Translate this page to:
In JoVE (1)
- Segmentation and Measurement of Fat Volumes in Murine Obesity Models Using X-ray Computed Tomography
Other Publications (20)
- Nature Reviews. Genetics
- DNA Research : an International Journal for Rapid Publication of Reports on Genes and Genomes
- Science (New York, N.Y.)
- Nucleic Acids Research
- PLoS Biology
- Nucleic Acids Research
- Nucleic Acids Research
- BMC Bioinformatics
- BMC Genomics
- Genomics, Proteomics & Bioinformatics / Beijing Genomics Institute
- Genome Research
- BMC Research Notes
- Genomics, Proteomics & Bioinformatics / Beijing Genomics Institute
- Cancer Genetics
- Cellular Reprogramming
- PloS One
- Transgenic Research
Articles by Shengting Li in JoVE
Segmentation and Measurement of Fat Volumes in Murine Obesity Models Using X-ray Computed Tomography
Todd A. Sasser1, Sarah E. Chapman2, Shengting Li1, Caroline Hudson2, Sean P. Orton1, Justin M. Diener3, Seth T. Gammon1, Carlos Correcher4, W. Matthew Leevy2
1Carestream Molecular Imaging, 2Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Notre Dame, 3Freimann Life Science Center, University of Notre Dame, 4Research and Development, Oncovision, GEM-Imaging S.A.
Fat content analysis is routinely conducted in studies utilizing murine obesity models. Emerging methods in small animal CT imaging and analysis are providing for longitudinal detail rich fat content analysis. Here we detail step by step procedures for performing small animal CT imaging, analysis, and visualization.
Other articles by Shengting Li on PubMed
Nature Reviews. Genetics. Sep, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12951575
To find unknown protein-coding genes, annotation pipelines use a combination of ab initio gene prediction and similarity to experimentally confirmed genes or proteins. Here, we show that although the ab initio predictions have an intrinsically high false-positive rate, they also have a consistently low false-negative rate. The incorporation of similarity information is meant to reduce the false-positive rate, but in doing so it increases the false-negative rate. The crucial variable is gene size (including introns)--genes of the most extreme sizes, especially very large genes, are most likely to be incorrectly predicted.
DNA Research : an International Journal for Rapid Publication of Reports on Genes and Genomes. Jun, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15368893
Genomics provides an unprecedented opportunity to probe in minute detail into the genomes of the world's most deadly pathogenic bacteria- Yersinia pestis. Here we report the complete genome sequence of Y. pestis strain 91001, a human-avirulent strain isolated from the rodent Brandt's vole-Microtus brandti. The genome of strain 91001 consists of one chromosome and four plasmids (pPCP1, pCD1, pMT1 and pCRY). The 9609-bp pPCP1 plasmid of strain 91001 is almost identical to the counterparts from reference strains (CO92 and KIM). There are 98 genes in the 70,159-bp range of plasmid pCD1. The 106,642-bp plasmid pMT1 has slightly different architecture compared with the reference ones. pCRY is a novel plasmid discovered in this work. It is 21,742 bp long and harbors a cryptic type IV secretory system. The chromosome of 91001 is 4,595,065 bp in length. Among the 4037 predicted genes, 141 are possible pseudo-genes. Due to the rearrangements mediated by insertion elements, the structure of the 91001 chromosome shows dramatic differences compared with CO92 and KIM. Based on the analysis of plasmids and chromosome architectures, pseudogene distribution, nitrate reduction negative mechanism and gene comparison, we conclude that strain 91001 and other strains isolated from M. brandti might have evolved from ancestral Y. pestis in a different lineage. The large genome fragment deletions in the 91001 chromosome and some pseudogenes may contribute to its unique nonpathogenicity to humans and host-specificity.
Science (New York, N.Y.). Dec, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15591204
We report a draft sequence for the genome of the domesticated silkworm (Bombyx mori), covering 90.9% of all known silkworm genes. Our estimated gene count is 18,510, which exceeds the 13,379 genes reported for Drosophila melanogaster. Comparative analyses to fruitfly, mosquito, spider, and butterfly reveal both similarities and differences in gene content.
