a subclass of small RNAs. Here we study the role of miRNAs in ES cell differentiation by generating a Dgcr8 knockout model. Analysis of mouse knockout ES cells shows that DGCR8 is essential for biogenesis of miRNAs. On the induction of differentiation, DGCR8-deficient ES cells do not fully downregulate pluripotency markers and retain the ability to produce ES cell colonies; however, they do express some markers of differentiation. This phenotype differs from that reported for Dicer1 knockout cells, suggesting that Dicer has miRNA-independent roles in ES cell function. Our findings indicate that miRNAs function in the silencing of ES cell self-renewal that normally occurs with the induction of differentiation.
Cell Stem Cell. Sep, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 18371358
Nature. Oct, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18833266
Mouse ES Cells Express Endogenous ShRNAs, SiRNAs, and Other Microprocessor-independent, Dicer-dependent Small RNAs
Genes & Development. Oct, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18923076
Canonical microRNAs (miRNAs) require two processing steps: the first by the Microprocessor, a complex of DGCR8 and Drosha, and the second by a complex of TRBP and Dicer. dgcr8Delta/Delta mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) have less severe phenotypes than dicer1Delta/Delta mESCs, suggesting a physiological role for Microprocessor-independent, Dicer-dependent small RNAs. To identify these small RNAs with unusual biogenesis, we performed high-throughput sequencing from wild-type, dgcr8Delta/Delta, and dicer1Delta/Delta mESCs. Several of the resulting DGCR8-independent, Dicer-dependent RNAs were noncanonical miRNAs. These derived from mirtrons and a newly identified subclass of miRNA precursors, which appears to be the endogenous counterpart of shRNAs. Our analyses also revealed endogenous siRNAs resulting from Dicer cleavage of long hairpins, the vast majority of which originated from one genomic locus with tandem, inverted short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs). Our results extend the known diversity of mammalian small RNA-generating pathways and show that mammalian siRNAs exist in cell types other than oocytes.
BMC Bioinformatics. 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18950538
The regulation of gene expression is complex and occurs at many levels, including transcriptional and post-transcriptional, in metazoans. Transcriptional regulation is mainly determined by sequence elements within the promoter regions of genes while sequence elements within the 3' untranslated regions of mRNAs play important roles in post-transcriptional regulation such as mRNA stability and translation efficiency. Identifying cis-regulatory elements, or motifs, in multicellular eukaryotes is more difficult compared to unicellular eukaryotes due to the larger intergenic sequence space and the increased complexity in regulation. Experimental techniques for discovering functional elements are often time consuming and not easily applied on a genome level. Consequently, computational methods are advantageous for genome-wide cis-regulatory motif detection. To decrease the search space in metazoans, many algorithms use cross-species alignment, although studies have demonstrated that a large portion of the binding sites for the same trans-acting factor do not reside in alignable regions. Therefore, a computational algorithm should account for both conserved and nonconserved cis-regulatory elements in metazoans.
Nature Genetics. Dec, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18978791
Dgcr8 knockout embryonic stem (ES) cells lack microprocessor activity and hence all canonical microRNAs (miRNAs). These cells proliferate slowly and accumulate in G1 phase of the cell cycle. Here, by screening a comprehensive library of individual miRNAs in the background of the Dgcr8 knockout ES cells, we report that multiple ES cell-specific miRNAs, members of the miR-290 family, rescue the ES cell proliferation defect. Furthermore, rescued cells no longer accumulate in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. These miRNAs function by suppressing several key regulators of the G1-S transition. These results show that post-transcriptional regulation by miRNAs promotes the G1-S transition of the ES cell cycle, enabling rapid proliferation of these cells. Our screening strategy provides an alternative and powerful approach for uncovering the role of individual miRNAs in biological processes, as it overcomes the common problem of redundancy and saturation in the miRNA system.
