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In JoVE (1)
- Split-Ubiquitin Based Membrane Yeast Two-Hybrid (MYTH) System: A Powerful Tool For Identifying Protein-Protein Interactions
Other Publications (14)
- The Journal of Biological Chemistry
- Molecular Membrane Biology
- Journal of Molecular and Genetic Medicine : an International Journal of Biomedical Research
- Traffic (Copenhagen, Denmark)
- The Journal of Biological Chemistry
- The Biochemical Journal
- Molecular & Cellular Proteomics : MCP
- PLoS Genetics
- Current Opinion in Biotechnology
- Methods in Molecular Biology (Clifton, N.J.)
- Science Signaling
- BMC Neuroscience
- Nature Protocols
Articles by Saranya Kittanakom in JoVE
Split-Ubiquitin Based Membrane Yeast Two-Hybrid (MYTH) System: A Powerful Tool For Identifying Protein-Protein Interactions
Jamie Snider1,2,3, Saranya Kittanakom1,2,3, Jasna Curak1,2,3, Igor Stagljar1,2,3
1Department of Biochemistry, University of Toronto, 2Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Toronto, 3Terrence Donnelly Centre for Cellular and Biomolecular Research (CCBR), University of Toronto
MYTH allows the sensitive detection of transient and stable interactions between proteins that are expressed in the model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae. It has been successfully applied to study exogenous and yeast integral membrane proteins in order to identify their interacting partners in a high throughput manner.
Other articles by Saranya Kittanakom on PubMed
Trafficking Defects of a Novel Autosomal Recessive Distal Renal Tubular Acidosis Mutant (S773P) of the Human Kidney Anion Exchanger (kAE1)
The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Sep, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15252044
Autosomal dominant and recessive distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA) can be caused by mutations in the anion exchanger 1 (AE1 or SLC4A1) gene, which encodes the erythroid chloride/bicarbonate anion exchanger membrane glycoprotein (eAE1) and a truncated kidney isoform (kAE1). The biosynthesis and trafficking of kAE1 containing a novel recessive missense dRTA mutation (kAE1 S773P) was studied in transiently transfected HEK-293 cells, expressing the mutant alone or in combination with wild-type kAE1 or another recessive mutant, kAE1 G701D. The kAE1 S773P mutant was expressed at a three times lower level than wild-type, had a 2-fold decrease in its half-life, and was targeted for degradation by the proteasome. It could not be detected at the plasma membrane in human embryonic kidney cells and showed predominant endoplasmic reticulum immunolocalization in both human embryonic kidney and LLC-PK1 cells. The oligosaccharide on a kAE1 S773P N-glycosylation mutant (N555) was not processed to the complex form indicating impaired exit from the endoplasmic reticulum. The kAE1 S773P mutant showed decreased binding to an inhibitor affinity resin and increased sensitivity to proteases, suggesting that it was not properly folded. The other recessive dRTA mutant, kAE1 G701D, also exhibited defective trafficking to the plasma membrane. The recessive kAE1 mutants formed dimers like wild-type AE1 and could hetero-oligomerize with wild-type kAE1 or with each other. Hetero-oligomers of wild-type kAE1 with recessive kAE1 S773P or G701D, in contrast to the dominant kAE1 R589H mutant, were delivered to the plasma membrane.
Molecular Membrane Biology. Nov-Dec, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15764369
Kanadaptin (kidney anion exchanger adaptor protein) is a widely expressed protein, shown previously to interact with the cytosolic domain of mouse Cl-/HCO3- anion exchanger 1 (kAE1) but not erythroid AE1 (eAE1) by a yeast-two hybrid assay. Kanadaptin was co-localized with kAE1 in intracellular membranes but not at the plasma membrane in alpha-intercalated cells of rabbit kidney. It was suggested that kanadaptin is an adaptor protein or chaperone involved in targeting kAE1 to the plasma membrane. To test this hypothesis, the interaction of human kanadaptin with human kAE1 was studied in co-transfected HEK293 cells. Human kanadaptin contains 796 amino acids and was immuno-detected as a 90 kDa protein in transfected cells. Pulse-chase experiments showed that it has a half-life (t1/2) of 7 h. Human kanadaptin was localized predominantly to the nucleus, whereas kAE1 was present intracellularly and at the plasma membrane. Trafficking of kAE1 from its site of synthesis in the endoplasmic reticulum to the plasma membrane was unaffected by co-expression of human kanadaptin. Moreover, we found that no interaction between human kanadaptin and kAE1 or eAE1 could be detected in co-transfected cells either by co-immunoprecipitation or by histidine6-tagged co-purification. Taken together, we found that human kanadaptin did not interact with kAE1 and had no effect on trafficking of kAE1 to the plasma membrane in transfected cells. Kanadaptin may not be involved in the biosynthesis and targeting of kAE1. As such, defects in kanadaptin and its interaction with kAE1 are unlikely to be involved in the pathogenesis of the inherited kidney disease, distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA).