Nature. Dec, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15592405
We describe a genetic variation map for the chicken genome containing 2.8 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). This map is based on a comparison of the sequences of three domestic chicken breeds (a broiler, a layer and a Chinese silkie) with that of their wild ancestor, red jungle fowl. Subsequent experiments indicate that at least 90% of the variant sites are true SNPs, and at least 70% are common SNPs that segregate in many domestic breeds. Mean nucleotide diversity is about five SNPs per kilobase for almost every possible comparison between red jungle fowl and domestic lines, between two different domestic lines, and within domestic lines--in contrast to the notion that domestic animals are highly inbred relative to their wild ancestors. In fact, most of the SNPs originated before domestication, and there is little evidence of selective sweeps for adaptive alleles on length scales greater than 100 kilobases.
Nucleic Acids Research. Jan, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15608233
Working in parallel with the efforts to sequence the chicken (Gallus gallus) genome, the Beijing Genomics Institute led an international team of scientists from China, USA, UK, Sweden, The Netherlands and Germany to map extensive DNA sequence variation throughout the chicken genome by sampling DNA from domestic breeds. Using the Red Jungle Fowl genome sequence as a reference, we identified 3.1 million non-redundant DNA sequence variants. To facilitate the application of our data to avian genetics and to provide a foundation for functional and evolutionary studies, we created the 'Chicken Variation Database' (ChickVD). A graphical MapView shows variants mapped onto the chicken genome in the context of gene annotations and other features, including genetic markers, trait loci, cDNAs, chicken orthologs of human disease genes and raw sequence traces. ChickVD also stores information on quantitative trait loci using data from collaborating institutions and public resources. Our data can be queried by search engine and homology-based BLAST searches. ChickVD is publicly accessible at http://chicken.genomics.org.cn.
PLoS Biology. Feb, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15685292
We report improved whole-genome shotgun sequences for the genomes of indica and japonica rice, both with multimegabase contiguity, or almost 1,000-fold improvement over the drafts of 2002. Tested against a nonredundant collection of 19,079 full-length cDNAs, 97.7% of the genes are aligned, without fragmentation, to the mapped super-scaffolds of one or the other genome. We introduce a gene identification procedure for plants that does not rely on similarity to known genes to remove erroneous predictions resulting from transposable elements. Using the available EST data to adjust for residual errors in the predictions, the estimated gene count is at least 38,000-40,000. Only 2%-3% of the genes are unique to any one subspecies, comparable to the amount of sequence that might still be missing. Despite this lack of variation in gene content, there is enormous variation in the intergenic regions. At least a quarter of the two sequences could not be aligned, and where they could be aligned, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rates varied from as little as 3.0 SNP/kb in the coding regions to 27.6 SNP/kb in the transposable elements. A more inclusive new approach for analyzing duplication history is introduced here. It reveals an ancient whole-genome duplication, a recent segmental duplication on Chromosomes 11 and 12, and massive ongoing individual gene duplications. We find 18 distinct pairs of duplicated segments that cover 65.7% of the genome; 17 of these pairs date back to a common time before the divergence of the grasses. More important, ongoing individual gene duplications provide a never-ending source of raw material for gene genesis and are major contributors to the differences between members of the grass family.