Cell. Jan, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19135890
The Drosha-DGCR8 complex, also known as Microprocessor, is essential for microRNA (miRNA) maturation. Drosha functions as the catalytic subunit, while DGCR8 (also known as Pasha) recognizes the RNA substrate. Although the action mechanism of this complex has been intensively studied, it remains unclear how Drosha and DGCR8 are regulated and if these proteins have any additional role(s) apart from miRNA processing. Here, we report that Drosha and DGCR8 regulate each other posttranscriptionally. The Drosha-DGCR8 complex cleaves the hairpin structures embedded in the DGCR8 mRNA and thereby destabilizes the mRNA. We further find that DGCR8 stabilizes the Drosha protein via protein-protein interaction. This crossregulation between Drosha and DGCR8 may contribute to the homeostatic control of miRNA biogenesis. Furthermore, microarray analyses suggest that a number of mRNAs may be downregulated in a Microprocessor-dependent, miRNA-independent manner. Our study reveals a previously unsuspected function of Microprocessor in mRNA stability control.
Nature Biotechnology. May, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19363475
This report demonstrates that introduction of microRNAs (miRNAs) specific to embryonic stem cells enhances the production of mouse induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. The miRNAs miR-291-3p, miR-294 and miR-295 increase the efficiency of reprogramming by Oct4, Sox2 and Klf4, but not by these factors plus cMyc. cMyc binds the promoter of the miRNAs, suggesting that they are downstream effectors of cMyc during reprogramming. However, unlike cMyc, the miRNAs induce a homogeneous population of iPS cell colonies.
Cancer Research. May, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19435891
The cell cycle is tightly orchestrated during normal development. Embryonic stem (ES) cells have a unique cell cycle structure, in which the G1/S restriction is largely absent, enabling cells to rapidly move through the G1 phase and enter the S phase. This hastened cell cycle allows the early embryo to rapidly grow. Recent experiments suggest that small noncoding RNAs, the microRNAs (miRNAs), play a central role in achieving this unique cell cycle structure. The responsible miRNAs function by suppressing multiple inhibitors of the G1/S transition. Expression of these miRNAs drops dramatically as the ES cells differentiate and as the G1 phase extends. Some of the same miRNAs are overexpressed in cancers, in which they can promote tumor growth, suggesting common mechanisms of miRNA-regulated cell cycle control in ES cells and cancers. This review discusses these recent findings in the context of broader knowledge of cell cycle control in normal and abnormal development.
Circulation Research. Sep, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19679836
Heart failure is a deadly and devastating disease that places immense costs on an aging society. To develop therapies aimed at rescuing the failing heart, it is important to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying cardiomyocyte structure and function.
Genomic Analysis Suggests That MRNA Destabilization by the Microprocessor is Specialized for the Auto-regulation of Dgcr8
PloS One. 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19759829
The Microprocessor, containing the RNA binding protein Dgcr8 and RNase III enzyme Drosha, is responsible for processing primary microRNAs to precursor microRNAs. The Microprocessor regulates its own levels by cleaving hairpins in the 5'UTR and coding region of the Dgcr8 mRNA, thereby destabilizing the mature transcript.
Nature. Nov, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19907454
Nature. Feb, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20054295
When embryonic stem cells (ESCs) differentiate, they must both silence the ESC self-renewal program and activate new tissue-specific programs. In the absence of DGCR8 (Dgcr8(-/-)), a protein required for microRNA (miRNA) biogenesis, mouse ESCs are unable to silence self-renewal. Here we show that the introduction of let-7 miRNAs-a family of miRNAs highly expressed in somatic cells-can suppress self-renewal in Dgcr8(-/-) but not wild-type ESCs. Introduction of ESC cell cycle regulating (ESCC) miRNAs into the Dgcr8(-/-) ESCs blocks the capacity of let-7 to suppress self-renewal. Profiling and bioinformatic analyses show that let-7 inhibits whereas ESCC miRNAs indirectly activate numerous self-renewal genes. Furthermore, inhibition of the let-7 family promotes de-differentiation of somatic cells to induced pluripotent stem cells. Together, these findings show how the ESCC and let-7 miRNAs act through common pathways to alternatively stabilize the self-renewing versus differentiated cell fates.