Molecular Mechanisms of Autosomal Dominant and Recessive Distal Renal Tubular Acidosis Caused by SLC4A1 (AE1) Mutations
Journal of Molecular and Genetic Medicine : an International Journal of Biomedical Research. 2005 | Pubmed ID: 19565014
Mutations of SLC4A1 (AE1) encoding the kidney anion (Cl(-)/HCO(3) (-)) exchanger 1 (kAE1 or band 3) can result in either autosomal dominant (AD) or autosomal recessive (AR) distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA). The molecular mechanisms associated with SLC4A1 mutations resulting in these different modes of inheritance are now being unveiled using transfected cell systems. The dominant mutants kAE1 R589H, R901X and S613F, which have normal or insignificant changes in anion transport function, exhibit intracellular retention with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) localization in cultured non-polarized and polarized cells, while the dominant mutants kAE1 R901X and G609R are mis-targeted to apical membrane in addition to the basolateral membrane in cultured polarized cells. A dominant-negative effect is likely responsible for the dominant disease because heterodimers of kAE1 mutants and the wild-type protein are intracellularly retained. The recessive mutants kAE1 G701D and S773P however exhibit distinct trafficking defects. The kAE1 G701D mutant is retained in the Golgi apparatus, while the misfolded kAE1 S773P, which is impaired in ER exit and is degraded by proteosome, can only partially be delivered to the basolateral membrane of the polarized cells. In contrast to the dominant mutant kAE1, heterodimers of the recessive mutant kAE1 and wild-type kAE1 are able to traffic to the plasma membrane. The wild-type kAE1 thus exhibits a 'dominant-positive effect' relative to the recessive mutant kAE1 because it can rescue the mutant proteins from intracellular retention to be expressed at the cell surface. Consequently, homozygous or compound heterozygous recessive mutations are required for presentation of the disease phenotype. Future work using animal models of dRTA will provide additional insight into the pathophysiology of this disease.
Dominant and Recessive Distal Renal Tubular Acidosis Mutations of Kidney Anion Exchanger 1 Induce Distinct Trafficking Defects in MDCK Cells
Traffic (Copenhagen, Denmark). Feb, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16420521
Distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA), a kidney disease resulting in defective urinary acidification, can be caused by dominant or recessive mutations in the kidney Cl-/HCO3- anion exchanger (kAE1), a glycoprotein expressed in the basolateral membrane of alpha-intercalated cells. We compared the effect of two dominant (R589H and S613F) and two recessive (S773P and G701D) dRTA point mutations on kAE1 trafficking in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) epithelial cells. In contrast to wild-type (WT) kAE1 that was localized to the basolateral membrane, the dominant mutants (kAE1 R589H and S613F) were retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in MDCK cells, with a few cells showing in addition some apical localization. The recessive mutant kAE1 S773P, while misfolded and largely retained in the ER in non-polarized MDCK cells, was targeted to the basolateral membrane after polarization. The other recessive mutants, kAE1 G701D and designed G701E, G701R but not G701A or G701L mutants, were localized to the Golgi in both non-polarized and polarized cells. The results suggest that introduction of a polar mutation into a transmembrane segment resulted in Golgi retention of the recessive G701D mutant. When coexpressed, the dominant mutants retained kAE1 WT intracellularly, while the recessive mutants did not. Coexpression of recessive G701D and S773P mutants in polarized cells showed that these proteins could interact, yet no G701D mutant was detected at the basolateral membrane. Therefore, compound heterozygous patients expressing both recessive mutants (G701D/S773P) likely developed dRTA due to the lack of a functional kAE1 at the basolateral surface of alpha-intercalated cells.
