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Articles by Roshi DeSilva in JoVE
Вывод глиальных ограниченной прекурсоров от E13 мышей
André W. Phillips1,2, Sina Falahati1,2, Roshi DeSilva1,3, Irina Shats2, Joel Marx1, Edwin Arauz1, Douglas A. Kerr4, Jeffrey D. Rothstein2,5, Michael V. Johnston1,2,6, Ali Fatemi1,2,6
1Hugo W. Moser Research Institute at Kennedy Krieger, Johns Hopkins University, 2Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, 3University of Maryland, 4Experimental Neurology, Biogen Idec, 5The Brain Science Institute, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, 6Department of Pediatrics, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine
Этот протокол описывает вывод глиальных ограниченной прекурсоров от плода спинной мозг и поддерживать в пробирке или для трансплантации или для изучения oligodendrocytic линии.
Other articles by Roshi DeSilva on PubMed
Cell. Nov, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15537536
The Lyme disease agent Borrelia burgdorferi naturally persists in a cycle that primarily involves ticks and mammals. We have now identified a tick receptor (TROSPA) that is required for spirochetal colonization of Ixodes scapularis. B. burgdorferi outer surface protein A, which is abundantly expressed on spirochetes within the arthropod and essential for pathogen adherence to the vector, specifically bound to TROSPA. TROSPA mRNA levels in ticks increased following spirochete infestation and decreased in response to engorgement, events that are temporally linked to B. burgdorferi entry into and egress from the vector. The blockade of TROSPA by TROSPA antisera or by the repression of TROSPA expression via RNA interference reduced B. burgdorferi adherence to the I. scapularis gut in vivo, thereby preventing efficient colonization of the vector and subsequently reducing pathogen transmission to the mammalian host. Identification of an I. scapularis receptor for B. burgdorferi is the first step toward elucidating arthropod ligands that are required for survival of spirochetes in nature.
The Journal of Comparative Neurology. Apr, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15736232
After completion of neuronal migration to form the cerebral cortex, axons undergo rapid elongation to their intra- and subcortical targets, from midgestation through infancy. We define axonal development in the human parietal white matter in this critical period. Immunocytochemistry and Western blot analysis were performed on 46 normative cases from 20-183 postconceptional (PC) weeks. Anti-SMI 312, a pan-marker of neurofilaments, stained axons as early as 23 weeks. Anti-SMI 32, a marker for nonphosphorylated neurofilament high molecular weight (NFH), primarily stained neuronal cell bodies (cortical, subcortical, and Cajal-Retzius). Anti-SMI 31, which stains phosphorylated NFH, was used as a marker of axonal maturity, and showed relatively low levels of staining (approximately one-fourth of adult levels) from 24-34 PC weeks. GAP-43, a marker of axonal growth and elongation, showed high levels of expression in the white matter from 21-64 PC weeks and lower, adult-like levels beyond 17 postnatal months. The onset of myelination, as seen by myelin basic protein expression, was approximately 54 weeks, with progression to "adult-like" staining by 72-92 PC weeks. This study provides major insight into axonal maturation during a critical period of growth, over an age range not previously examined and one coinciding with the peak period of periventricular leukomalacia (PVL), the major disorder underlying cerebral palsy in premature infants. These data suggest that immature axons are susceptible to damage in PVL and that the timing of axonal maturation must be considered toward establishing its pathology relative to the oligodendrocyte/myelin/axonal unit.
Journal of Human Evolution. Aug, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16824583
Lack of Effect of Oral Selenite on P53 Associated Gene Expression During TL01 Therapy of Psoriasis Patients
Photodermatology, Photoimmunology & Photomedicine. Apr-Jun, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17523932
Selenium (Se) has protective properties against ultraviolet (UV)-induced changes in skin cells in vitro but little is known about such activity in human subjects. In the present study, seven patients with psoriasis ingested 400 microg of sodium selenite daily during a 4 week course of whole-body narrow-band UVB (TL01) therapy while six more psoriasis patients, similarly irradiated, ingested a placebo. Skin biopsies, collected at the start and end of the phototherapy were analysed for phosphorylated p53, Fas, Bcl-2, Bax and oxidized guaninosine, and for numbers of Langerhans and sunburn cells. Following the TL01 therapy, no significant difference was observed for any of these markers when the Se group was compared with the placebo group of patients, although p53 and Bcl-2 expression decreased in the Se supplemented group.