Current Biology : CB. Feb, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20116247
Dicer, which is required for the processing of both microRNAs (miRNAs) and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), is essential for oocyte maturation [1, 2]. Oocytes express both miRNAs and endogenous siRNAs (endo-siRNAs) [3, 4]. To determine whether the abnormalities in Dicer knockout oocytes during meiotic maturation are secondary to the loss of endo-siRNAs and/or miRNAs, we deleted Dgcr8, which encodes an RNA-binding protein specifically required for miRNA processing. In striking contrast to Dicer, Dgcr8-deficient oocytes matured normally and, when fertilized with wild-type sperm, produced healthy-appearing offspring, even though miRNA levels were reduced to similar levels as Dicer-deficient oocytes. Furthermore, the deletion of both maternal and zygotic Dgcr8 alleles did not impair preimplantation development, including the determination of the inner cell mass and trophectoderm. Most surprisingly, the mRNA profiles of wild-type and Dgcr8 null oocytes were essentially identical, whereas Dicer null oocytes showed hundreds of misregulated transcripts. These findings show that miRNA function is globally suppressed during oocyte maturation and preimplantation development and that endo-siRNAs, rather than miRNAs, underlie the Dicer knockout phenotype in oocytes.
Genes & Development. May, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20413612
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small regulatory RNAs that derive from distinctive hairpin transcripts. To learn more about the miRNAs of mammals, we sequenced 60 million small RNAs from mouse brain, ovary, testes, embryonic stem cells, three embryonic stages, and whole newborns. Analysis of these sequences confirmed 398 annotated miRNA genes and identified 108 novel miRNA genes. More than 150 previously annotated miRNAs and hundreds of candidates failed to yield sequenced RNAs with miRNA-like features. Ectopically expressing these previously proposed miRNA hairpins also did not yield small RNAs, whereas ectopically expressing the confirmed and newly identified hairpins usually did yield small RNAs with the classical miRNA features, including dependence on the Drosha endonuclease for processing. These experiments, which suggest that previous estimates of conserved mammalian miRNAs were inflated, provide a substantially revised list of confidently identified murine miRNAs from which to infer the general features of mammalian miRNAs. Our analyses also revealed new aspects of miRNA biogenesis and modification, including tissue-specific strand preferences, sequential Dicer cleavage of a metazoan precursor miRNA (pre-miRNA), consequential 5' heterogeneity, newly identified instances of miRNA editing, and evidence for widespread pre-miRNA uridylation reminiscent of miRNA regulation by Lin28.
Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.). May, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20432256
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) constitute a new class of regulators of gene expression. Among other actions, miRNAs have been shown to control cell proliferation in development and cancer. However, whether miRNAs regulate hepatocyte proliferation during liver regeneration is unknown. We addressed this question by performing 2/3 partial hepatectomy (2/3 PH) on mice with hepatocyte-specific inactivation of DiGeorge syndrome critical region gene 8 (DGCR8), an essential component of the miRNA processing pathway. Hepatocytes of these mice were miRNA-deficient and exhibited a delay in cell cycle progression involving the G(1) to S phase transition. Examination of livers of wildtype mice after 2/3 PH revealed differential expression of a subset of miRNAs, notably an induction of miR-21 and repression of miR-378. We further discovered that miR-21 directly inhibits Btg2, a cell cycle inhibitor that prevents activation of forkhead box M1 (FoxM1), which is essential for DNA synthesis in hepatocytes after 2/3 PH. In addition, we found that miR-378 directly inhibits ornithine decarboxylase (Odc1), which is known to promote DNA synthesis in hepatocytes after 2/3 PH. CONCLUSION: Our results show that miRNAs are critical regulators of hepatocyte proliferation during liver regeneration. Because these miRNAs and target gene interactions are conserved, our findings may also be relevant to human liver regeneration.
