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In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (36)
- Nature Cell Biology
- American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
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- The Journal of Cell Biology
- Current Biology : CB
- The Journal of Biological Chemistry
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- Journal of Muscle Research and Cell Motility
- The Journal of Cell Biology
- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
- Journal of Molecular Biology
- Biophysical Journal
- Journal of Molecular Biology
- Biophysical Journal
- Gene Expression Patterns : GEP
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- Journal of Muscle Research and Cell Motility
- Journal of Molecular Biology
- Biophysical Journal
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- Journal of Cell Science
- Structure (London, England : 1993)
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Articles by Sanford I. Bernstein in JoVE
חצי אוטומטיות Heartbeat ניתוח אופטי של לבבות קטנים
Karen Ocorr1, Martin Fink2, Anthony Cammarato1,3, Sanford I. Bernstein3, Rolf Bodmer1
1Development and Aging Program, The Sanford Burnham Institute for Medical Research, 2Cardiac Electrophysiology Group, Dept. of Physiology, Anatomy and Genetics, The Sanford Burnham Institute for Medical Research, 3Biology Department and Heart Institute, San Diego State University
פיתחנו חצי אוטומטיות Heartbeat אופטי ניתוח בשיטה (סוהא) לניתוח הקלטות מהירות גבוהה אופטי מ
Other articles by Sanford I. Bernstein on PubMed
Nature Cell Biology. Apr, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 11901423
Myosin is the molecular motor that powers muscle contraction as a result of conformational changes during its mechanochemical cycle. We demonstrate that the converter, a compact structural domain that differs in sequence between Drosophila melanogaster myosin isoforms, dramatically influences the kinetic properties of myosin and muscle fibres. Transgenic replacement of the converter in the fast indirect flight muscle with the converter from an embryonic muscle slowed muscle kinetics, forcing a compensatory reduction in wing beat frequency to sustain flight. Conversely, replacing the embryonic converter with the flight muscle converter sped up muscle kinetics and increased maximum power twofold, compared to flight muscles expressing the embryonic myosin isoform. The substitutions also dramatically influenced in vitro actin sliding velocity, suggesting that the converter modulates a rate-limiting step preceding cross-bridge detachment. Our integrative analysis demonstrates that isoform-specific differences in the myosin converter allow different muscle types to meet their specific locomotion demands.
American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology. Apr, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12477668
Recently the converter domain, an integral part of the "mechanical element" common to all molecular motors, was proposed to modulate the kinetic properties of Drosophila chimeric myosin isoforms. Here we investigated the molecular basis of actin filament velocity (V(actin)) changes previously observed with the chimeric EMB-IC and IFI-EC myosin proteins [the embryonic body wall muscle (EMB) and indirect flight muscle isoforms (IFI) with genetic substitution of the IFI and EMB converter domains, respectively]. In the laser trap assay the IFI and IFI-EC myosins generate the same unitary step displacement (IFI = 7.3 +/- 1.0 nm, IFI-EC = 5.8 +/- 0.9 nm; means +/- SE). Thus converter-mediated differences in the kinetics of strong actin-myosin binding, rather than the mechanical capabilities of the protein, must account for the observed V(actin) values. Basal and actin-activated ATPase assays and skinned fiber mechanical experiments definitively support a role for the converter domain in modulating the kinetic properties of the myosin protein. We propose that the converter domain kinetically couples the P(i) and ADP release steps that occur during the cross-bridge cycle.
Variable N-terminal Regions of Muscle Myosin Heavy Chain Modulate ATPase Rate and Actin Sliding Velocity
The Journal of Biological Chemistry. May, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12606545
We integratively assessed the function of alternative versions of a region near the N terminus of Drosophila muscle myosin heavy chain (encoded by exon 3a or 3b). We exchanged the alternative exon 3 regions between an embryonic isoform and the indirect flight muscle isoform. Each chimeric myosin was expressed in Drosophila indirect flight muscle, in the absence of other myosin isoforms, allowing for purified protein analysis and whole organism locomotory studies. The flight muscle isoform generates higher in vitro actin sliding velocity and solution ATPase rates than the embryonic isoform. Exchanging the embryonic exon 3 region into the flight muscle isoform decreased ATPase rates to embryonic levels but did not affect actin sliding velocity or flight muscle ultrastructure. Interestingly, this swap only slightly impaired flight ability. Exchanging the flight muscle-specific exon 3 region into the embryonic isoform increased actin sliding velocity 3-fold and improved indirect flight muscle ultrastructure integrity but failed to rescue the flightless phenotype of flies expressing embryonic myosin. These results suggest that the two structural versions of the exon 3 domain independently influence the kinetics of at least two steps of the actomyosin cross-bridge cycle.
The Journal of Cell Biology. Mar, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12642615
Paramyosin is a major structural protein of thick filaments in invertebrate muscles. Coiled-coil dimers of paramyosin form a paracrystalline core of these filaments, and the motor protein myosin is arranged on the core surface. To investigate the function of paramyosin in myofibril assembly and muscle contraction, we functionally disrupted the Drosophila melanogaster paramyosin gene by mobilizing a P element located in its promoter region. Homozygous paramyosin mutants die at the late embryo stage. Mutants display defects in both myoblast fusion and in myofibril assembly in embryonic body wall muscles. Mutant embryos have an abnormal body wall muscle fiber pattern arising from defects in myoblast fusion. In addition, sarcomeric units do not assemble properly and muscle contractility is impaired. We confirmed that these defects are paramyosin-specific by rescuing the homozygous paramyosin mutant to adulthood with a paramyosin transgene. Antibody analysis of normal embryos demonstrated that paramyosin accumulates as a cytoplasmic protein in early embryo development before assembling into thick filaments. We conclude that paramyosin plays an unexpected role in myoblast fusion and is important for myofibril assembly and muscle contraction.
Current Biology : CB. Jul, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12842031
Recent studies indicate that myosin molecular motors interact inside cells with proteins containing a conserved 'UCS' domain. This appears to ensure proper folding of myosin heads so that they can perform their ATP-dependent actin-based motor functions.
