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In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (33)
- Virus Research
- Virus Research
- European Journal of Immunology
- European Journal of Nutrition
- Journal of Clinical Virology : the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
- Journal of Clinical Virology : the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
- International Journal of Food Microbiology
- International Microbiology : the Official Journal of the Spanish Society for Microbiology
- Biochemical Pharmacology
- The Journal of Dairy Research
- Nutrition (Burbank, Los Angeles County, Calif.)
- The British Journal of Nutrition
- Nature Biotechnology
- The British Journal of Nutrition
- Nutrition (Burbank, Los Angeles County, Calif.)
- BMC Evolutionary Biology
- The Journal of Dairy Research
- The Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
- Journal of Proteome Research
- Pediatric Allergy and Immunology : Official Publication of the European Society of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
- MMW Fortschritte Der Medizin
- PloS One
- Nutrition (Burbank, Los Angeles County, Calif.)
- PloS One
- The Journal of Antibiotics
- Molecular & Cellular Proteomics : MCP
- Journal of Alzheimer's Disease : JAD
- Medical Microbiology and Immunology
- PloS One
- Journal of Alzheimer's Disease : JAD
Articles by Saleta Sierra in JoVE
Prediction of HIV-1 Coreceptor Usage (Tropism) by Sequence Analysis using a Genotypic Approach
Saleta Sierra1, Rolf Kaiser1, Nadine Lübke1, Alexander Thielen2, Eugen Schuelter1, Eva Heger1, Martin Däumer3, Stefan Reuter4, Stefan Esser5, Gerd Fätkenheuer6, Herbert Pfister1, Mark Oette7, Thomas Lengauer2
1Institute of Virology, University of Cologne, 2Max Planck Institute for Informatics, 3Institute for Immune genetics, 4Department of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Infectiology, University of Duesseldorf, 5Department of Dermatology, University of Essen, 6Department of Internal Medicine, University of Cologne, 7Augustinerinnen Hospital
The prediction of the coreceptor usage of HIV-1 is required for the administration of a new class of antiretroviral drugs, i.e. coreceptor antagonists. It can be performed by sequence analysis of the env gene and subsequent interpretation through an internet based interpretation system (geno2pheno[coreceptor]).
Other articles by Saleta Sierra on PubMed
Virus Research. Jan, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 11885948
Two features of viral quasispecies are reviewed: the presence of memory genomes as minority components of their mutant spectra, and viral extinction due to enhanced mutagenesis. Memory has been documented with several genetic markers of the important animal picornavirus foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV). The presence of memory genomes in viral quasispecies may accelerate their adaptive response whenever a selective constraint has already been experienced by a viral population during previous stages of its evolution. Enhanced mutagenesis has been shown to lead to losses of infectivity of a number of RNA viruses: poliovirus, vesicular stomatitis virus, human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and FMDV. These observations, based on the theoretical prediction of the existence of a copying error-threshold for maintenance of genetic information, may contribute to the development of a new antiviral strategy.
Virus Research. Feb, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15649564
Our current knowledge on foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) entry into error catastrophe is reviewed. FMDV can establish cytolytic and persistent infections in the field and in cell culture. Both types of FMDV infection in cell culture can be treated with mutagens, with or without classical (non-mutagenic) antiviral inhibitors, to drive the virus to extinction. 5-Fluorouracil (FU) and 5-azacytidine (AZC) have been employed as mutagenic agents to treat cytolytic FMDV infections, and ribavirin (Rib) to treat persistent infections. Extinction is dependent on the relative fitness of the viral isolate, as well as on the viral load. In cytolytic infections, extinctions could be efficiently obtained with combinations of mutagens and inhibitors. High-fitness FMDV extinction could only be achieved with treatments that contained a mutagen, and not with combinations of inhibitors that exerted the same antiviral effect. Persistent infections could be cured with Rib treatment alone. The results presented here show entry into error catastrophe as a valid strategy for treatment of viral infections, although much work remains to be done before it can be implemented.
