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In JoVE (1)
- Use of Artificial Sputum Medium to Test Antibiotic Efficacy Against Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Conditions More Relevant to the Cystic Fibrosis Lung
Other Publications (3)
Articles by Sebastian Kirchner in JoVE
Use of Artificial Sputum Medium to Test Antibiotic Efficacy Against Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Conditions More Relevant to the Cystic Fibrosis Lung
Sebastian Kirchner1, Joanne L Fothergill2, Elli A. Wright1, Chloe E. James1, Eilidh Mowat1, Craig Winstanley1
1Institute of Infection and Global Health, University of Liverpool, 2NIHR Biomedical Research Centre in Microbial Disease, University of Liverpool
Current diagnostic antimicrobial susceptibility testing relies on the planktonic growth of isolates in nutrient rich, aerobic conditions. Here, we employ an alternative artificial sputum medium to study antimicrobial susceptibility of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms under both aerobic and microaerophilic conditions more representative of the cystic fibrosis lung.
Other articles by Sebastian Kirchner on PubMed
Simultaneous Quantification of Five Bacterial and Plant Toxins from Complex Matrices Using a Multiplexed Fluorescent Magnetic Suspension Assay
The Analyst. Oct, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19768210
Proteotoxins such as ricin, abrin, botulinum neurotoxins type A and B (BoNT/A, BoNT/B) and staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) are regarded as potential biological warfare agents which could be used for bioterrorism attacks on the food chain. In this study we used a novel immunisation strategy to generate high-affinity monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies against native ricin, BoNT/A, and BoNT/B. The antibodies were used along with antibodies against SEB and abrin to establish a highly sensitive magnetic and fluorescent multiplex bead array with excellent sensitivities between 2 ng/L and 546 ng/L from a minimal sample volume of 50 microL. The assay was validated using 20 different related analytes and the assay precision was determined. Advancing the existing bead array technology, the novel magnetic and fluorescent microbeads proved amenable to enrichment procedures, by further increasing sensitivity to 0.3-85 ng/L, starting from a sample volume of 500 microL. Furthermore, the method was successfully applied for the simultaneous identification of the target toxins spiked into complex food matrices like milk, baby food and yoghurt. On the basis of our results, the assay appears to be a good tool for large-scale screening of samples from the food supply chain.
Multiplex Detection of Microbial and Plant Toxins by Immunoaffinity Enrichment and Matrix-assisted Laser Desorption/ionization Mass Spectrometry
Analytical Chemistry. Apr, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20199054
Plant and microbial toxins such as ricin, staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB), and the botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT) are considered as potential biological warfare agents. Specific screening methods are, therefore, required that enable unambiguous and sensitive identification of these biohazards, particularly for the occurrence of the toxins in complex sample matrixes. The present study describes a combination of a multiplex-immunoaffinity purification approach, followed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI)-based detection for the simultaneous identification of ricin, SEB, BoNT/A, and BoNT/B. The method comprises an affinity enrichment step, using specific monoclonal antibodies for each of the four toxins which have been selected from a pool of antibodies. The selected antibodies allow for specific and simultaneous capture of ricin, SEB, BoNT/A, BoNT/B, and the corresponding BoNT complexes. These were subsequently identified by MALDI time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry (MS), following tryptic digest. The sensitivity of the technique was approximately 500 fmol for each of the toxins. These toxins were detectable within 8 h, even when present in complex matrixes such as milk or juice. Furthermore, the MALDI-based multiplex assay allowed for the discrimination of closely related BoNT sero- and subtypes, including a real case of food-borne botulism in Germany.
Pentaplexed Quantitative Real-time PCR Assay for the Simultaneous Detection and Quantification of Botulinum Neurotoxin-producing Clostridia in Food and Clinical Samples
Applied and Environmental Microbiology. Jul, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20435756
Botulinum neurotoxins are produced by the anaerobic bacterium Clostridium botulinum and are divided into seven distinct serotypes (A to G) known to cause botulism in animals and humans. In this study, a multiplexed quantitative real-time PCR assay for the simultaneous detection of the human pathogenic C. botulinum serotypes A, B, E, and F was developed. Based on the TaqMan chemistry, we used five individual primer-probe sets within one PCR, combining both minor groove binder- and locked nucleic acid-containing probes. Each hydrolysis probe was individually labeled with distinguishable fluorochromes, thus enabling discrimination between the serotypes A, B, E, and F. To avoid false-negative results, we designed an internal amplification control, which was simultaneously amplified with the four target genes, thus yielding a pentaplexed PCR approach with 95% detection probabilities between 7 and 287 genome equivalents per PCR. In addition, we developed six individual singleplex real-time PCR assays based on the TaqMan chemistry for the detection of the C. botulinum serotypes A, B, C, D, E, and F. Upon analysis of 42 C. botulinum and 57 non-C. botulinum strains, the singleplex and multiplex PCR assays showed an excellent specificity. Using spiked food samples we were able to detect between 10(3) and 10(5) CFU/ml, respectively. Furthermore, we were able to detect C. botulinum in samples from several cases of botulism in Germany. Overall, the pentaplexed assay showed high sensitivity and specificity and allowed for the simultaneous screening and differentiation of specimens for C. botulinum A, B, E, and F.