Kinetic Analysis of Drosophila Muscle Myosin Isoforms Suggests a Novel Mode of Mechanochemical Coupling
The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Dec, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 14506231
The molecular mechanism of myosin function was addressed by measuring transient kinetic parameters of naturally occurring and chimeric Drosophila muscle myosin isoforms. We assessed the native embryonic isoform, the native indirect flight muscle isoform, and two chimeric isoforms containing converter domains exchanged between the indirect flight muscle and embryonic isoforms. Myosin was purified from the indirect flight muscles of transgenic flies, and S1 was produced by alpha-chymotryptic digestion. Previous studies in vertebrate and scallop myosins have shown a correlation between actin filament velocity in motility assays and cross-bridge detachment rate, specifically the rate of ADP release. In contrast, our study showed no correlation between the detachment rate and actin filament velocity in Drosophila myosin isoforms and further that the converter domain does not significantly influence the biochemical kinetics governing the detachment of myosin from actin. We suggest that evolutionary pressure on a single muscle myosin gene may maintain a fast detachment rate in all isoforms. As a result, the attachment rate and completion of the power stroke or the equilibrium between actin.myosin.ADP states may define actin filament velocity for these myosin isoforms.
Alternative N-terminal Regions of Drosophila Myosin Heavy Chain Tune Muscle Kinetics for Optimal Power Output
Biophysical Journal. Sep, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15345559
We assessed the influence of alternative versions of a region near the N-terminus of Drosophila myosin heavy chain on muscle mechanical properties. Previously, we exchanged N-terminal regions (encoded by alternative exon 3s) between an embryonic (EMB) isoform and the indirect flight muscle isoform (IFI) of myosin, and demonstrated that it influences solution ATPase rates and in vitro actin sliding velocity. Because each myosin is expressed in Drosophila indirect flight muscle, in the absence of other myosin isoforms, this allows for muscle mechanical and whole organism locomotion assays. We found that exchanging the flight muscle specific exon 3 region into the embryonic isoform (EMB-3b) increased maximum power generation (P(max)) and optimal frequency of power generation (f(max)) threefold and twofold compared to fibers expressing EMB, whereas exchanging the embryonic exon 3 region into the flight muscle isoform (IFI-3a) decreased P(max) and f(max) to approximately 80% of IFI fiber values. Drosophila expressing IFI-3a exhibited a reduced wing beat frequency compared to flies expressing IFI, which optimized power generation from their kinetically slowed flight muscle. However, the slower wing beat frequency resulted in a substantial loss of aerodynamic power as manifest in decreased flight performance of IFI-3a compared to IFI. Thus the N-terminal region is important in tuning myosin kinetics to match muscle speed for optimal locomotory performance.
Journal of Muscle Research and Cell Motility. 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15548865
As the smallest muscle-cell substructure that retains the intact contractile apparatus, the single myofibril is considered the optimal specimen for muscle mechanics, although its small size also poses some technical difficulties. Myofibrils from Drosophila indirect flight muscle (IFM) are particularly difficult to study because their high passive stiffness makes them hard to handle, and too resistant to stretch to produce enough elongation for the accurate measurement of sarcomere length change. In this study, we devised a novel method for accurate stiffness measurement of single relaxed myofibrils using microfabricated cantilevers and phase contrast microscopy. A special experimental protocol was developed to minimize errors, and some data analysis strategies were used to identify and exclude spurious data. Remarkably consistent results were obtained from Drosophila IFM myofibrils. This novel, high accuracy method is potentially an effective tool for detecting small passive stiffness change in muscle mutants.
The Journal of Cell Biology. Nov, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15557126
Paramyosin Phosphorylation Site Disruption Affects Indirect Flight Muscle Stiffness and Power Generation in Drosophila Melanogaster
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Jul, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16020538
The phosphoprotein paramyosin is a major structural component of invertebrate muscle thick filaments. To investigate the importance of paramyosin phosphorylation, we produced transgenic Drosophila melanogaster in which one, three, or four phosphorylatable serine residues in the N-terminal nonhelical domain were replaced by alanines. Depending on the residues mutated, transgenic lines were either unaffected or severely flight impaired. Flight-impaired strains had decreases in the most acidic paramyosin isoforms, with a corresponding increase in more basic isoforms. Surprisingly, ultrastructure of indirect flight muscle myofibrils was normal, indicating N-terminal phosphorylation is not important for myofibril assembly. However, mechanical studies of active indirect flight muscle fibers revealed that phosphorylation site mutations reduced elastic and viscous moduli by 21-59% and maximum power output by up to 42%. Significant reductions also occurred under relaxed and rigor conditions, indicating that the phosphorylation-dependent changes are independent of strong crossbridge attachment and likely arise from alterations in thick filament backbone properties. Further, normal crossbridge kinetics were observed, demonstrating that myosin motor function is unaffected in the mutants. We conclude that N-terminal phosphorylation of Drosophila paramyosin is essential for optimal force and oscillatory power transduction within the muscle fiber and is key to the high passive stiffness of asynchronous insect flight muscles. Phosphorylation may reinforce interactions between myosin rod domains, enhance thick filament connections to the central M-line of the sarcomere and/or stabilize thick filament interactions with proteins that contribute to fiber stiffness.
An Alternative Domain Near the Nucleotide-binding Site of Drosophila Muscle Myosin Affects ATPase Kinetics
Journal of Molecular Biology. Oct, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16154586
In Drosophila melanogaster expression of muscle myosin heavy chain isoforms occurs by alternative splicing of transcripts from a single gene. The exon 7 domain is one of four variable regions in the catalytic head and is located near the nucleotide-binding site. To ascribe a functional role to this domain, we created two chimeric myosin isoforms (indirect flight isoform-exon 7a and embryonic-exon 7d) that differ from the native indirect flight muscle and embryonic body-wall muscle isoforms only in the exon 7 region. Germline transformation and subsequent expression of the chimeric myosins in the indirect flight muscle of myosin-null Drosophila allowed us to purify the myosin for in vitro studies and to assess in vivo structure and function of transgenic muscles. Intriguingly, in vitro experiments show the exon 7 domain modulates myosin ATPase activity but has no effect on actin filament velocity, a novel result compared to similar studies with other Drosophila variable exons. Transgenic flies expressing the indirect flight isoform-exon 7a have normal indirect flight muscle structure, and flight and jump ability. However, expression of the embryonic-exon 7d chimeric isoform yields flightless flies that show improvements in both the structural stability of the indirect flight muscle and in locomotor abilities as compared to flies expressing the embryonic isoform. Overall, our results suggest the exon 7 domain participates in the regulation of the attachment of myosin to actin in order to fine-tune the physiological properties of Drosophila myosin isoforms.