In Vivo Quercitrin Anti-inflammatory Effect Involves Release of Quercetin, Which Inhibits Inflammation Through Down-regulation of the NF-kappaB Pathway
European Journal of Immunology. Feb, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15668926
Quercetin is a common antioxidant flavonoid found in vegetables, which is usually present in glycosylated forms, such as quercitrin (3-rhamnosylquercetin). Previous in vitro experiments have shown that quercetin exerts a bigger effect than quercitrin in the down-regulation of the inflammatory response. However, such results have not been reproduced in in vivo experimental models of intestinal inflammation, in which quercetin did not show beneficial effects while its glycosides, quercitrin or rutin, have demonstrated their effectiveness. In this study, we have reported that the in vivo effects of quercitrin in the experimental model of rat colitis induced by dextran sulfate sodium can be mediated by the release of quercetin generated after glycoside's cleavage by the intestinal microbiota. This is supported by the fact that quercetin, but not quercitrin, is able to down-regulate the inflammatory response of bone marrow-derived macrophages in vitro. Moreover, we have demonstrated that quercetin inhibits cytokine and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression through inhibition of the NF-kappaB pathway without modification of c-Jun N-terminal kinase activity (both in vitro and in vivo). As a conclusion, our report suggests that quercitrin releases quercetin in order to perform its anti-inflammatory effect which is mediated through the inhibition of the NF-kappaB pathway.
European Journal of Nutrition. Dec, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15719157
Polyunsaturated fatty acids play a key role in a number of biological functions. Rice bran oil (RBO) is rich in linoleic acid, an essential n-6 fatty acid. n-6 fatty acids are said to have proinflammatory effects as a result of an increase in n-6 fatty acid-derived eicosanoids. RBO is also rich in gamma-oryzanol, a compound from the unsaponifiable fraction, with antioxidant properties.
Evolution of HIV Resistance During Treatment Interruption in Experienced Patients and After Restarting a New Therapy
Journal of Clinical Virology : the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology. Dec, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16191482
To analyse the evolution of resistance patterns in patients undergoing treatment interruption (TI) and re-initiating highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART).
Journal of Clinical Virology : the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology. Dec, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16198625
Human immunodeficiency virus is undoubtedly the causative agent of AIDS. The understanding of HIV-1 pathogenesis is essential to develop and maintain antiretroviral treatment and vaccination. Since the first isolation of HIV-1 in cell culture, thousands of publications dealing with HIV and/or AIDS per year were released. In this review we give a basic overview of the virology of HIV-1 including the functions of the different HIV-1 proteins required for effective viral replication. Moreover, we summarize the interactive processes between HIV-1 and its target cells. Finally, the HIV-1 specific immune response and the current status of antiretroviral therapy are briefly described in this review.
Oral Administration of Two Probiotic Strains, Lactobacillus Gasseri CECT5714 and Lactobacillus Coryniformis CECT5711, Enhances the Intestinal Function of Healthy Adults
International Journal of Food Microbiology. Mar, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16271414
Modifications in gastrointestinal parameters, intestinal colonization and tolerance are some of the main goals claimed for probiotics. However, although healthy people are the common target for these new functional food products, the number of clinical trials analysing the effects of probiotics in gastrointestinal parameters of healthy subjects is very scarce. A randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled human clinical trial involving 30 healthy adults was performed to investigate the effect of a fermented product containing two probiotic strains, Lactobacillus gasseri CECT5714 and Lactobacillus coryniformis CECT5711, on several blood and fecal parameters, most of them related to the host intestinal function. The volunteers were randomly distributed into two groups, one receiving a standard yogurt and the other a similar dairy fermented product in which the Lactobacillus delbreuckii subsp. bulgaricus yogurt strain had been replaced by a combination of the probiotic strains L. gasseri CECT5714 and L. coryniformis CECT5711. The volunteers that received the probiotic strains reported no adverse effects and the strains could be isolated from their feces at a relatively high level. In fact, the concentration of fecal lactic acid bacteria significantly increased in the probiotic group. Additionally, the oral administration of the probiotic strains led to an improvement of parameters such as the production of short chain fatty acids, the fecal moisture and the frequency and volume of the stools. As a result, the volunteers assigned to the probiotic group perceived a clear improvement in their intestinal habits. The study revealed that probiotics may exert a positive effect on healthy adults.