Brain Size at Birth Throughout Human Evolution: a New Method for Estimating Neonatal Brain Size in Hominins
Journal of Human Evolution. Dec, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18789811
An increase in brain size is a hallmark of human evolution. Questions regarding the evolution of brain development and obstetric constraints in the human lineage can be addressed with accurate estimates of the size of the brain at birth in hominins. Previous estimates of brain size at birth in fossil hominins have been calculated from regressions of neonatal body or brain mass to adult body mass, but this approach is problematic for two reasons: modern humans are outliers for these regressions, and hominin adult body masses are difficult to estimate. To accurately estimate the brain size at birth in extinct human ancestors, an equation is needed for which modern humans fit the anthropoid regression and one in which the hominin variable entered into the regression equation has limited error. Using phylogenetically sensitive statistics, a resampling approach, and brain-mass data from the literature and from National Primate Research Centers on 362 neonates and 2802 adults from eight different anthropoid species, we found that the size of the adult brain can strongly predict the size of the neonatal brain (r2=0.97). This regression predicts human brain size, indicating that humans have precisely the brain size expected as an adult given the size of the brain at birth. We estimated the size of the neonatal brain in fossil hominins from a reduced major axis regression equation using published cranial capacities of 89 adult fossil crania. We suggest that australopiths gave birth to infants with cranial capacities that were on average 180cc (95% CI: 158-205cc), slightly larger than the average neonatal brain size of chimpanzees. Neonatal brain size increased in early Homo to 225cc (95% CI: 198-257cc) and in Homo erectus to approximately 270cc (95% CI: 237-310cc). These results have implications for interpreting the evolution of the birth process and brain development in all hominins from the australopiths and early Homo, through H. erectus, to Homo sapiens.
Photodermatology, Photoimmunology & Photomedicine. Oct, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18811869
The mechanisms whereby narrowband ultraviolet B (UVB) (311-313 nm, TL01) phototherapy are effective in psoriasis may differ from those occurring in broadband UVB phototherapy. In the present study, changes in epidermal cells as a result of TL01 therapy were assessed in the skin of patients with psoriasis. The non-lesional skin of five subjects with plaque psoriasis was biopsied before and after a series of 12 whole-body TL01 treatments. Following appropriate staining of skin sections, the numbers of p53-positive keratinocytes, sunburn cells and Langerhans cells in the epidermis were counted. TL01 therapy induced a threefold increase in the number of p53-positive epidermal cells, a 12-fold increase in sunburn cells and a twofold decrease in Langerhans cells. The increase in epidermal p53 expression and apoptosis of keratinocytes together with the depletion of Langerhans cells in the non-lesional skin of psoriasis patients are likely to contribute to the effectiveness of TL01 phototherapy.
The European Journal of Neuroscience. Jan, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18184314
Synaptic plasticity is implemented by the interaction of glutamate receptors with PDZ domain proteins. Glutamate transporters provide the only known mechanism of clearance of glutamate from excitatory synapses, and GLT1 is the major glutamate transporter. We show here that GLT1 interacts with the PDZ domain protein PICK1, which plays a critical role in regulating the expression of glutamate receptors at excitatory synapses. A yeast two-hybrid screen of a neuronal library using the carboxyl tail of GLT1b yielded clones expressing PICK1. The GLT1b C-terminal peptide bound to PICK1 with high affinity (K(i) = 6.5 +/- 0.4 microM) in an in vitro fluorescence polarization assay. We also tested peptides based on other variants of GLT1 and other glutamate transporters. GLT1b co-immunoprecipitated with PICK1 from rat brain lysates and COS7 cell lysates derived from cells transfected with plasmids expressing PICK1 and GLT1b. In addition, expression of GLT1b in COS7 cells changed the distribution of PICK1, bringing it to the surface. GLT1b and PICK1 co-localized with each other and with synaptic markers in hippocampal neurons in culture. Phorbol ester, an activator of protein kinase C (PKC), a known PICK1 interactor, had no effect on glutamate transport in rat forebrain neurons in culture. However, we found that exposure of neurons to a myristolated decoy peptide with sequence identical to the C-terminal sequence of GLT1b designed to block the PICK1-GLT1b interaction rendered glutamate transport into neurons responsive to phorbol ester. These results suggest that the PICK1-GLT1b interaction regulates the modulation of GLT1 function by PKC.