An Alternative Domain Near the ATP Binding Pocket of Drosophila Myosin Affects Muscle Fiber Kinetics
Biophysical Journal. Apr, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16399836
We examined the importance of alternative versions of a region near the ATP binding site of Drosophila myosin heavy chain for muscle mechanical properties. Previously, we exchanged two versions of this region (encoded by alternative exon 7s) between the indirect flight muscle myosin isoform (IFI) and an embryonic myosin isoform (EMB) and found, surprisingly, that in vitro solution actin-activated ATPase rates were increased (higher Vmax) by both exon exchanges. Here we examined the effect of increased ATPase rate on indirect flight muscle (IFM) fiber mechanics and Drosophila locomotion. IFM expressing EMB with the exon 7a domain replaced by the IFM specific exon 7d domain (EMB-7d) exhibited 3.2-fold greater maximum oscillatory power (Pmax) and 1.5-fold greater optimal frequency of power generation (fmax) versus fibers expressing EMB. In contrast, IFM expressing IFI with the exon 7d region replaced by the EMB exon 7a region (IFI-7a), showed no change in Pmax, fmax, step response, or isometric muscle properties compared to native IFI fibers. A slight decrement in IFI-7a flight ability was observed, suggesting a negative influence of the increased ATPase rate on Drosophila locomotion, perhaps due to energy supply constraints. Our results show that exon 7 plays a substantial role in establishing fiber speed and flight performance, and that the limiting step that sets ATPase rate in Drosophila myosin has little to no direct influence in setting fmax for fast muscle fiber types.
AlphaB-crystallin Maintains Skeletal Muscle Myosin Enzymatic Activity and Prevents Its Aggregation Under Heat-shock Stress
Journal of Molecular Biology. May, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16546210
Here, we provide functional and direct structural evidence that alphaB-crystallin, a member of the small heat-shock protein family, suppresses thermal unfolding and aggregation of the myosin II molecular motor. Chicken skeletal muscle myosin was thermally unfolded at heat-shock temperature (43 degrees C) in the absence and in the presence of alphaB-crystallin. The ATPase activity of myosin at 25 degrees C was used as a parameter to monitor its unfolding. Myosin retained only 65% and 8% of its ATPase activity when incubated at heat-shock temperature for 15 min and 30 min, respectively. However, 84% and 58% of the myosin ATPase activity was maintained when it was incubated with alphaB-crystallin under the same conditions. Furthermore, actin-stimulated ATPase activity of myosin was reduced by approximately 90%, when myosin was thermally unfolded at 43 degrees C for 30 min, but was reduced by only approximately 42% when it was incubated with alphaB-crystallin under the same conditions. Light-scattering assays and bound thioflavin T fluorescence indicated that myosin aggregates when incubated at 43 degrees C for 30 min, while alphaB-crystallin suppressed this thermal aggregation. Photo-labeled bis-ANS alphaB-crystallin fluorescence studies confirmed the transient interaction of alphaB-crystallin with myosin. These findings were further supported by electron microscopy of rotary shadowed molecules. This revealed that approximately 94% of myosin molecules formed inter and intra-molecular aggregates when incubated at 43 degrees C for 30 min. alphaB-Crystallin, however, protected approximately 48% of the myosin molecules from thermal aggregation, with protected myosin appearing identical to unheated molecules. These results are the first to show that alphaB-crystallin maintains myosin enzymatic activity and prevents the aggregation of the motor under heat-shock conditions. Thus, alphaB-crystallin may be critical for nascent myosin folding, promoting myofibrillogenesis, maintaining cytoskeletal integrity and sustaining muscle performance, since heat-shock temperatures can be produced during multiple stress conditions or vigorous exercise.
Passive Stiffness in Drosophila Indirect Flight Muscle Reduced by Disrupting Paramyosin Phosphorylation, but Not by Embryonic Myosin S2 Hinge Substitution
Biophysical Journal. Dec, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 17012313
High passive stiffness is one of the characteristic properties of the asynchronous indirect flight muscle (IFM) found in many insects like Drosophila. To evaluate the effects of two thick filament protein domains on passive sarcomeric stiffness, and to investigate their correlation with IFM function, we used microfabricated cantilevers and a high resolution imaging system to study the passive IFM myofibril stiffness of two groups of transgenic Drosophila lines. One group (hinge-switch mutants) had a portion of the endogenous S2 hinge region replaced by an embryonic version; the other group (paramyosin mutants) had one or more putative phosphorylation sites near the N-terminus of paramyosin disabled. Both transgenic groups showed severely compromised flight ability. In this study, we found no difference (compared to the control) in passive elastic modulus in the hinge-switch group, but a 15% reduction in the paramyosin mutants. All results were corroborated by muscle fiber mechanics experiments performed on the same lines. The fact that myofibril elasticity is unaffected by hinge switching implies alternative S2 hinges do not critically affect passive sarcomere stiffness. In contrast, the mechanical defects observed upon disrupting paramyosin phosphorylation sites in Drosophila suggests that paramyosin phosphorylation is important for maintaining high passive stiffness in IFM myofibrils, probably by affecting paramyosin's interaction with other sarcomeric proteins.
Gene Expression Patterns : GEP. Feb, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17194628
We show that a 2.6kb fragment of the muscle myosin heavy-chain gene (Mhc) of Drosophila melanogaster (containing 458 base pairs of upstream sequence, the first exon, the first intron and the beginning of the second exon) drives expression in all muscles. Comparison of the minimal promoter to Mhc genes of 10 Drosophila species identified putative regulatory elements in the upstream region and in the first intron. The first intron is required for expression in four small cells of the tergal depressor of the trochanter (jump) muscle and in the indirect flight muscle. The 3'-end of this intron is important for Mhc transcription in embryonic body wall muscle and contains AT-rich elements that are protected from DNase I digestion by nuclear proteins of Drosophila embryos. Sequences responsible for expression in embryonic, adult body wall and adult head muscles are present both within and outside the intron. Elements important for expression in leg muscles and in the large cells of the jump muscle flank the intron. We conclude that multiple transcriptional regulatory elements are responsible for Mhc expression in specific sets of Drosophila muscles.