The Consumption of Two New Probiotic Strains, Lactobacillus Gasseri CECT 5714 and Lactobacillus Coryniformis CECT 5711, Boosts the Immune System of Healthy Humans
International Microbiology : the Official Journal of the Spanish Society for Microbiology. Mar, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16636989
Orally ingested probiotic bacteria are able to modulate the immune system. However, differences exist in the immunomodulatory effects of different probiotic strains. Moreover, different regulatory effects, which depend on the health status of the consumer, have been identified. This work describes a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled human clinical trial to investigate the immune effects on healthy people of a fermented product containing two new probiotic strains, Lactobacillus gasseri CECT 5714 and Lactobacillus coryniformis CECT 5711, which was compared with another fermented product, a standard yogurt. Consumption of either the new product or yogurt increased the proportion of phagocytic cells, including monocytes and neutrophils, as well as their phagocytic activity. However, combination of the product containing the strains L. gasseri CECT 5714 and L. coryniformis CECT 5711 also induced an increase in the proportion of natural killer (NK) cells and in IgA concentrations. The effects were higher after two weeks of treatment than after 4 weeks, which suggests regulation of the immune system. In addition, the new product enhanced immunity in the participants to a greater extent than did the control standard yogurt.
Inhibition of Pro-inflammatory Markers in Primary Bone Marrow-derived Mouse Macrophages by Naturally Occurring Flavonoids: Analysis of the Structure-activity Relationship
Biochemical Pharmacology. Oct, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16934226
Flavonoids possess several biological/pharmacological activities including anticancer, antimicrobial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory and antioxidant. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of flavonoids on macrophage physiology. For this purpose we selected some flavonoids belonging to the most common and abundant groups (flavonols--quercetin and kaempferol; flavones--diosmetin, apigenin, chrysin and luteolin; isoflavones--genistein and daidzein and flavanones--hesperetin). We decided to use primary bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) as cellular model, since they represent a homogenous, non-transformed population of macrophages that can be stimulated in vitro to proliferate by macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) or activated by LPS. In this regard, we demonstrated that most of the flavonoids assayed reduce macrophage M-CSF-induced proliferation without affecting cellular viability. Moreover, some flavonoids also inhibit TNFalpha production as well as iNOS expression and NO production in LPS-activated macrophages, an effect that has been associated with the inhibition of the NF-kappaB pathway. We also found that luteolin and quercetin are able to stimulate the expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 at low concentrations (<50microM). Analysis of the structure-activity relationship showed that four hydroxylations at positions 5, 7, 3' and 4', together with the double bond at C(2)-C(3) and the position of the B ring at 2, seem to be necessary for the highest anti-inflammatory effect.
Dietary Deprivation of Fermented Foods Causes a Fall in Innate Immune Response. Lactic Acid Bacteria Can Counteract the Immunological Effect of This Deprivation
The Journal of Dairy Research. Nov, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16987435
Extrinsic factors such as maternal microbiota, bacterial load of the environment, diet and medication modulate the intestinal microbiota. Maturation and function of the immune system is influenced by established gut microbiota. In this work we describe the immunological effects of the dietary deprivation of fermented foods of healthy volunteers. Significant decreases in faecal lactobacillus and total aerobes counts and concentration of short chain fatty acids were observed following deprivation of fermented food of the normal diet. Moreover, a decrease in phagocytic activity in leukocytes was observed after two weeks of restricted diet. Therefore, the dietary deprivation of fermented foods could induce a decrease in innate immune response that might affect the capacity to respond against infections. The ingestion of a probiotic product containing the strains Lactobacillus gasseri CECT5714 and Lactobacillus coryniformis CECT5711 or a standard yogurt containing a conventional starter Lactobacillus delbrueckii sp. bulgaricus counteracted the fall in the immune response, although the probiotic product was more effective than the standard yogurt.