Nucleic Acids Research. Jul, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16845012
Unified, structured vocabularies and classifications freely provided by the Gene Ontology (GO) Consortium are widely accepted in most of the large scale gene annotation projects. Consequently, many tools have been created for use with the GO ontologies. WEGO (Web Gene Ontology Annotation Plot) is a simple but useful tool for visualizing, comparing and plotting GO annotation results. Different from other commercial software for creating chart, WEGO is designed to deal with the directed acyclic graph structure of GO to facilitate histogram creation of GO annotation results. WEGO has been used widely in many important biological research projects, such as the rice genome project and the silkworm genome project. It has become one of the daily tools for downstream gene annotation analysis, especially when performing comparative genomics tasks. WEGO, along with the two other tools, namely External to GO Query and GO Archive Query, are freely available for all users at http://wego.genomics.org.cn. There are two available mirror sites at http://wego2.genomics.org.cn and http://wego.genomics.com.cn. Any suggestions are welcome at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Nucleic Acids Research. Jan, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17135198
Snap (Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Annotation Platform) is a server designed to comprehensively analyze single genes and relationships between genes basing on SNPs in the human genome. The aim of the platform is to facilitate the study of SNP finding and analysis within the framework of medical research. Using a user-friendly web interface, genes can be searched by name, description, position, SNP ID or clone name. Several public databases are integrated, including gene information from Ensembl, protein features from Uniprot/SWISS-PROT, Pfam and DAS-CBS. Gene relationships are fetched from BIND, MINT, KEGG and are integrated with ortholog data from TreeFam to extend the current interaction networks. Integrated tools for primer-design and mis-splicing analysis have been developed to facilitate experimental analysis of individual genes with focus on their variation. Snap is available at http://snap.humgen.au.dk/ and at http://snap.genomics.org.cn/.
Proteomics. Dec, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 19003862
Axillary lymph node (ALN) status is currently used as an important clinical indicator of breast cancer prognosis. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying lymph node metastasis are poorly understood and the relationship between ALN metastasis and the primary tumor remains unclear. In an effort to reveal structural changes in the genome and related protein responses that may drive regional metastatic progression we have analyzed matched pairs of primary breast tumors and ALN metastases both at the genomic and proteomic levels using comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) array, quantitative high-resolution 2-D PAGE in combination with MS, and immunohistochemistry (IHC). Array CGH revealed a remarkable similarity in genomic aberration profiles between the matched primary tumors and the ALN metastases. Quantitative profiling of 135 known proteins also revealed striking similarities in their overall expression patterns, although we observed distinct changes in the levels of individual proteins in some sample pairs. The remarkable similarities of the overall genomic and proteomic profiles between primary tumors and matched ALN metastases are taken to suggest that, in general, key biological characteristics of the primary breast tumor are maintained in the corresponding lymph node metastases. Given that the omics-based technologies are oblivious to changes that only occur in minor cellular subsets we validated the proteomic data using IHC, which provides protein expression information with a valuable topological component. Besides confirming the omics-derived data, the IHC analysis revealed that in two cases the ALN metastases may have been derived from a distinct minor cell subpopulation present in the primary tumor rather than from the bulk of it.
BMC Bioinformatics. 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19134174
Array-based comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) is a commonly-used approach to detect DNA copy number variation in whole genome-wide screens. Several statistical methods have been proposed to define genomic segments with different copy numbers in cancer tumors. However, most tumors are heterogeneous and show variation in DNA copy numbers across tumor cells. The challenge is to reveal the copy number profiles of the subpopulations in a tumor and to estimate the percentage of each subpopulation.
An Improved Method for Genome Wide DNA Methylation Profiling Correlated to Transcription and Genomic Instability in Two Breast Cancer Cell Lines
BMC Genomics. 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19439076
DNA methylation is a widely studied epigenetic mechanism known to correlate with gene repression and genomic stability. Development of sensitive methods for global detection of DNA methylation events is of particular importance.
Genomics, Proteomics & Bioinformatics / Beijing Genomics Institute. Jun, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19591788
Array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) has been popularly used for analyzing DNA copy number variations in diseases like cancer. In this study, we investigated 82 sporadic samples from 49 breast cancer patients using 1-Mb resolution bacterial artificial chromosome CGH arrays. A number of highly frequent genomic aberrations were discovered, which may act as "drivers" of tumor progression. Meanwhile, the genomic profiles of four "normal" breast tissue samples taken at least 2 cm away from the primary tumor sites were also found to have some genomic aberrations that recurred with high frequency in the primary tumors, which may have important implications for clinical therapy. Additionally, we performed class comparison and class prediction for various clinicopathological parameters, and a list of characteristic genomic aberrations associated with different clinicopathological phenotypes was compiled. Our study provides clues for further investigations of the underlying mechanisms of breast carcinogenesis.