Alternative S2 Hinge Regions of the Myosin Rod Differentially Affect Muscle Function, Myofibril Dimensions and Myosin Tail Length
Journal of Molecular Biology. Apr, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17316684
Muscle myosin heavy chain (MHC) rod domains intertwine to form alpha-helical coiled-coil dimers; these subsequently multimerize into thick filaments via electrostatic interactions. The subfragment 2/light meromyosin "hinge" region of the MHC rod, located in the C-terminal third of heavy meromyosin, may form a less stable coiled-coil than flanking regions. Partial "melting" of this region has been proposed to result in a helix to random-coil transition. A portion of the Drosophila melanogaster MHC hinge is encoded by mutually exclusive alternative exons 15a and 15b, the use of which correlates with fast (hinge A) or slow (hinge B) muscle physiological properties. To test the functional significance of alternative hinge regions, we constructed transgenic fly lines in which fast muscle isovariant hinge A was switched for slow muscle hinge B in the MHC isoforms of indirect flight and jump muscles. Substitution of the slow muscle hinge B impaired flight ability, increased sarcomere lengths by approximately 13% and resulted in minor disruption to indirect flight muscle sarcomeric structure compared with a transgenic control. With age, residual flight ability decreased rapidly and myofibrils developed peripheral defects. Computational analysis indicates that hinge B has a greater coiled-coil propensity and thus reduced flexibility compared to hinge A. Intriguingly, the MHC rod with hinge B was approximately 5 nm longer than myosin with hinge A, consistent with the more rigid coiled-coil conformation predicted for hinge B. Our study demonstrates that hinge B cannot functionally substitute for hinge A in fast muscle types, likely as a result of differences in the molecular structure of the rod, subtle changes in myofibril structure and decreased ability to maintain sarcomere structure in indirect flight muscle myofibrils. Thus, alternative hinges are important in dictating the distinct functional properties of myosin isoforms and the muscles in which they are expressed.
A Variable Domain Near the ATP-binding Site in Drosophila Muscle Myosin is Part of the Communication Pathway Between the Nucleotide and Actin-binding Sites
Journal of Molecular Biology. May, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17379245
Drosophila expresses several muscle myosin isoforms from a single gene by alternatively splicing six of the 19 exons. Here we investigate exon 7, which codes for a region in the upper 50 kDa domain near the nucleotide-binding pocket. This region is of interest because it is also the place where a large insert is found in myosin VI and where several cardiomyopathy mutations have been identified in human cardiac myosin. We expressed and purified chimeric muscle myosins from Drosophila, each varying at exon 7. Two chimeras exchanged the entire exon 7 domain between the indirect flight muscle (IFI, normally containing exon 7d) and embryonic body wall muscle (EMB, normally containing exon 7a) isoforms to create IFI-7a and EMB-7d. The second two chimeras replaced each half of the exon 7a domain in EMB with the corresponding portion of exon 7d to create EMB-7a/7d and EMB-7d/7a. Transient kinetic studies of the motor domain from these myosin isoforms revealed changes in several kinetic parameters between the IFI or EMB isoforms and the chimeras. Of significance were changes in nucleotide binding, which differed in the presence and absence of actin, consistent with a model in which the exon 7 domain is part of the communication pathway between the nucleotide and actin-binding sites. Homology models of the structures suggest how the exon 7 domain might modulate this pathway.
Myosin Transducer Mutations Differentially Affect Motor Function, Myofibril Structure, and the Performance of Skeletal and Cardiac Muscles
Molecular Biology of the Cell. Feb, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18045988
Striated muscle myosin is a multidomain ATP-dependent molecular motor. Alterations to various domains affect the chemomechanical properties of the motor, and they are associated with skeletal and cardiac myopathies. The myosin transducer domain is located near the nucleotide-binding site. Here, we helped define the role of the transducer by using an integrative approach to study how Drosophila melanogaster transducer mutations D45 and Mhc(5) affect myosin function and skeletal and cardiac muscle structure and performance. We found D45 (A261T) myosin has depressed ATPase activity and in vitro actin motility, whereas Mhc(5) (G200D) myosin has these properties enhanced. Depressed D45 myosin activity protects against age-associated dysfunction in metabolically demanding skeletal muscles. In contrast, enhanced Mhc(5) myosin function allows normal skeletal myofibril assembly, but it induces degradation of the myofibrillar apparatus, probably as a result of contractile disinhibition. Analysis of beating hearts demonstrates depressed motor function evokes a dilatory response, similar to that seen with vertebrate dilated cardiomyopathy myosin mutations, and it disrupts contractile rhythmicity. Enhanced myosin performance generates a phenotype apparently analogous to that of human restrictive cardiomyopathy, possibly indicating myosin-based origins for the disease. The D45 and Mhc(5) mutations illustrate the transducer's role in influencing the chemomechanical properties of myosin and produce unique pathologies in distinct muscles. Our data suggest Drosophila is a valuable system for identifying and modeling mutations analogous to those associated with specific human muscle disorders.
Alternative Relay Domains of Drosophila Melanogaster Myosin Differentially Affect ATPase Activity, in Vitro Motility, Myofibril Structure and Muscle Function
Journal of Molecular Biology. Jun, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18462751
The relay domain of myosin is hypothesized to function as a communication pathway between the nucleotide-binding site, actin-binding site and the converter domain. In Drosophila melanogaster, a single myosin heavy chain gene encodes three alternative relay domains. Exon 9a encodes the indirect flight muscle isoform (IFI) relay domain, whereas exon 9b encodes one of the embryonic body wall isoform (EMB) relay domains. To gain a better understanding of the function of the relay domain and the differences imparted by the IFI and the EMB versions, we constructed two transgenic Drosophila lines expressing chimeric myosin heavy chains in indirect flight muscles lacking endogenous myosin. One expresses the IFI relay domain in the EMB backbone (EMB-9a), while the second expresses the EMB relay domain in the IFI backbone (IFI-9b). Our studies reveal that the EMB relay domain is functionally equivalent to the IFI relay domain when it is substituted into IFI. Essentially no differences in ATPase activity, actin-sliding velocity, flight ability at room temperature or muscle structure are observed in IFI-9b compared to native IFI. However, when the EMB relay domain is replaced with the IFI relay domain, we find a 50% reduction in actin-activated ATPase activity, a significant increase in actin affinity, abolition of actin sliding, defects in myofibril assembly and rapid degeneration of muscle structure compared to EMB. We hypothesize that altered relay domain conformational changes in EMB-9a impair intramolecular communication with the EMB-specific converter domain. This decreases transition rates involving strongly bound actomyosin states, leading to a reduced ATPase rate and loss of actin motility.