Dietary Fish Oil N-3 Fatty Acids Increase Regulatory Cytokine Production and Exert Anti-inflammatory Effects in Two Murine Models of Inflammation
Lipids. Dec, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 17269557
The higher incidence of inflammatory diseases in Western countries might be related, in part, to a high consumption of saturated fatty acids and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and an insufficient intake of n-3 fatty acids. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of dietary n-3 fatty acids on innate and specific immune response and their anti-inflammatory action in models of contact and atopic dermatitis. Balb/C mice were fed for 3 wk either n-6 or n-3 PUFA-fortified diets. After inducing a contact or an atopic dermatitis, immunological parameters were analyzed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory potential of these n-3 PUFA. n-3 PUFA reduced innate and specific immune responses through inhibition of TH1 and TH2 responses, increase of immunomodulatory cytokines such as IL-10, and regulation of gene expression. The inhibition of both kinds of responses was confirmed by the anti-inflammatory effect observed in contact and atopic dermatitis. Reduction in weight, edema, thickness, leukocyte infiltration, and enhancement of antioxidant defenses in the inflamed ears of mice from both models along with the prevention of delayed-type hypersensitivity induced in atopic dermatitis proved n-3 PUFA efficacy. Our data suggest that dietary fish oil-derived n-3 fatty acids have immunomodulatory effects and could be useful in inflammatory disorders.
Nutrition (Burbank, Los Angeles County, Calif.). Mar, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17352961
We studied the coadjuvant capability of oral consumption of the breast-milk-isolated strain Lactobacillus fermentum (CECT5716) for an anti-influenza vaccine.
The British Journal of Nutrition. Oct, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17922969
Breast milk is the best food for the neonate because it provides a unique combination of proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, minerals and vitamins that ensures the correct growth and development of the infant. In addition, it also contains bioactive compounds responsible for a wide range of beneficial effects such as the promotion of immune system maturation and the protection against infections. Among these bioactive agents, probiotic bacteria have been recently isolated from human milk. The present work reviews the beneficial effects of these bacteria both in animal models and in clinical trials. The promotion of immune system maturation and defence against infections as well as the anti-inflammatory properties are among the main healthy effects of these bacteria. The isolation of probiotic bacteria with beneficial effects for the host provides scientific support for the supplementation of infant formula with these bacteria, in order to advance the pursuit of the main goal of formula: to mimic breast milk and its functional effects as closely as possible.
Nature Biotechnology. Dec, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 18066037
A Comparative Study of the Preventative Effects Exerted by Two Probiotics, Lactobacillus Reuteri and Lactobacillus Fermentum, in the Trinitrobenzenesulfonic Acid Model of Rat Colitis
The British Journal of Nutrition. Jan, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17217564
The intestinal anti-inflammatory effects of two probiotics isolated from breast milk, Lactobacillus reuteri and L. fermentum, were evaluated and compared in the trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) model of rat colitis. Colitis was induced in rats by intracolonic administration of 10 mg TNBS dissolved in 50% ethanol (0.25 ml). Either L. reuteri or L. fermentum was daily administered orally (5 x 10(8) colony-forming units suspended in 0.5 ml skimmed milk) to each group of rats (n 10) for 3 weeks, starting 2 weeks before colitis induction. Colonic damage was evaluated histologically and biochemically, and the colonic luminal contents were used for bacterial studies and for SCFA production. Both probiotics showed intestinal anti-inflammatory effects in this model of experimental colitis, as evidenced histologically and by a significant reduction of colonic myeloperoxidase activity (P<0.05). L. fermentum significantly counteracted the colonic glutathione depletion induced by the inflammatory process. In addition, both probiotics lowered colonic TNFalpha levels (P<0.01) and inducible NO synthase expression when compared with non-treated rats; however, the decrease in colonic cyclo-oxygenase-2 expression was only achieved with L.fermentum administration. Finally, the two probiotics induced the growth of Lactobacilli species in comparison with control colitic rats, but the production of SCFA in colonic contents was only increased when L. fermentum was given. In conclusion, L. fermentum can exert beneficial immunomodulatory properties in inflammatory bowel disease, being more effective than L. reuteri, a probiotic with reputed efficacy in promoting beneficial effects on human health.
Dietary Eicosapentaenoic Acid and Docosahexaenoic Acid Equally Incorporate As Decosahexaenoic Acid but Differ in Inflammatory Effects
Nutrition (Burbank, Los Angeles County, Calif.). Mar, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18312787
The omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are involved in the modulation of the immune response. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) produced from dietary precursors may not be sufficient to match nutritional requirements and thus should be included in our diet. In this sense, the administration of higher amounts of DHA than of EPA in infant formulations is recommended. The aims of this work were to demonstrate that dietary administration of EPA or DHA to mice allows reaching similar tissue DHA levels and to compare their anti-inflammatory effects and mechanisms of action.