The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Aug, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17553790
Kidney anion exchanger 1 (kAE1) mediates chloride/bicarbonate exchange at the basolateral membrane of kidney alpha-intercalated cells, thereby facilitating bicarbonate reabsorption into the blood. Human kAE1 lacks the N-terminal 65 residues of the erythroid form (AE1, band 3), which are essential for binding of cytoskeletal and cytosolic proteins. Yeast two-hybrid screening identified integrin-linked kinase (ILK), a serine/threonine kinase, and an actin-binding protein as an interacting partner with the N-terminal domain of kAE1. Interaction between kAE1 and ILK was confirmed in co-expression experiments in HEK 293 cells and is mediated by a previously unidentified calponin homology domain in the kAE1 N-terminal region. The calponin homology domain of kAE1 binds the C-terminal catalytic domain of ILK to enhance association of kAE1 with the actin cytoskeleton. Overexpression of ILK increased kAE1 levels at the cell surface as shown by flow cytometry, cell surface biotinylation, and anion transport activity assays. Pulse-chase experiments revealed that ILK associates with kAE1 early in biosynthesis, likely in the endoplasmic reticulum. ILK co-localized with kAE1 at the basolateral membrane of polarized Madin-Darby canine kidney cells and in alpha-intercalated cells of human kidneys. Taken together these results suggest that ILK and kAE1 traffic together from the endoplasmic reticulum to the basolateral membrane. ILK may provide a linkage between kAE1 and the underlying actin cytoskeleton to stabilize kAE1 at the basolateral membrane, resulting in higher levels of cell surface expression.
Dominant-negative Effect of Southeast Asian Ovalocytosis Anion Exchanger 1 in Compound Heterozygous Distal Renal Tubular Acidosis
The Biochemical Journal. Mar, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 17941824
The human chloride/bicarbonate AE1 (anion exchanger) is a dimeric glycoprotein expressed in the red blood cell membrane,and expressed as an N-terminal (Delta1-65) truncated form, kAE1(kidney AE1), in the basolateral membrane of alpha-intercalated cells in the distal nephron. Mutations in AE1 can cause SAO (Southeast Asian ovalocytosis) or dRTA (distal renal tubular acidosis), an inherited kidney disease resulting in impaired acid secretion. The dominant SAO mutation (Delta400-408) that results in an inactive transporter and altered erythrocyte shape occurs in manydRTA families, but does not itself result in dRTA. Compound heterozygotes of four dRTA mutations (R602H, G701D, DeltaV850 and A858D) with SAO exhibit dRTA and abnormal red blood cell properties. Co-expression of kAE1 and kAE1 SAO with the dRTAmutantswas studied in polarized epithelial MDCK(Madin-Darbycanine kidney) cells. Like SAO, the G701D and DeltaV850 mutants were predominantly retained intracellularly, whereas the R602H and A858D mutants could traffic to the basolateral membrane. When co-expressed in transfected cells, kAE1 WT (wild-type)and kAE1 SAO could interact with the dRTA mutants. MDCK cells co-expressing kAE1 SAO with kAE1 WT, kAE1 R602Hor kAE1 A858D showed a decrease in cell-surface expression of the co-expressed proteins. When co-expressed, kAE1 WT colocalized with the kAE1 R602H, kAE1 G701D, kAE1 DeltaV850 and kAE1 A858D mutants at the basolateral membrane, whereaskAE1 SAO co-localized with kAE1 WT, kAE1 R602H, kAE1 G701D, kAE1 DeltaV850 and kAE1 A858D in MDCK cells. The decrease in cell-surface expression of the dRTAmutants as a result of the interaction with kAE1 SAO would account for the impaired expression of functional kAE1 at the basolateral membrane of alpha-intercalated cells, resulting in dRTA in compound heterozygous patients.