Journal of Immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950). Oct, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20805417
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that have recently emerged as critical regulators of gene expression within the immune system. In this study, we used mice with conditional deletion of Dicer and DiGeorge syndrome critical region 8 (Dgcr8) to dissect the roles of miRNAs in NK cell activation, survival, and function during viral infection. We developed a system for deletion of either Dicer or Dgcr8 in peripheral NK cells via drug-induced Cre activity. We found that Dicer- and Dgcr8-deficient NK cells were significantly impaired in survival and turnover, and had impaired function of the ITAM-containing activating NK cell receptors. We further demonstrated that both Dicer- and Dgcr8-dependent pathways were indispensable for the expansion of Ly49H(+) NK cells during mouse cytomegalovirus infection. Our data indicate similar phenotypes for Dicer- and Dgcr8-deficient NK cells, which strongly suggest that these processes are regulated by miRNAs. Thus, our findings indicate a critical role for miRNAs in controlling NK cell homeostasis and effector function, with implications for miRNAs regulating diverse aspects of NK cell biology.
Cancer Research. Nov, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20861188
The PML-RARα oncogene is the central effector of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). PML-RARα physically interacts with epigenetic-modifying enzymes including DNA methyltransferases (Dnmt) to suppress critical downstream targets. Here, we show that increased expression of Dnmt3a1 cooperates with PML-RARα in vivo to promote early lethality secondary to myeloid expansion and dysfunction in primary mice. Bone marrow cells from these mice cause leukemogenesis with a shortened latency and a higher penetrance on transplantation into irradiated recipients. Furthermore, leukemic cells overexpressing PML-RARα and Dnmt3a1 display increased methylation at a target promoter compared with PML-RARα or Dnmt3a1 controls. Our findings show a cooperation between the PML-RARα oncogene and the Dnmt3a1 enzyme in vivo and that Dnmt levels can be rate limiting in APL progression.
MiR-380-5p Represses P53 to Control Cellular Survival and is Associated with Poor Outcome in MYCN-amplified Neuroblastoma
Nature Medicine. Oct, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20871609
Inactivation of the p53 tumor suppressor pathway allows cell survival in times of stress and occurs in many human cancers; however, normal embryonic stem cells and some cancers such as neuroblastoma maintain wild-type human TP53 and mouse Trp53 (referred to collectively as p53 herein). Here we describe a miRNA, miR-380-5p, that represses p53 expression via a conserved sequence in the p53 3' untranslated region (UTR). miR-380-5p is highly expressed in mouse embryonic stem cells and neuroblastomas, and high expression correlates with poor outcome in neuroblastomas with neuroblastoma derived v-myc myelocytomatosis viral-related oncogene (MYCN) amplification. miR-380 overexpression cooperates with activated HRAS oncoprotein to transform primary cells, block oncogene-induced senescence and form tumors in mice. Conversely, inhibition of endogenous miR-380-5p in embryonic stem or neuroblastoma cells results in induction of p53, and extensive apoptotic cell death. In vivo delivery of a miR-380-5p antagonist decreases tumor size in an orthotopic mouse model of neuroblastoma. We demonstrate a new mechanism of p53 regulation in cancer and stem cells and uncover a potential therapeutic target for neuroblastoma.
Cell Stem Cell. Oct, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20887950
The 2010 Annual Meeting of the International Society for Stem Cell Research (ISSCR) was held in San Francisco in June with an exciting program covering a wealth of stem cell research from basic science to clinical research.
Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. 2010 | Pubmed ID: 21222202
Stem cell differentiation requires a complex coordination of events to transition from a self-renewing to a differentiated cell fate. Stem cells can be pluripotent (capable of giving rise to all embryonic lineages), multipotent (possessing the potential to give rise to multiple lineages) and unipotent (capable of given rise to a single cell lineage). Regardless of their potency all stem cells must silence their self-renewal program during differentiation. The self-renewal program can be defined as the integration of external and internal stimuli that enables a cell to proliferate while maintaining its potency. Two hallmarks of the self-renewal program are a self-reinforcing transcriptional network and a specialized cell-cycle profile. In this chapter we discuss the impact of various microRNAs (miRNAs) to either reinforce or inhibit the self-renewal program of stem cells and how this added regulatory layer provides robustness to cell-fate decisions. We will focus on embryonic stem cells (ESCs) describing miRNA function in self-renewal, differentiation and de-differentiation. We will compare and contrast miRNA functions in ESCs with miRNA function in lineage specific somatic stem cells and in cancer.
Genome-wide Analysis of Translation Reveals a Critical Role for Deleted in Azoospermia-like (Dazl) at the Oocyte-to-zygote Transition
Genes & Development. Apr, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21460039
Oocyte maturation, fertilization, and early embryonic development occur in the absence of gene transcription. Therefore, it is critical to understand at a global level the post-transcriptional events that are driving these transitions. Here we used a systems approach by combining polysome mRNA profiling and bioinformatics to identify RNA-binding motifs in mRNAs that either enter or exit the polysome pool during mouse oocyte maturation. Association of mRNA with the polysomes correlates with active translation. Using this strategy, we identified highly specific patterns of mRNA recruitment to the polysomes that are synchronized with the cell cycle. A large number of the mRNAs recovered with translating ribosomes contain motifs for the RNA-binding proteins DAZL (deleted in azoospermia-like) and CPEB (cytoplasmic polyadenylation element-binding protein). Although a Dazl role in early germ cell development is well established, no function has been described during oocyte-to-embryo transition. We demonstrate that CPEB1 regulates Dazl post-transcriptionally, and that DAZL is essential for meiotic maturation and embryonic cleavage. In the absence of DAZL synthesis, the meiotic spindle fails to form due to disorganization of meiotic microtubules. Therefore, Cpeb1 and Dazl function in a progressive, self-reinforcing pathway to promote oocyte maturation and early embryonic development.
Monoallelic Deletion of the MicroRNA Biogenesis Gene Dgcr8 Produces Deficits in the Development of Excitatory Synaptic Transmission in the Prefrontal Cortex
Neural Development. 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21466685
Neuronal phenotypes associated with hemizygosity of individual genes within the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome locus hold potential towards understanding the pathogenesis of schizophrenia and autism. Included among these genes is Dgcr8, which encodes an RNA-binding protein required for microRNA biogenesis. Dgcr8 haploinsufficient mice (Dgcr8+/-) have reduced expression of microRNAs in brain and display cognitive deficits, but how microRNA deficiency affects the development and function of neurons in the cerebral cortex is not fully understood.
Development (Cambridge, England). May, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21486922
Small non-coding RNAs, including microRNAs (miRNAs), endogenous small interfering RNAs (endo-siRNAs) and Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs), play essential roles in mammalian development. The function and timing of expression of these three classes of small RNAs differ greatly. piRNAs are expressed and play a crucial role during male gametogenesis, whereas endo-siRNAs are essential for oocyte meiosis. By contrast, miRNAs are ubiquitously expressed in somatic tissues and function throughout post-implantation development. Surprisingly, however, miRNAs are non-essential during pre-implantation embryonic development and their function is suppressed during oocyte meiosis. Here, we review the roles of small non-coding RNAs during the early stages of mammalian development, from gamete maturation through to gastrulation.