Topology of Evolving, Mutagenized Viral Populations: Quasispecies Expansion, Compression, and Operation of Negative Selection
BMC Evolutionary Biology. 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18637173
The molecular events and evolutionary forces underlying lethal mutagenesis of virus (or virus extinction through an excess of mutations) are not well understood. Here we apply for the first time phylogenetic methods and Partition Analysis of Quasispecies (PAQ) to monitor genetic distances and intra-population structures of mutant spectra of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) quasispecies subjected to mutagenesis by base and nucleoside analogues.
The Journal of Dairy Research. May, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19281631
Lactobacillus fermentum CECT5716, a probiotic strain isolated from human milk, was characterized in a previous study. The objective of this study was to evaluate its sensitivity to antibiotics and its potential toxicity and translocation ability after oral administration to mice. For this purpose, 40 Balb/C mice were divided in two groups (n=20 per group). One group was treated orally with 10(10) colony forming units (cfu)/mouse/day of Lb. fermentum CECT5716 during 28 d. The other group only received the excipient and was used as control. Food intake, body weight, bacterial translocation and different biochemical and haematological parameters were analysed. Oral administration of Lb. fermentum CECT5716 to mice had no adverse effects on mice. There were no significant differences in body weight or food intake between control and probiotic-treated mice. No bacteraemia was observed and there was no treatment-associated bacterial translocation to liver or spleen. Stress oxidative markers were not different in control and probiotic-treated mice. These results suggest that the strain Lb. fermentum CECT5716 is non-pathogenic for mice even in doses 10,000 times higher (expressed per kg of body weight) than those normally consumed by humans.
The Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. Jul, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19447792
We investigated the prevalence of raltegravir resistance-associated mutations at baseline and their evolution during raltegravir therapy in patients infected with different HIV-1 subtypes.
Kinetic Binding Analysis of Aptamers Targeting HIV-1 Proteins by a Combination of a Microbalance Array and Mass Spectrometry (MAMS)
Journal of Proteome Research. Jul, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19469583
An enhanced chip-based detection platform was developed by integrating a surface acoustic wave biosensor of the Love-wave type with protein identification by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-ToF MS). The system was applied to characterize the interaction of aptamers with their cognate HIV-1 proteins. The aptamers, which target two proteins of HIV-1, were identified using an automated in vitro selection platform. For aptamers S66A-C6 and S68B-C5, which target the V3 loop of the HIV-1 envelope protein gp120, KD values of 406 and 791 nM, respectively, were measured. Aptamer S69A-C15 was shown to bind HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (HIV-1 RT) with a KD value of 637 nM when immobilized on the biosensor surface. HIV-1 RT was identified with high significance using MALDI-ToF MS even in crude protein mixtures. The V3-loop of gp120 could be directly identified when using chip-bound purified protein samples. From crude protein mixtures, it could be identified indirectly with high significance via its fusion-partner glutathione-S-transferase (GST). Our data show that the combination of the selectivity of aptamers with a sensitive detection by MS enables the reliable and quantitative analysis of kinetic binding events of protein solutions in real time.
A Probiotic Dairy Product Containing L. Gasseri CECT5714 and L. Coryniformis CECT5711 Induces Immunological Changes in Children Suffering from Allergy
Pediatric Allergy and Immunology : Official Publication of the European Society of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology. Sep, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19594864
The increase in the prevalence of allergic diseases in children has been attributed to an unbalanced immune response probably due to environmental factors. The immunoregulatory properties of probiotic bacteria could balance the disequilibrium in the immune response causing the allergic response. The aim of this study was to evaluate the immunological effects of the consumption of a dairy product containing two probiotic strains in children suffering from allergy. A double-blinded, randomized, control comparative study was performed with 44 allergic children. Children were randomly distributed in two groups, a control Yogurt and a Probiotic group. Both groups daily consumed 200 ml of a dairy fermented product for 3 months. The Yogurt group consumed a conventional yogurt, whereas the Probiotic group consumed a similar dairy product where Lactobacillus bulgaricus was substituted by a mixture of Lactobacillus gasseri CECT5714 and Lactobacillus coryniformis CECT5711 (at least 10(6) cfu/g each strain). Intestinal and immunological parameters were measured in fecal and blood samples. The consumption of the probiotic product induced a significant decrease in the level of IgE in plasma (p = 0.03) and an increase in CD4(+)/CD25(+) T regulatory cells (p = 0.01). The decrease in IgE was accompanied by a significant increase in mucosal IgA (p = 0.01). However, changes in other effector cells potentially involved in allergic reactions such as eosinophiles, basophiles or other IgE+ cells were not detected. The consumption of the probiotic product also induced significant changes in innate response as a significant increase in natural killer cells was detected (p = 0.03). The daily consumption of a probiotic product containing L. gasseri CECT5714 and L. coryniformis CECT5711 for 3 months induces, in allergic children, beneficial effects on immune parameters involved in the allergic response such as a reduction of IgE in plasma and an increase in regulatory T cells. The probiotic product also enhanced innate and specific immune parameters that may improve the general health status of children.