Monitoring Protein-protein Interactions Between the Mammalian Integral Membrane Transporters and PDZ-interacting Partners Using a Modified Split-ubiquitin Membrane Yeast Two-hybrid System
Molecular & Cellular Proteomics : MCP. Jul, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18407958
PDZ-binding motifs are found in the C-terminal tails of numerous integral membrane proteins where they mediate specific protein-protein interactions by binding to PDZ-containing proteins. Conventional yeast two-hybrid screens have been used to probe protein-protein interactions of these soluble C termini. However, to date no in vivo technology has been available to study interactions between the full-length integral membrane proteins and their cognate PDZ-interacting partners. We previously developed a split-ubiquitin membrane yeast two-hybrid (MYTH) system to test interactions between such integral membrane proteins by using a transcriptional output based on cleavage of a transcription factor from the C terminus of membrane-inserted baits. Here we modified MYTH to permit detection of C-terminal PDZ domain interactions by redirecting the transcription factor moiety from the C to the N terminus of a given integral membrane protein thus liberating their native C termini. We successfully applied this "MYTH 2.0" system to five different mammalian full-length renal transporters and identified novel PDZ domain-containing partners of the phosphate (NaPi-IIa) and sulfate (NaS1) transporters that would have otherwise not been detectable. Furthermore this assay was applied to locate the PDZ-binding domain on the NaS1 protein. We showed that the PDZ-binding domain for PDZK1 on NaS1 is upstream of its C terminus, whereas the two interacting proteins, NHERF-1 and NHERF-2, bind at a location closer to the N terminus of NaS1. Moreover NHERF-1 and NHERF-2 increased functional sulfate uptake in Xenopus oocytes when co-expressed with NaS1. Finally we used MYTH 2.0 to demonstrate that the NaPi-IIa transporter homodimerizes via protein-protein interactions within the lipid bilayer. In summary, our study establishes the MYTH 2.0 system as a novel tool for interactive proteomics studies of membrane protein complexes.
Identification of Small Molecule Inhibitors of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Exoenzyme S Using a Yeast Phenotypic Screen
PLoS Genetics. Feb, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18454192
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic human pathogen that is a key factor in the mortality of cystic fibrosis patients, and infection represents an increased threat for human health worldwide. Because resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to antibiotics is increasing, new inhibitors of pharmacologically validated targets of this bacterium are needed. Here we demonstrate that a cell-based yeast phenotypic assay, combined with a large-scale inhibitor screen, identified small molecule inhibitors that can suppress the toxicity caused by heterologous expression of selected Pseudomonas aeruginosa ORFs. We identified the first small molecule inhibitor of Exoenzyme S (ExoS), a toxin involved in Type III secretion. We show that this inhibitor, exosin, modulates ExoS ADP-ribosyltransferase activity in vitro, suggesting the inhibition is direct. Moreover, exosin and two of its analogues display a significant protective effect against Pseudomonas infection in vivo. Furthermore, because the assay was performed in yeast, we were able to demonstrate that several yeast homologues of the known human ExoS targets are likely ADP-ribosylated by the toxin. For example, using an in vitro enzymatic assay, we demonstrate that yeast Ras2p is directly modified by ExoS. Lastly, by surveying a collection of yeast deletion mutants, we identified Bmh1p, a yeast homologue of the human FAS, as an ExoS cofactor, revealing that portions of the bacterial toxin mode of action are conserved from yeast to human. Taken together, our integrated cell-based, chemical-genetic approach demonstrates that such screens can augment traditional drug screening approaches and facilitate the discovery of new compounds against a broad range of human pathogens.
BioTechniques. Apr, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18474045
Interactive proteomics addresses the physical associations among proteins and establishes global, disease-, and pathway-specific protein interaction networks. The inherent chemical and structural diversity of proteins, their different expression levels, and their distinct subcellular localizations pose unique challenges for the exploration of these networks, necessitating the use of a variety of innovative and ingenious approaches. Consequently, recent years have seen exciting developments in protein interaction mapping and the establishment of very large interaction networks, especially in model organisms. In the near future, attention will shift to the establishment of interaction networks in humans and their application in drug discovery and understanding of diseases. In this review, we present an impressive toolbox of different technologies that we expect to be crucial for interactive proteomics in the coming years.
Current Opinion in Biotechnology. Aug, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18619540
Given that protein-protein interactions (PPIs) regulate nearly every living process; the exploration of global and pathway-specific protein interaction networks is expected to have major implications in the understanding of diseases and for drug discovery. Consequently, the development and application of methodologies that address physical associations among proteins is of major importance in today's proteomics research. The most widely and successfully used methodology to assess PPIs is the yeast two-hybrid system (YTH). Here we present an overview on the current applications of YTH and variant technologies in yeast and mammalian systems. Two-hybrid-based methods will not only continue to have a dominant role in the assessment of protein interactomes but will also become important in the development of novel compounds that target protein interaction interfaces for therapeutic intervention.