Similarities and Differences Between Frozen-hydrated, Rigor Acto-S1 Complexes of Insect Flight and Chicken Skeletal Muscles
Journal of Molecular Biology. Sep, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18588896
The structure and function of myosin crossbridges in asynchronous insect flight muscle (IFM) have been elucidated in situ using multiple approaches. These include generating "atomic" models of myosin in multiple contractile states by rebuilding the crystal structure of chicken subfragment 1 (S1) to fit IFM crossbridges in lower-resolution electron microscopy tomograms and by "mapping" the functional effects of genetically substituted, isoform-specific domains, including the converter domain, in chimeric IFM myosin to sequences in the crystal structure of chicken S1. We prepared helical reconstructions (approximately 25 A resolution) to compare the structural characteristics of nucleotide-free myosin0 S1 bound to actin (acto-S1) isolated from chicken skeletal muscle (CSk) and the flight muscles of Lethocerus (Leth) wild-type Drosophila (wt Dros) and a Drosophila chimera (IFI-EC) wherein the converter domain of the indirect flight muscle myosin isoform has been replaced by the embryonic skeletal myosin converter domain. Superimposition of the maps of the frozen-hydrated acto-S1 complexes shows that differences between CSk and IFM S1 are limited to the azimuthal curvature of the lever arm: the regulatory light-chain (RLC) region of chicken skeletal S1 bends clockwise (as seen from the pointed end of actin) while those of IFM S1 project in a straight radial direction. All the IFM S1s are essentially identical other than some variation in the azimuthal spread of density in the RLC region. This spread is most pronounced in the IFI-EC S1, consistent with proposals that the embryonic converter domain increases the compliance of the IFM lever arm affecting the function of the myosin motor. These are the first unconstrained models of IFM S1 bound to actin and the first direct comparison of the vertebrate and invertebrate skeletal myosin II classes, the latter for which, data on the structure of discrete acto-S1 complexes, are not readily available.
Alternative Versions of the Myosin Relay Domain Differentially Respond to Load to Influence Drosophila Muscle Kinetics
Biophysical Journal. Dec, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18805920
We measured the influence of alternative versions of the Drosophila melanogaster myosin heavy chain relay domain on muscle mechanical properties. We exchanged relay domain regions (encoded by alternative versions of exon 9) between an embryonic (EMB) isoform and the indirect flight muscle isoform (IFI) of myosin. Previously, we observed no effect of exchanging the EMB relay domain region into the flight muscle isoform (IFI-9b) on in vitro actin motility velocity or solution ATPase measurements compared to IFI. However, in indirect flight muscle fibers, IFI-9b exhibited decreased maximum power generation (P(max)) and optimal frequency of power generation (f(max)) to 70% and 83% of IFI fiber values. The decrease in muscle performance reduced the flight ability and wing-beat frequency of IFI-9b Drosophila compared to IFI Drosophila. Previously, we found that exchanging the flight muscle specific relay domain into the EMB isoform (EMB-9a) prevented actin movement in the in vitro motility assay compared to EMB, which does support actin movement. However, in indirect flight muscle fibers EMB-9a was a highly effective motor, increasing P(max) and f(max) 2.5-fold and 1.4-fold, respectively, compared to fibers expressing EMB. We propose that the oscillatory load EMB-9a experiences in the muscle fiber reduces a high activation energy barrier between two strongly bound states of the cross-bridge cycle, thereby promoting cross-bridge cycling. The IFI relay domain's enhanced sensitivity to load increases cross-bridge kinetics, whereas the EMB version is less load-sensitive.
Journal of Muscle Research and Cell Motility. 2008 | Pubmed ID: 19034677
Alternative Exon 9-encoded Relay Domains Affect More Than One Communication Pathway in the Drosophila Myosin Head
Journal of Molecular Biology. Jun, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19393244
We investigated the biochemical and biophysical properties of one of the four alternative regions within the Drosophila myosin catalytic domain: the relay domain encoded by exon 9. This domain of the myosin head transmits conformational changes in the nucleotide-binding pocket to the converter domain, which is crucial to coupling catalytic activity with mechanical movement of the lever arm. To study the function of this region, we used chimeric myosins (IFI-9b and EMB-9a), which were generated by exchange of the exon 9-encoded domains between the native embryonic body wall (EMB) and indirect flight muscle isoforms (IFI). Kinetic measurements show that exchange of the exon 9-encoded region alters the kinetic properties of the myosin S1 head. This is reflected in reduced values for ATP-induced actomyosin dissociation rate constant (K(1)k(+2)) and ADP affinity (K(AD)), measured for the chimeric constructs IFI-9b and EMB-9a, compared to wild-type IFI and EMB values. Homology models indicate that, in addition to affecting the communication pathway between the nucleotide-binding pocket and the converter domain, exchange of the relay domains between IFI and EMB affects the communication pathway between the nucleotide-binding pocket and the actin-binding site in the lower 50-kDa domain (loop 2). These results suggest an important role of the relay domain in the regulation of actomyosin cross-bridge kinetics.