Multiple Targets of MiR-302 and MiR-372 Promote Reprogramming of Human Fibroblasts to Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells
Nature Biotechnology. May, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21490602
The embryonic stem cell-specific cell cycle-regulating (ESCC) family of microRNAs (miRNAs) enhances reprogramming of mouse embryonic fibroblasts to induced pluripotent stem cells. Here we show that the human ESCC miRNA orthologs hsa-miR-302b and hsa-miR-372 promote human somatic cell reprogramming. Furthermore, these miRNAs repress multiple target genes, with downregulation of individual targets only partially recapitulating the total miRNA effects. These targets regulate various cellular processes, including cell cycle, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), epigenetic regulation and vesicular transport. ESCC miRNAs have a known role in regulating the unique embryonic stem cell cycle. We show that they also increase the kinetics of mesenchymal-epithelial transition during reprogramming and block TGFβ-induced EMT of human epithelial cells. These results demonstrate that the ESCC miRNAs promote dedifferentiation by acting on multiple downstream pathways. We propose that individual miRNAs generally act through numerous pathways that synergize to regulate and enforce cell fate decisions.
Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation. 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21630156
The ability to self-renew and to differentiate into at least one-cell lineage defines a stem cell. Self-renewal is a process by which stem cells proliferate without differentiation. Proliferation is achieved through a series of highly regulated events of the cell cycle. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of short noncoding RNAs whose importance in these events is becoming increasingly appreciated. In this chapter, we discuss the role of miRNAs in regulating the cell cycle in various stem cells with a focus on embryonic stem cells. We also present the evidence indicating that cell cycle-regulating miRNAs are incorporated into a large regulatory network to control the self-renewal of stem cells by inducing or inhibiting differentiation. In addition, we discuss the function of cell cycle-regulating miRNAs in cancer.
Current Opinion in Genetics & Development. Aug, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21636265
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are 22 nt non-coding RNAs that regulate expression of downstream targets by messenger RNA (mRNA) destabilization and translational inhibition. A large number of eukaryotic mRNAs are targeted by miRNAs, with many individual mRNAs being targeted by multiple miRNAs. Further, a single miRNA can target hundreds of mRNAs, making these small RNAs powerful regulators of cell fate decisions. Such regulation by miRNAs has been observed in the maintenance of the embryonic stem cell (ESC) cell cycle and during ESC differentiation. MiRNAs can also promote the dedifferentiation of somatic cells to induced pluripotent stem cells. During this process they target multiple downstream genes, which represent important nodes of key cellular processes. Here, we review these findings and discuss how miRNAs may be used as tools to discover novel pathways that are involved in cell fate transitions using dedifferentiation of somatic cells to induced pluripotent stem cells as a case study.
A Role for Noncanonical MicroRNAs in the Mammalian Brain Revealed by Phenotypic Differences in Dgcr8 Versus Dicer1 Knockouts and Small RNA Sequencing
RNA (New York, N.Y.). Aug, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21712401
Noncanonical microRNAs (miRNAs) and endogenous small interfering RNAs (endo-siRNAs) are distinct subclasses of small RNAs that bypass the DGCR8/DROSHA Microprocessor but still require DICER1 for their biogenesis. What role, if any, they have in mammals remains unknown. To identify potential functional properties for these subclasses, we compared the phenotypes resulting from conditional deletion of Dgcr8 versus Dicer1 in post-mitotic neurons. The loss of Dicer1 resulted in an earlier lethality, more severe structural abnormalities, and increased apoptosis relative to that from Dgcr8 loss. Deep sequencing of small RNAs from the hippocampus and cortex of the conditional knockouts and control littermates identified multiple noncanonical microRNAs that were expressed at high levels in the brain relative to other tissues, including mirtrons and H/ACA snoRNA-derived small RNAs. In contrast, we found no evidence for endo-siRNAs in the brain. Taken together, our findings provide evidence for a diverse population of highly expressed noncanonical miRNAs that together are likely to play important functional roles in post-mitotic neurons.