V3 Loop Sequence Space Analysis Suggests Different Evolutionary Patterns of CCR5- and CXCR4-tropic HIV
PloS One. 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19816596
The V3 loop of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is critical for coreceptor binding and is the main determinant of which of the cellular coreceptors, CCR5 or CXCR4, the virus uses for cell entry. The aim of this study is to provide a large-scale data driven analysis of HIV-1 coreceptor usage with respect to the V3 loop evolution and to characterize CCR5- and CXCR4-tropic viral phenotypes previously studied in small- and medium-scale settings. We use different sequence similarity measures, phylogenetic and clustering methods in order to analyze the distribution in sequence space of roughly 1000 V3 loop sequences and their tropism phenotypes. This analysis affords a means of characterizing those sequences that are misclassified by several sequence-based coreceptor prediction methods, as well as predicting the coreceptor using the location of the sequence in sequence space and of relating this location to the CD4(+) T-cell count of the patient. We support previous findings that the usage of CCR5 is correlated with relatively high sequence conservation whereas CXCR4-tropic viruses spread over larger regions in sequence space. The incorrectly predicted sequences are mostly located in regions in which their phenotype represents the minority or in close vicinity of regions dominated by the opposite phenotype. Nevertheless, the location of the sequence in sequence space can be used to improve the accuracy of the prediction of the coreceptor usage. Sequences from patients with high CD4(+) T-cell counts are relatively highly conserved as compared to those of immunosuppressed patients. Our study thus supports hypotheses of an association of immune system depletion with an increase in V3 loop sequence variability and with the escape of the viral sequence to distant parts of the sequence space.
Safety and Tolerance of the Human Milk Probiotic Strain Lactobacillus Salivarius CECT5713 in 6-month-old Children
Nutrition (Burbank, Los Angeles County, Calif.). Nov-Dec, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20018483
Intestinal microbiota plays an important role in the prevention of certain diseases during the pediatric years. Thus, there is an increasing interest in the addition of probiotics to infant formulas. The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety of a follow-on formula with Lactobacillus salivarius CECT5713 in 6-mo-old children.
PloS One. 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20140263
Replication capacity (RC) of specific HIV isolates is occasionally blamed for unexpected treatment responses. However, the role of viral RC in response to antiretroviral therapy is not yet fully understood.
Intestinal and Immunological Effects of Daily Oral Administration of Lactobacillus Salivarius CECT5713 to Healthy Adults
Anaerobe. Jun, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20159049
There is an increasing interest in the intestinal and immunological effects of probiotics. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the tolerance and beneficial effects in healthy adults of the strain, Lactobacillus salivarius CECT5713 isolated from breast milk. A phase II, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled human clinical trial was carried out in 40 healthy adults. The Probiotic group received a daily dose of 2 x 10(8) CFU of L. salivarius CECT5713 in capsules during 4 weeks while volunteers of the control received only a placebo. Gastrointestinal and immunological parameters were analyzed. Results showed that L. salivarius CECT5713 was well tolerated and no adverse effects were detected. Consumption of the probiotic strain increased fecal lactobacilli counts (7.9+/-0.1 vs. 7.05+/-0.2 CFU/g feces, P=0.001). Also, an improvement in the frequency of defecation (P=0.04) was observed. Probiotic treatment induced significantly the percentage of NK cells and monocytes, as well as the plasmatic levels of immunoglobulins M, A and G, and the regulatory cytokine IL-10 (72.3+/-11.7 in probiotic group vs. 27.3+/-6.4 pg/mL in control group, P<0.01). Thus, it can be concluded that daily administration of L. salivarius CECT5713 to healthy adults is safe and improve gut microbiota and different parameters related to immune response.
