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In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (3)
Articles by Rudolf A. Bohm in JoVE
Mapping and Application of Enhancer-trap Flippase Expression in Larval and Adult Drosophila CNS
Taylor R. Fore1, Audrey A. Ojwang1, Margaret L. Warner1, Xinyun Peng1, Rudolf A. Bohm1,2, William P. Welch1, Lindsey K. Goodnight1, Hong Bao1, Bing Zhang1
1Department of Zoology, University of Oklahoma - Norman, 2Department of Biology, Brandeis University
We describe a Flippase-induced intersectional Gal80/Gal4 repression (FINGR) method, allowing tissue-specific FLP to determine Gal80 expression patterns. Wherever Gal4 and FLP overlap, Gal4 expression is turned on (Gal80 flipped out) or off (Gal80 flipped in). The FINGR method is versatile for clonal analysis and neural circuit mapping.
Other articles by Rudolf A. Bohm on PubMed
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Dec, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15569939
Changes in neural activity caused by exposure to drugs may trigger homeostatic mechanisms that attempt to restore normal neural excitability. In Drosophila, a single sedation with the anesthetic benzyl alcohol changes the expression of the slo K(+) channel gene and induces rapid drug tolerance. We demonstrate linkage between these two phenomena by using a mutation and a transgene. A mutation that eliminates slo expression prevents tolerance, whereas expression from an inducible slo transgene mimics tolerance in naive animals. The behavioral response to benzyl alcohol can be separated into an initial phase of hyperkinesis and a subsequent phase of sedation. The hyperkinetic phase causes a drop in slo gene expression and makes animals more sensitive to benzyl alcohol. It is the sedative phase that stimulates slo gene expression and induces tolerance. We demonstrate that the expression level of slo is a predictor of drug sensitivity.
Fruitless Gene Products Truncated of Their Male-like Qualities Promote Neural and Behavioral Maleness in Drosophila if These Proteins Are Produced in the Right Places at the Right Times
Journal of Neurogenetics. Jan-Mar, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18363163
To bring GAL4 production under the control of the sex promoter (P1) contained within Drosophila's fruitless gene, a gal4 cassette was previously inserted downstream of P1. This insert should eliminate male-specific FRU(M) proteins, which normally contain 101 amino acids (aa's) at their N termini. Thus males homozygous for the P1-gal4 insert should be courtless, as was briefly stated to be so in the initial report of this transgenic type. But XY flies whose only fru form is P1-gal4 have now been found to court vigorously. P1-gal4 females displayed no appreciable male-like actions except courtship rejection behaviors; yet, they developed a male-specific abdominal muscle. No immunoreactivity against the male-specific aa's was detectable in P1-gal4 flies. But male-like neural signals were observed in XY or XX P1-gal4 pupae and adults after applying an antibody that detects all FRU isoforms; transgenic females displayed reduced expression of such proteins. RT-PCR's rationalized these findings: P1 transcripts include anomalous splice forms from which gal4 was removed, allowing FRU's lacking M aa's to be produced in male-like patterns in both sexes. Within males, such defective proteins promote neural differentiation and function that is sufficient to support spirited P1-gal4 courtship. But dispensability of the male-specific FRU N-terminus is tempered by the finding that intra-fru sequences encoding these 101 aa's are highly conserved among interspecific relatives of D. melanogaster.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Sep, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20810922
Transgenic manipulation of subsets of brain cells is increasingly used for studying behaviors and their underlying neural circuits. In Drosophila, the GAL4-upstream activating sequence (UAS) binary system is powerful for gene manipulation, but GAL4 expression is often too broad for fine mapping of neural circuits. Here, we describe the development of unique molecular genetic tools to restrict GAL4 expression patterns. Building on the GAL4-UAS system, our method adds two components: a collection of enhancer-trap recombinase, Flippase (ET-FLP), transgenic lines that provide inheritable, reproducible, and tissue-specific FLP and an FRT-dependent GAL80 "flip-in" construct that converts FLP expression into tissue-specific repression of GAL4 by GAL80. By including a UAS-encoded fluorescent protein, circuit morphology can be simultaneously marked while the circuit function is assessed using another UAS transgene. In a proof-of-principle analysis, we applied this ET-FLP-induced intersectional GAL80/GAL4 repression (FINGR) method to map the neural circuitry underlying fly wing inflation. The FINGR system is versatile and powerful in combination with the vast collection of GAL4 lines for neural circuit mapping as well as for clonal analysis based on the infusion of the yeast-derived FRT/FLP system of mitotic recombination into Drosophila. The strategies and tactics underlying our FINGR system are also applicable to other genetically amenable organisms in which transgenes including the GAL4, UAS, GAL80, and FLP factors can be applied.