Immunity. Aug, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21820330
MicroRNA (miRNA)-deficient helper T cells exhibit abnormal IFN-γ production and decreased proliferation. However, the contributions of individual miRNAs to this phenotype remain poorly understood. We conducted a screen for miRNA function in primary T cells and identified individual miRNAs that rescue the defects associated with miRNA deficiency. Multiple members of the miR-17 and miR-92 families enhanced miRNA-deficient T cell proliferation whereas miR-29 largely corrected their aberrant interferon-γ (IFN-γ) expression. Repression of IFN-γ production by miR-29 involved direct targeting of both T-bet and Eomes, two transcription factors known to induce IFN-γ production. Although not usually expressed at functionally relevant amounts in helper T cells, Eomes was abundant in miRNA-deficient cells and was upregulated after miR-29 inhibition in wild-type cells. These results demonstrate that miR-29 regulates helper T cell differentiation by repressing multiple target genes, including at least two that are independently capable of inducing the T helper 1 (Th1) cell gene expression program.
Microfluidic-based Multiplex QRT-PCR Identifies Diagnostic and Prognostic MicroRNA Signatures in the Sera of Prostate Cancer Patients
Cancer Research. Jan, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21098088
Recent prostate-specific antigen-based screening trials indicate an urgent need for novel and noninvasive biomarker identification strategies to improve the prediction of prostate cancer behavior. Noncoding microRNAs (miRNA) in the serum and plasma have been shown to have potential as noninvasive markers for physiologic and pathologic conditions. To identify serum miRNAs that diagnose and correlate with the prognosis of prostate cancer, we developed a multiplex quantitative reverse transcription PCR method involving the purification of multiplex PCR products followed by uniplex analysis on a microfluidics chip to evaluate 384 human miRNAs. Using Dgcr8 and Dicer knockout (small RNA-deficient) mouse ES cells as the benchmark, we confirmed the validity of our technique and uncovered a considerable lack of accuracy in previously published methods. Profiling 48 sera from healthy men and untreated prostate cancer patients with differing CAPRA scores, we identified miRNA signatures that allow us to diagnose cancer patients and correlate with a prognosis. These serum signatures include oncogenic and tumor-suppressive miRNAs, suggesting functional roles in prostate cancer progression.
Developmental Biology. Feb, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22138056
DiGeorge syndrome (DGS), characterized genetically by a deletion within chromosome 22q11.2, is associated with a constellation of congenital heart defects. DiGeorge critical region 8 (Dgcr8), a gene that maps to the common deletion region of DGS, encodes a double stranded RNA-binding protein that is essential for miRNA biogenesis. To address the potential contribution of Dgcr8 insufficiency to cardiovascular development, we have inactivated Dgcr8 in cardiac neural crest cells (cNCCs). Dgcr8 mutants displayed a wide spectrum of malformations, including persistent truncus arteriosus (PTA) and ventricular septal defect (VSD). Interestingly, Dgcr8-null cNCCs that properly migrated into the cardiac outflow tract (OFT), proliferate normally and differentiate into vascular smooth muscle cells. However, loss of Dgcr8 causes a significant portion of the cNCCs to undergo apoptosis, causing a decrease in the pool of progenitors required for OFT remodeling. Our data uncover a new role of Dgcr8 in cardiovascular morphogenesis, plausibly as part of transmission mechanism for FGF-dependent survival cue for migrating cNCCs.
F1000 Biology Reports. 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22312415
Recent months have seen rapid advances in the field of transdifferentiation, specifically in the conversion of fibroblasts to neurons. Most surprising is the observation that the ability to drive these transitions is not limited to transcription factors, but that they can be promoted by microRNAs as well. Indeed, in one case, microRNAs alone induced the transdifferentiation of fibroblasts to neuron-like cells, albeit at a low efficiency. Here, we review this rapidly advancing field, discuss possible mechanisms underlying microRNA-induced transdifferentiation and the potential for microRNAs to drive such transitions to any cell type of interest in vitro and in vivo.