Biophysical Journal. May, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19450484
The subfragment 2/light meromyosin "hinge" region has been proposed to significantly contribute to muscle contraction force and/or speed. Transgenic replacement of the endogenous fast muscle isovariant hinge A (exon 15a) in Drosophila melanogaster indirect flight muscle with the slow muscle hinge B (exon 15b) allows examination of the structural and functional changes when only this region of the myosin molecule is different. Hinge B was previously shown to increase myosin rod length, increase A-band and sarcomere length, and decrease flight performance compared to hinge A. We applied additional measures to these transgenic lines to further evaluate the consequences of modifying this hinge region. Structurally, the longer A-band and sarcomere lengths found in the hinge B myofibrils appear to be due to the longitudinal addition of myosin heads. Functionally, hinge B, although a significant distance from the myosin catalytic domain, alters myosin kinetics in a manner consistent with this region increasing myosin rod length. These structural and functional changes combine to decrease whole fly wing-beat frequency and flight performance. Our results indicate that this hinge region plays an important role in determining myosin kinetics and in regulating thick and thin filament lengths as well as sarcomere length.
Mutating the Converter-relay Interface of Drosophila Myosin Perturbs ATPase Activity, Actin Motility, Myofibril Stability and Flight Ability
Journal of Molecular Biology. May, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20362584
We used an integrative approach to probe the significance of the interaction between the relay loop and converter domain of the myosin molecular motor from Drosophila melanogaster indirect flight muscle. During the myosin mechanochemical cycle, ATP-induced twisting of the relay loop is hypothesized to reposition the converter, resulting in cocking of the contiguous lever arm into the pre-power stroke configuration. The subsequent movement of the lever arm through its power stroke generates muscle contraction by causing myosin heads to pull on actin filaments. We generated a transgenic line expressing myosin with a mutation in the converter domain (R759E) at a site of relay loop interaction. Molecular modeling suggests that the interface between the relay loop and converter domain of R759E myosin would be significantly disrupted during the mechanochemical cycle. The mutation depressed calcium as well as basal and actin-activated MgATPase (V(max)) by approximately 60% compared to wild-type myosin, but there is no change in apparent actin affinity (K(m)). While ATP or AMP-PNP (adenylyl-imidodiphosphate) binding to wild-type myosin subfragment-1 enhanced tryptophan fluorescence by approximately 15% or approximately 8%, respectively, enhancement does not occur in the mutant. This suggests that the mutation reduces lever arm movement. The mutation decreases in vitro motility of actin filaments by approximately 35%. Mutant pupal indirect flight muscles display normal myofibril assembly, myofibril shape, and double-hexagonal arrangement of thick and thin filaments. Two-day-old fibers have occasional "cracking" of the crystal-like array of myofilaments. Fibers from 1-week-old adults show more severe cracking and frayed myofibrils with some disruption of the myofilament lattice. Flight ability is reduced in 2-day-old flies compared to wild-type controls, with no upward mobility but some horizontal flight. In 1-week-old adults, flight capability is lost. Thus, altered myosin function permits myofibril assembly, but results in a progressive disruption of the myofilament lattice and flight ability. We conclude that R759 in the myosin converter domain is essential for normal ATPase activity, in vitro motility and locomotion. Our results provide the first mutational evidence that intramolecular signaling between the relay loop and converter domain is critical for myosin function both in vitro and in muscle.
Drosophila UNC-45 Prevents Heat-induced Aggregation of Skeletal Muscle Myosin and Facilitates Refolding of Citrate Synthase
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. May, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20403336
UNC-45 belongs to the UCS (UNC-45, CRO1, She4p) domain protein family, whose members interact with various classes of myosin. Here we provide structural and biochemical evidence that Escherichia coli-expressed Drosophila UNC-45 (DUNC-45) maintains the integrity of several substrates during heat-induced stress in vitro. DUNC-45 displays chaperone function in suppressing aggregation of the muscle myosin heavy meromyosin fragment, the myosin S-1 motor domain, alpha-lactalbumin and citrate synthase. Biochemical evidence is supported by electron microscopy, which reveals the first structural evidence that DUNC-45 prevents inter- or intra-molecular aggregates of skeletal muscle heavy meromyosin caused by elevated temperatures. We also demonstrate for the first time that UNC-45 is able to refold a denatured substrate, urea-unfolded citrate synthase. Overall, this in vitro study provides insight into the fate of muscle myosin under stress conditions and suggests that UNC-45 protects and maintains the contractile machinery during in vivo stress.
Drosophila UNC-45 Accumulates in Embryonic Blastoderm and in Muscles, and is Essential for Muscle Myosin Stability
Journal of Cell Science. Mar, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21285246
UNC-45 is a chaperone that facilitates folding of myosin motor domains. We have used Drosophila melanogaster to investigate the role of UNC-45 in muscle development and function. Drosophila UNC-45 (dUNC-45) is expressed at all developmental stages. It colocalizes with non-muscle myosin in embryonic blastoderm of 2-hour-old embryos. At 14 hours, it accumulates most strongly in embryonic striated muscles, similarly to muscle myosin. dUNC-45 localizes to the Z-discs of sarcomeres in third instar larval body-wall muscles. We produced a dunc-45 mutant in which zygotic expression is disrupted. This results in nearly undetectable dUNC-45 levels in maturing embryos as well as late embryonic lethality. Muscle myosin accumulation is robust in dunc-45 mutant embryos at 14 hours. However, myosin is dramatically decreased in the body-wall muscles of 22-hour-old mutant embryos. Furthermore, electron microscopy showed only a few thick filaments and irregular thick-thin filament lattice spacing. The lethality, defective protein accumulation, and ultrastructural abnormalities are rescued with a wild-type dunc-45 transgene, indicating that the mutant phenotypes arise from the dUNC-45 deficiency. Overall, our data indicate that dUNC-45 is important for myosin accumulation and muscle function. Furthermore, our results suggest that dUNC-45 acts post-translationally for proper myosin folding and maturation.
X-ray Crystal Structure of the UCS Domain-containing UNC-45 Myosin Chaperone from Drosophila Melanogaster
Structure (London, England : 1993). Mar, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21397190
UCS proteins, such as UNC-45, influence muscle contraction and other myosin-dependent motile processes. We report the first X-ray crystal structure of a UCS domain-containing protein, the UNC-45 myosin chaperone from Drosophila melanogaster (DmUNC-45). The structure reveals that the central and UCS domains form a contiguous arrangement of 17 consecutive helical layers that arrange themselves into five discrete armadillo repeat subdomains. Small-angle X-ray scattering data suggest that free DmUNC-45 adopts an elongated conformation and exhibits flexibility in solution. Protease sensitivity maps to a conserved loop that contacts the most carboxy-terminal UNC-45 armadillo repeat subdomain. Amino acid conservation across diverse UCS proteins maps to one face of this carboxy-terminal subdomain, and the majority of mutations that affect myosin-dependent cellular activities lie within or around this region. Our crystallographic, biophysical, and biochemical analyses suggest that DmUNC-45 function is afforded by its flexibility and by structural integrity of its UCS domain.