Genome Research. Feb, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20019144
Next-generation massively parallel DNA sequencing technologies provide ultrahigh throughput at a substantially lower unit data cost; however, the data are very short read length sequences, making de novo assembly extremely challenging. Here, we describe a novel method for de novo assembly of large genomes from short read sequences. We successfully assembled both the Asian and African human genome sequences, achieving an N50 contig size of 7.4 and 5.9 kilobases (kb) and scaffold of 446.3 and 61.9 kb, respectively. The development of this de novo short read assembly method creates new opportunities for building reference sequences and carrying out accurate analyses of unexplored genomes in a cost-effective way.
Nature. Mar, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20203603
To understand the impact of gut microbes on human health and well-being it is crucial to assess their genetic potential. Here we describe the Illumina-based metagenomic sequencing, assembly and characterization of 3.3 million non-redundant microbial genes, derived from 576.7 gigabases of sequence, from faecal samples of 124 European individuals. The gene set, approximately 150 times larger than the human gene complement, contains an overwhelming majority of the prevalent (more frequent) microbial genes of the cohort and probably includes a large proportion of the prevalent human intestinal microbial genes. The genes are largely shared among individuals of the cohort. Over 99% of the genes are bacterial, indicating that the entire cohort harbours between 1,000 and 1,150 prevalent bacterial species and each individual at least 160 such species, which are also largely shared. We define and describe the minimal gut metagenome and the minimal gut bacterial genome in terms of functions present in all individuals and most bacteria, respectively.
BMC Research Notes. 2010 | Pubmed ID: 21108813
Different cell subpopulations in a single tumor may show diverse capacities for growth, differentiation, metastasis formation, and sensitivity to treatments. Thus, heterogeneity is an important feature of tumors. However, due to limitations in experimental and analytical techniques, tumor heterogeneity has rarely been studied in detail.
Genomics, Proteomics & Bioinformatics / Beijing Genomics Institute. Dec, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 21382590
In the canonical version of evolution by gene duplication, one copy is kept unaltered while the other is free to evolve. This process of evolutionary experimentation can persist for millions of years. Since it is so short lived in comparison to the lifetime of the core genes that make up the majority of most genomes, a substantial fraction of the genome and the transcriptome may-in principle-be attributable to what we will refer to as "evolutionary transients", referring here to both the process and the genes that have gone or are undergoing this process. Using the rice gene set as a test case, we argue that this phenomenon goes a long way towards explaining why there are so many more rice genes than Arabidopsis genes, and why most excess rice genes show low similarity to eudicots.
Identification of Chromosome Aberrations in Sporadic Microsatellite Stable and Unstable Colorectal Cancers Using Array Comparative Genomic Hybridization
Cancer Genetics. Feb, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21504706
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common cancers in Denmark and in the western world in general, and the prognosis is generally poor. According to the traditional molecular classification of sporadic colorectal cancer, microsatellite stable (MSS)/chromosome unstable (CIN) colorectal cancers constitute approximately 85% of sporadic cases, whereas microsatellite unstable (MSI) cases constitute the remaining 15%. In this study, we used array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) to identify genomic hotspot regions that harbor recurrent copy number changes. The study material comprised fresh samples from 40 MSS tumors and 20 MSI tumors obtained from 60 Danish CRC patients. We identified five small genomic regions (<15 megabases) exhibiting recurrent copy number loss, which, to our knowledge, have not been reported in previously published aCGH studies of CRC: 3p25.3, 3p21.2-p21.31, 5q13.2, 12q24.23-q24.31, and 12q24.23-q24.31. These regions contain several potentially important tumor suppressor genes that may play a role in a significant proportion of both sporadic MSS CRC and MSI CRC. Furthermore, the generated aCGH data are in support of the recently proposed classification of sporadic CRC into MSS CIN+, MSI CIN-, MSI CIN+, and MSS CIN- cancers.