The Journal of Antibiotics. Aug, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20648024
A fungal strain able to naturally accumulate large amounts of monacolin J was improved by N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine mutagenesis and genetic disruption of the lovF gene. Semisynthesis was then used to produce novel statins by attaching different side chains at the C8 hydroxyl residue. In vitro hypocholesterolemic and neuroprotection assays showed that one derivative (NST0037) had a very low 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase IC(50) and high protection rate for oxidative-stress-induced neuron cell death.
Molecular & Cellular Proteomics : MCP. Jan, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 20807836
MS-based quantitative proteomics plays an increasingly important role in biological and medical research and the development of these techniques remains one of the most important challenges in mass spectrometry. Numerous stable isotope labeling approaches have been proposed. However, and particularly in the case of (18)O-labeling, a standard protocol of general applicability is still lacking, and statistical issues associated to these methods remain to be investigated. In this work we present an improved high-throughput quantitative proteomics method based on whole proteome concentration by SDS-PAGE, optimized in-gel digestion, peptide (18)O-labeling, and separation by off-gel isoelectric focusing followed by liquid chromatography-LIT-MS. We demonstrate that the off-gel technique is fully compatible with (18)O peptide labeling in any pH range. A recently developed statistical model indicated that partial digestions and methionine oxidation do not alter protein quantification and that variances at the scan, peptide, and protein levels are stable and reproducible in a variety of proteomes of different origin. We have also analyzed the dynamic range of quantification and demonstrated the practical utility of the method by detecting expression changes in a model of activation of Jurkat T-cells. Our protocol provides a general approach to perform quantitative proteomics by (18)O-labeling in high-throughput studies, with the added value that it has a validated statistical model for the null hypothesis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report where a general protocol for stable isotope labeling is tested in practice using a collection of samples and analyzed at this degree of statistical detail.
Statins As Neuroprotectants: a Comparative in Vitro Study of Lipophilicity, Blood-brain-barrier Penetration, Lowering of Brain Cholesterol, and Decrease of Neuron Cell Death
Journal of Alzheimer's Disease : JAD. 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21098985
There is growing evidence to support the hypothesis that statins may act as neuroprotectants in several neuropathological conditions, including Alzheimer's disease. The mechanisms for neuroprotection are only partially understood, however, and pleiotropic phenomena could be involved. We have made a comparative study of 9 statins (lovastatin, mevastatin, pravastatin, simvastatin, cerivastatin, atorvastatin, fluvastatin, pitavastatin, and rosuvastatin), analyzing several parameters that could be related to neuroprotection, such as chemical structure, lipophilicity, potential blood-brain-barrier penetration (BBB), 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl co-enzyme A reductase inhibition, cholesterol modulation in neurons, glia, and human hepatocyte cell lines, and protection against neurodegeneration caused by tau hyperphosphorylation induced by okadaic acid. Our results indicate that monacolin J derivatives (natural and semi-synthetic statins) are the best candidates for the prevention of neurodegenerative conditions due to their higher potential BBB penetration capacity, cholesterol lowering effect on neurons with a satisfactory safety profile, and in vitro protection against cell death caused by okadaic acid in culture. Among the nine statins studied, simvastatin presented the best characteristics for preventing neurodegenerative conditions.