PloS One. 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21541028
Drosophila melanogaster is emerging as a powerful model system for the study of cardiac disease. Establishing peptide and protein maps of the Drosophila heart is central to implementation of protein network studies that will allow us to assess the hallmarks of Drosophila heart pathogenesis and gauge the degree of conservation with human disease mechanisms on a systems level. Using a gel-LC-MS/MS approach, we identified 1228 protein clusters from 145 dissected adult fly hearts. Contractile, cytostructural and mitochondrial proteins were most abundant consistent with electron micrographs of the Drosophila cardiac tube. Functional/Ontological enrichment analysis further showed that proteins involved in glycolysis, Ca(2+)-binding, redox, and G-protein signaling, among other processes, are also over-represented. Comparison with a mouse heart proteome revealed conservation at the level of molecular function, biological processes and cellular components. The subsisting peptidome encompassed 5169 distinct heart-associated peptides, of which 1293 (25%) had not been identified in a recent Drosophila peptide compendium. PeptideClassifier analysis was further used to map peptides to specific gene-models. 1872 peptides provide valuable information about protein isoform groups whereas a further 3112 uniquely identify specific protein isoforms and may be used as a heart-associated peptide resource for quantitative proteomic approaches based on multiple-reaction monitoring. In summary, identification of excitation-contraction protein landmarks, orthologues of proteins associated with cardiovascular defects, and conservation of protein ontologies, provides testimony to the heart-like character of the Drosophila cardiac tube and to the utility of proteomics as a complement to the power of genetics in this growing model of human heart disease.
Two Drosophila Myosin Transducer Mutants with Distinct Cardiomyopathies Have Divergent ADP and Actin Affinities
The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Aug, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21680742
Two Drosophila myosin II point mutations (D45 and Mhc(5)) generate Drosophila cardiac phenotypes that are similar to dilated or restrictive human cardiomyopathies. Our homology models suggest that the mutations (A261T in D45, G200D in Mhc(5)) could stabilize (D45) or destabilize (Mhc(5)) loop 1 of myosin, a region known to influence ADP release. To gain insight into the molecular mechanism that causes the cardiomyopathic phenotypes to develop, we determined whether the kinetic properties of the mutant molecules have been altered. We used myosin subfragment 1 (S1) carrying either of the two mutations (S1(A261T) and S1(G200D)) from the indirect flight muscles of Drosophila. The kinetic data show that the two point mutations have an opposite effect on the enzymatic activity of S1. S1(A261T) is less active (reduced ATPase, higher ADP affinity for S1 and actomyosin subfragment 1 (actin · S1), and reduced ATP-induced dissociation of actin · S1), whereas S1(G200D) shows increased enzymatic activity (enhanced ATPase, reduced ADP affinity for both S1 and actin · S1). The opposite changes in the myosin properties are consistent with the induced cardiac phenotypes for S1(A261T) (dilated) and S1(G200D) (restrictive). Our results provide novel insights into the molecular mechanisms that cause different cardiomyopathy phenotypes for these mutants. In addition, we report that S1(A261T) weakens the affinity of S1 · ADP for actin, whereas S1(G200D) increases it. This may account for the suppression (A261T) or enhancement (G200D) of the skeletal muscle hypercontraction phenotype induced by the troponin I held-up(2) mutation in Drosophila.
The UNC-45 Chaperone is Critical for Establishing Myosin-based Myofibrillar Organization and Cardiac Contractility in the Drosophila Heart Model
PloS One. 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21799905
UNC-45 is a UCS (UNC-45/CRO1/She4P) class chaperone necessary for myosin folding and/or accumulation, but its requirement for maintaining cardiac contractility has not been explored. Given the prevalence of myosin mutations in eliciting cardiomyopathy, chaperones like UNC-45 are likely to be equally critical in provoking or modulating myosin-associated cardiomyopathy. Here, we used the Drosophila heart model to examine its role in cardiac physiology, in conjunction with RNAi-mediated gene silencing specifically in the heart in vivo. Analysis of cardiac physiology was carried out using high-speed video recording in conjunction with movement analysis algorithms. unc-45 knockdown resulted in severely compromised cardiac function in adults as evidenced by prolonged diastolic and systolic intervals, and increased incidence of arrhythmias and extreme dilation; the latter was accompanied by a significant reduction in muscle contractility. Structural analysis showed reduced myofibrils, myofibrillar disarray, and greatly decreased cardiac myosin accumulation. Cardiac unc-45 silencing also dramatically reduced life-span. In contrast, third instar larval and young pupal hearts showed mild cardiac abnormalities, as severe cardiac defects only developed during metamorphosis. Furthermore, cardiac unc-45 silencing in the adult heart (after metamorphosis) led to less severe phenotypes. This suggests that UNC-45 is mostly required for myosin accumulation/folding during remodeling of the forming adult heart. The cardiac defects, myosin deficit and decreased life-span in flies upon heart-specific unc-45 knockdown were significantly rescued by UNC-45 over-expression. Our results are the first to demonstrate a cardiac-specific requirement of a chaperone in Drosophila, suggestive of a critical role of UNC-45 in cardiomyopathies, including those associated with unfolded proteins in the failing human heart. The dilated cardiomyopathy phenotype associated with UNC-45 deficiency is mimicked by myosin knockdown suggesting that UNC-45 plays a crucial role in stabilizing myosin and possibly preventing human cardiomyopathies associated with functional deficiencies of myosin.
