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In JoVE (1)
- Derivation of Enriched Oligodendrocyte Cultures and Oligodendrocyte/Neuron Myelinating Co-cultures from Post-natal Murine Tissues
Other Publications (3)
Articles by Ryan W. O'Meara in JoVE
Derivation of Enriched Oligodendrocyte Cultures and Oligodendrocyte/Neuron Myelinating Co-cultures from Post-natal Murine Tissues
Ryan W. O'Meara1,2, Scott D. Ryan1, Holly Colognato3, Rashmi Kothary1,2,4
1Regenerative Medicine Program, Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, 2Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of Ottawa, 3Department of Pharmacological Sciences, Stony Brook University, 4Department of Medicine, University of Ottawa
This article describes methods to derive enriched populations of murine oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) in primary culture, which differentiate to produce mature oligodendrocytes (OLs). In addition, this report describes techniques to produce murine myelinating co-cultures by seeding mouse OPCs onto a neurite bed of mouse dorsal root ganglion neurons (DRGNs).
Other articles by Ryan W. O'Meara on PubMed
Retargeting of Adenovirus Vectors Through Genetic Fusion of a Single-chain or Single-domain Antibody to Capsid Protein IX
Journal of Virology. Oct, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20631131
Adenovirus (Ad) vectors are the most commonly used system for gene therapy applications, due in part to their ability to infect a wide array of cell types and tissues. However, many therapies would benefit from the ability to target the Ad vector only to specific cells, such as tumor cells for cancer gene therapy. In this study, we investigated the utility of capsid protein IX (pIX) as a platform for the presentation of single-chain variable-fragment antibodies (scFv) and single-domain antibodies (sdAb) for virus retargeting. We show that scFv can be displayed on the capsid through genetic fusion to native pIX but that these molecules fail to retarget the virus, due to improper folding of the scFv. Redirecting expression of the fusion protein to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) results in correct folding of the scFv and allows it to recognize its epitope; however, ER-targeted pIX-scFv was incorporated into the Ad capsid at a very low level which was not sufficient to retarget virus infection. In contrast, a pIX-sdAb construct was efficiently incorporated into the Ad capsid and enhanced virus infection of cells expressing the targeted receptor. Taken together, our data indicate that pIX is an effective platform for presentation of large targeting polypeptides on the surface of the virus capsid, but the nature of the ligand can significantly affect its association with virions.
Journal of Signal Transduction. 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21637375
Multiple sclerosis is characterized by repeated demyelinating attacks of the central nervous system (CNS) white matter tracts. To tailor novel therapeutics to halt or reverse disease process, we require a better understanding of oligodendrocyte biology and of the molecular mechanisms that initiate myelination. Cell extrinsic mechanisms regulate CNS myelination through the interaction of extracellular matrix proteins and their transmembrane receptors. The engagement of one such receptor family, the integrins, initiates intracellular signaling cascades that lead to changes in cell phenotype. Oligodendrocytes express a diverse array of integrins, and the expression of these receptors is developmentally regulated. Integrin-mediated signaling is crucial to the proliferation, survival, and maturation of oligodendrocytes through the activation of downstream signaling pathways involved in cytoskeletal remodeling. Here, we review the current understanding of this important signaling axis and its role in oligodendrocyte biology and ultimately in the myelination of axons within the CNS.
Molecular Biology of the Cell. Feb, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22190742
Dystonin/Bpag1 is a cytoskeletal linker protein whose loss of function in dystonia musculorum (dt) mice results in hereditary sensory neuropathy. Although loss of expression of neuronal dystonin isoforms (dystonin-a1/dystonin-a2) is sufficient to cause dt pathogenesis, the diverging function of each isoform and what pathological mechanisms are activated upon their loss remains unclear. Here we show that dt(27) mice manifest ultrastructural defects at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in sensory neurons corresponding to in vivo induction of ER stress proteins. ER stress subsequently leads to sensory neurodegeneration through induction of a proapoptotic caspase cascade. dt sensory neurons display neurodegenerative pathologies, including Ca(2+) dyshomeostasis, unfolded protein response (UPR) induction, caspase activation, and apoptosis. Isoform-specific loss-of-function analysis attributes these neurodegenerative pathologies to specific loss of dystonin-a2. Inhibition of either UPR or caspase signaling promotes the viability of cells deficient in dystonin. This study provides insight into the mechanism of dt neuropathology and proposes a role for dystonin-a2 as a mediator of normal ER structure and function.