The SnoB Study: Frequency of Baseline Raltegravir Resistance Mutations Prevalence in Different Non-B Subtypes
Medical Microbiology and Immunology. Nov, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21475993
The SnoB study analysed the variability of the integrase (IN) gene of non-B viruses from treatment-naïve patients to determine whether non-B subtypes carry natural resistance mutations to raltegravir (RAL). Plasma viral RNA from 427 patients was gained, and IN sequences were subtyped and screened for subtype-specific highly-variable residues. Seven viruses of different subtypes were phenotypically tested for RAL susceptibility; 359/427 samples could be sequenced. One hundred and seventy samples (47%) were classified as non-B subtypes. No primary RAL resistance-associated mutations (RRAMs) were detected. Certain secondary mutations were found, mostly related to specific non-B subtypes. L74 M was significantly more prevalent in subtype 02_AG, T97A in A and 06_cpx, V151I in 06_cpx, and G163R in 12_BF. Various additional mutations were also detected and could be associated with the subtype too. While K156 N and S230 N were correlated with B subtype, V72I, L74I, T112I, T125A, V201I and T206S were more frequent in certain non-B subtypes. The resistance factors (RF) of 7 viral strains of different subtypes ranged from 1.0 to 1.9. No primary or secondary but subtype-associated additional RRAMs were present. No correlation between RF and additional RRAMs was found. The prevalence of RRAMs was higher in non-B samples. However, the RFs for the analysed non-B subtypes showed lower values to those reported relevant to clinical failure. As the role of baseline secondary and additional mutations on RAL therapy failure is actually not known, baseline IN screening is necessary.
ApoB100/LDLR-/- Hypercholesterolaemic Mice As a Model for Mild Cognitive Impairment and Neuronal Damage
PloS One. 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21829488
Recent clinical findings support the notion that the progressive deterioration of cholesterol homeostasis is a central player in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Epidemiological studies suggest that high midlife plasma total cholesterol levels are associated with an increased risk of AD. This paper reports the plasma cholesterol concentrations, cognitive performance, locomotor activity and neuropathological signs in a murine model (transgenic mice expressing apoB100 but knockout for the LDL receptor [LDLR]) of human familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH). From birth, these animals have markedly elevated LDL-cholesterol and apolipoprotein B100 (apoB100) levels. These transgenic mice were confirmed to have higher plasma cholesterol concentrations than wild-type mice, an effect potentiated by aging. Further, 3-month-old transgenic mice showed cholesterol (total and fractions) concentrations considerably higher than those of 18-month-old wild-type mice. The hypercholesterolaemia of the transgenic mice was associated with a clear locomotor deficit (as determined by rotarod, grip strength and open field testing) and impairment of the episodic-like memory (determined by the integrated memory test). This decline in locomotor activity and cognitive status was associated with neuritic dystrophy and/or the disorganization of the neuronal microtubule network, plus an increase in astrogliosis and lipid peroxidation in the brain regions associated with AD, such as the motor and lateral entorhinal cortex, the amygdaloid basal nucleus, and the hippocampus. Aortic atherosclerotic lesions were positively correlated with age, although potentiated by the transgenic genotype, while cerebral β-amyloidosis was positively correlated with genetic background rather than with age. These findings confirm hypercholesterolaemia as a key biomarker for monitoring mild cognitive impairment, and shows these transgenic mice can be used as a model for cognitive and psycho-motor decline.
Journal of Alzheimer's Disease : JAD. Jan, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 21987590
This work describes a novel mechanism of neuroprotection by simvastatin: the modulation of seladin-1, an enzyme involved in Alzheimer's disease. Genomic and proteomic studies in human neuronal cells showed seladin-1 production to be increased in a dose- and time-dependent manner by simvastatin. This was confirmed in mice by immunohistochemical and qRT-PCR studies.
Intervirology. 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22286875
Inhibition of HIV replication initially targeted viral enzymes, which are exclusively expressed by the virus and not present in the human cell. The development of reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitors started with the discovery of antiretroviral activity of the nucleoside analog zidovudine in March 1987. Currently, six major classes of antiretroviral drugs are used for the treatment of HIV-infected patients: the RT inhibitors, nucleoside inhibitors and nonnucleoside inhibitors, the protease inhibitors, the integrase inhibitor raltegravir, the fusion inhibitor enfuvirtide (T-20), and the chemokine receptor 5 antagonist maraviroc. A seventh class, the maturation inhibitors, has not yet been approved as their effectiveness is impaired by HIV-1 polymorphisms naturally occurring in 30-40% of HIV-1 therapy-naive isolates. The use of antiretroviral combination therapy has proven to be effective in delaying progression to AIDS and to reconstitute the immune system of HIV-infected individuals. During the last 5 years, the introduction of the newest antiretrovirals has increased treatment efficacy tremendously. However, the development and accumulation of resistance to all antiretroviral drug classes are still a major problem. Additional targets will have to be defined to achieve the ultimate goal: the eradication of the virus from the infected human body.