Disrupting the Myosin Converter-relay Interface Impairs Drosophila Indirect Flight Muscle Performance
Biophysical Journal. Sep, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21889448
Structural interactions between the myosin converter and relay domains have been proposed to be critical for the myosin power stroke and muscle power generation. We tested this hypothesis by mutating converter residue 759, which interacts with relay residues I508, N509, and D511, to glutamate (R759E) and determined the effect on Drosophila indirect flight muscle mechanical performance. Work loop analysis of mutant R759E indirect flight muscle fibers revealed a 58% and 31% reduction in maximum power generation (P(WL)) and the frequency at which maximum power (f(WL)) is generated, respectively, compared to control fibers at 15 °C. Small amplitude sinusoidal analysis revealed a 30%, 36%, and 32% reduction in mutant elastic modulus, viscous modulus, and mechanical rate constant 2πb, respectively. From these results, we infer that the mutation reduces rates of transitions through work-producing cross-bridge states and/or force generation during strongly bound states. The reductions in muscle power output, stiffness, and kinetics were physiologically relevant, as mutant wing beat frequency and flight index decreased about 10% and 45% compared to control flies at both 15 °C and 25 °C. Thus, interactions between the relay loop and converter domain are critical for lever-arm and catalytic domain coordination, high muscle power generation, and optimal Drosophila flight performance.
Journal of Molecular Biology. Dec, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 22037585
While mutations in the myosin subfragment 1 motor domain can directly disrupt the generation and transmission of force along myofibrils and lead to myopathy, the mechanism whereby mutations in the myosin rod influences mechanical function is less clear. Here, we used a combination of various imaging techniques and molecular dynamics simulations to test the hypothesis that perturbations in the myosin rod can disturb normal sarcomeric uniformity and, like motor domain lesions, would influence force production and propagation. We show that disrupting the rod can alter its nanomechanical properties and, in vivo, can drive asymmetric myofilament and sarcomere formation. Our imaging results indicate that myosin rod mutations likely disturb production and/or propagation of contractile force. This provides a unifying theory where common pathological cascades accompany both myosin motor and specific rod domain mutations. Finally, we suggest that sarcomeric inhomogeneity, caused by asymmetric thick filaments, could be a useful index of myopathic dysfunction.
Transgenic Expression and Purification of Myosin Isoforms Using the Drosophila Melanogaster Indirect Flight Muscle System
Methods (San Diego, Calif.). Dec, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 22178692
Biophysical and structural studies on muscle myosin rely upon milligram quantities of extremely pure material. However, many biologically interesting myosin isoforms are expressed at levels that are too low for direct purification from primary tissues. Efforts aimed at recombinant expression of functional striated muscle myosin isoforms in bacterial or insect cell culture have largely met with failure, although high level expression in muscle cell culture has recently been achieved at significant expense. We report a novel method for the use of strains of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster genetically engineered to produce histidine-tagged recombinant muscle myosin isoforms. This method takes advantage of the single muscle myosin heavy chain gene within the Drosophila genome, the high level of expression of accessible myosin in the thoracic indirect flight muscles, the ability to knock out endogenous expression of myosin in this tissue and the relatively low cost of fruit fly colony production and maintenance. We illustrate this method by expressing and purifying a recombinant histidine-tagged variant of embryonic body wall skeletal muscle myosin II from an engineered fly strain. The recombinant protein shows the expected ATPase activity and is of sufficient purity and homogeneity for crystallization. This system may prove useful for the expression and isolation of mutant myosins associated with skeletal muscle diseases and cardiomyopathies for their biochemical and structural characterization.
Journal of Molecular Biology. Dec, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 22226837
Myosin isoforms help define muscle-specific contractile and structural properties. Alternative splicing of myosin heavy chain gene transcripts in Drosophila melanogaster yields muscle-specific isoforms and highlights alternative domains that fine-tune myosin function. To gain insight into how native myosin is tuned, we expressed three embryonic myosin isoforms in indirect flight muscles lacking endogenous myosin. These isoforms differ in their relay and/or converter domains. We analyzed isoform-specific ATPase activities, in vitro actin motility and myofibril structure/stability. We find that dorsal acute body wall muscle myosin (EMB-9c11d) shows a significant increase in MgATPase V(max) and actin sliding velocity, as well as abnormal myofibril assembly compared to cardioblast myosin (EMB-11d). These properties differ as a result of alternative exon-9-encoded relay domains that are hypothesized to communicate signals among the ATP-binding pocket, actin-binding site and the converter domain. Further, EMB-11d shows significantly reduced levels of basal Ca- and MgATPase as well as MgATPase V(max) compared to embryonic body wall muscle isoform (EMB) (expressed in a multitude of body wall muscles). EMB-11d also induces increased actin sliding velocity and stabilizes myofibril structure compared to EMB. These differences arise from exon-11-encoded alternative converter domains that are proposed to reposition the lever arm during the power and recovery strokes. We conclude that relay and converter domains of native myosin isoforms fine-tune ATPase activity, actin motility and muscle ultrastructure. This verifies and extends previous studies with chimeric molecules and indicates that interactions of the relay and converter during the contractile cycle are key to myosin-isoform-specific kinetic and mechanical functions.
Measuring Passive Myocardial Stiffness in Drosophila Melanogaster to Investigate Diastolic Dysfunction
Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine. Jan, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22225769
Aging is marked by a decline in left ventricular diastolic function, which encompasses abnormalities in diastolic relaxation, chamber filling and/or passive myocardial stiffness. Genetic tractability and short life span make Drosophila melanogaster an ideal organism to study the effects of aging on heart function, including senescent-associated changes in gene expression and in passive myocardial stiffness. However, use of the Drosophila heart tube to probe deterioration of diastolic performance is subject to at least two challenges: the extent of genetic homology to mammals and the ability to resolve mechanical properties of the bilayered fly heart, which consists of a ventral muscle layer that covers the contractile cardiomyocytes. Here we argue for wide-spread use of Drosophila as a novel myocardial aging model by 1) describing diastolic dysfunction in flies, 2) discussing how critical pathways involved in dysfunction are conserved across species, and 3) demonstrating the advantage of an atomic force microscopy-based analysis method to measure stiffness of the multilayered Drosophila heart tube versus isolated myocytes from other model systems. By using powerful Drosophila genetic tools we aim to efficiently alter changes observed in factors that contribute to diastolic dysfunction to understand how one might improve diastolic performance at advanced ages in humans. © 2011 The Authors Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine © 2011 Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.