Cellular Reprogramming. Aug, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21599517
To date, the genome-wide DNA methylation status of cloned pigs has not been investigated. Due to the relatively low success rate of pig cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer, a better understanding of the epigenetic reprogramming and the global methylation patterns associated with development in cloned pigs is required. In this study we applied methylation-specific digital karyotyping tag sequencing by Solexa technology and investigated the genome-wide DNA methylation profiles of peripheral blood cells in cloned pigs with normal phenotypes in comparison with their naturally bred controls. In the result, we found that globally there was no significant difference of DNA methylation patterns between the two groups. Locus-specifically, some genes involved in embryonic development presented a generally increased level of methylation. Our findings suggest that in cloned pigs with normal phenotypes, the DNA methylation pattern is quite normal, and that DNA methylation changes in some genomic regions are compatible with normal development.
Comparison of Gene Expression and Genome-wide DNA Methylation Profiling Between Phenotypically Normal Cloned Pigs and Conventionally Bred Controls
PloS One. 2011 | Pubmed ID: 22022462
Animal breeding via Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer (SCNT) has enormous potential in agriculture and biomedicine. However, concerns about whether SCNT animals are as healthy or epigenetically normal as conventionally bred ones are raised as the efficiency of cloning by SCNT is much lower than natural breeding or In-vitro fertilization (IVF). Thus, we have conducted a genome-wide gene expression and DNA methylation profiling between phenotypically normal cloned pigs and control pigs in two tissues (muscle and liver), using Affymetrix Porcine expression array as well as modified methylation-specific digital karyotyping (MMSDK) and Solexa sequencing technology. Typical tissue-specific differences with respect to both gene expression and DNA methylation were observed in muscle and liver from cloned as well as control pigs. Gene expression profiles were highly similar between cloned pigs and controls, though a small set of genes showed altered expression. Cloned pigs presented a more different pattern of DNA methylation in unique sequences in both tissues. Especially a small set of genomic sites had different DNA methylation status with a trend towards slightly increased methylation levels in cloned pigs. Molecular network analysis of the genes that contained such differential methylation loci revealed a significant network related to tissue development. In conclusion, our study showed that phenotypically normal cloned pigs were highly similar with normal breeding pigs in their gene expression, but moderate alteration in DNA methylation aspects still exists, especially in certain unique genomic regions.
High Efficiency of BRCA1 Knockout Using RAAV-mediated Gene Targeting: Developing a Pig Model for Breast Cancer
Transgenic Research. Oct, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21181439
Germline inactivating mutations of the breast cancer associated gene 1 (BRCA1) predispose to breast cancer and account for most cases of familiar breast and/or ovarian cancer. The pig is an excellent model for medical research as well as testing of new methods and drugs for disease prevention and treatment. We have generated cloned BRCA1 knockout (KO) Yucatan miniature piglets by targeting exon 11 using recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV)-mediated gene targeting and somatic cell nuclear transfer by Handmade Cloning (HMC). We found a very high targeting rate of rAAV-mediated BRCA1 KO. Approximately 35% of the selected cells were BRCA1 targeted. One BRCA1 KO cell clone (5D1), identified by PCR and Southern blot, was used as nuclear donor for HMC. Reconstructed embryos were transferred to three recipient sows which gave birth to 8 piglets in total. Genotyping identified seven piglets as BRCA1 heterozygotes (BRCA1(+/∆11)), and one as wild type. The BRCA1 expression was decreased at the mRNA level in BRCA1(+/∆11) fibroblasts. However, all BRCA1(+/∆11) piglets died within 18 days after birth. The causes of perinatal mortality remain unclear. Possible explanations may include a combination of the BRCA1 haploinsufficiency, problems of epigenetic reprogramming, presence of the marker gene, single cell clone effects, and/or the special genetic background of the minipigs.