Analysis of Membrane Protein Complexes Using the Split-ubiquitin Membrane Yeast Two-hybrid (MYTH) System
Methods in Molecular Biology (Clifton, N.J.). 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19521829
Recent research has begun to elucidate the global network of cytosolic and membrane protein interactions. The resulting interactome map facilitates numerous biological studies, including those for cell signalling, protein trafficking and protein regulation. Due to the hydrophobic nature of membrane proteins such as tyrosine kinases, G-protein coupled receptors, membrane bound phosphatases and transporters it is notoriously difficult to study their relationship to signaling molecules, the cytoskeleton, or any other interacting partners. Although conventional yeast-two hybrid is a simple and robust technique that is effective in the identification of specific protein-protein interactions, it is limited in its use for membrane proteins. However, the split-ubiquitin membrane based yeast two-hybrid assay (MYTH) has been described as a tool that allows for the identification of membrane protein interactions. In the MYTH system, ubiquitin has been split into two halves, each of which is fused to a protein, at least one of which is membrane bound. Upon interaction of these two proteins, the two halves of ubiquitin are reconstituted and a transcription factor that is fused to the membrane protein is released. The transcription factor then enters the nucleus and activates transcription of reporter genes. Currently, large-scale MYTH screens using cDNA or gDNA libraries are performed to identify and map the binding partners of various membrane proteins. Thus, the MYTH system is proving to be a powerful tool for the elucidation of specific protein-protein interactions, contributing greatly to the mapping of the membrane protein interactome.
Science Signaling. 2009 | Pubmed ID: 20029029
Binding of epidermal growth factor (EGF) to its receptor leads to receptor dimerization, assembly of protein complexes, and activation of signaling networks that control key cellular responses. Despite their fundamental role in cell biology, little is known about protein complexes associated with the EGF receptor (EGFR) before growth factor stimulation. We used a modified membrane yeast two-hybrid system together with bioinformatics to identify 87 candidate proteins interacting with the ligand-unoccupied EGFR. Among them was histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6), a cytoplasmic lysine deacetylase, which we found negatively regulated EGFR endocytosis and degradation by controlling the acetylation status of alpha-tubulin and, subsequently, receptor trafficking along microtubules. A negative feedback loop consisting of EGFR-mediated phosphorylation of HDAC6 Tyr(570) resulted in reduced deacetylase activity and increased acetylation of alpha-tubulin. This study illustrates the complexity of the EGFR-associated interactome and identifies protein acetylation as a previously unknown regulator of receptor endocytosis and degradation.
Interaction of the Mu-opioid Receptor with GPR177 (Wntless) Inhibits Wnt Secretion: Potential Implications for Opioid Dependence
BMC Neuroscience. 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20214800
Opioid agonist drugs produce analgesia. However, long-term exposure to opioid agonists may lead to opioid dependence. The analgesic and addictive properties of opioid agonist drugs are mediated primarily via the mu-opioid receptor (MOR). Opioid agonists appear to alter neuronal morphology in key brain regions implicated in the development of opioid dependence. However, the precise role of the MOR in the development of these neuronal alterations remains elusive. We hypothesize that identifying and characterizing novel MOR interacting proteins (MORIPs) may help to elucidate the underlying mechanisms involved in the development of opioid dependence.
Nature Protocols. Jul, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20595957
The biological function of proteins may be predicted by identification of their interacting partners, and one of the major goals of the postgenomic era is the mapping of protein interaction networks. Membrane proteins are of particular interest because of their role in disease and because of their prevalence as major pharmaceutical targets. Unfortunately, because of their hydrophobic nature, they have long been difficult to study in a high-throughput format. A powerful technology recently developed to facilitate the characterization of membrane protein interactions is the membrane yeast two-hybrid (MYTH) assay. MYTH adapts the principle of split ubiquitin for use as a potent in vivo sensor of protein-protein interactions, allowing large-scale screening for interactors of full-length membrane proteins, from a range of organisms, using Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a host. In this article, we describe a protocol for MYTH bait generation, validation and library screening. The entire MYTH procedure can generally be completed in 4-6 weeks.